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An Improved Infrared Passband System for Ground-based Photometry: Realization
We describe new simulations and field trials of the new infraredpassband system developed and discussed by Young, Milone, & Stagg,who discussed and illustrated the state of infrared photometry andsuggested ways in which it could be improved. In particular, theypresented a new set of passbands that minimize the dependence of thephotometry on the water vapor bands of the atmospheric windows, whichdefined the edges of many previous infrared passbands, especially whenused at sites and under conditions for which they were not designed. Inthis paper, we present numerical simulations for three atmosphericmodels, demonstrate a measure of the signal-to-noise ratio in the newpassbands for these models, and present observational data obtained at arelatively low-elevation site. The latter demonstrate the utility ofthis system for most astronomical sites where photometry can beperformed, and permit the transformation of observations to this system.Publications of the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory, No. 74.

Spectral Analysis of 4 Lacertae and ν Cephei
Elemental abundance analysis based on high S/N and high resolutionDominion Astrophysical Observatory spectrograms have been performed fortwo early type supergiants: 4 Lac (B9 Iab) and {\msf ν } Cep (A2 Ia).Lines as weak as of order 5 mÅ are employed in this study. Theprojected rotational velocities of these stars are 14 and 26 kms-1, respectively. Both stars show similar radial velocityamplitudes, macroturbulent velocities and the same general elementalabundance trends. Their He, CNO and light element abundances are solaror overabundant while the iron peak and heavy element abundances aresolar or underabundant. Detailed LTE model atmosphere abundance analysisshows that 4 Lac has nuclearly processed matter in its photosphere while{\msf ν } Cep does not.

Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear Motion
Useful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr).

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

Spatial Separation of the 3.29 Micron Emission Feature and Associated 2 Micron Continuum in NGC 7023
We present a new 0.9" resolution 3.29 μm narrowband image of thereflection nebula NGC 7023. We find that the 3.29 μm infraredemission feature (IEF) in NGC 7023 is brightest in narrow filamentsnorthwest of the illuminating star HD 200775. These filaments have beenpreviously seen in images of extended red emission, K', near-infraredH2 emission lines, the 6.2 and 11.3 μm IEFs, andHCO+. We also detect 3.29 μm IEF emission faintly butdistinctly between the filaments and the star. The 3.29 μm IEF imageis in marked contrast to narrowband continuum images at 2.09, 2.14, and2.18 μm, which show an extended emission peak midway between thefilaments and the star, and much fainter emission near the filaments.The [2.18 μm]-[3.29 μm] color shows a wide variation, ranging fromcolors of 3.4-3.6 mag at the 2 μm continuum emission peak to a colorof 5.5 mag in the 3.29 μm IEF emission filaments. A color of 5.5 magis 1 mag higher than any published value in reflection nebulae. Weobserve [2.18 μm]-[3.29 μm] to increase smoothly with increasingprojected distance from the illuminating star in NGC 7023, up until thebrightest 3.29 μm IEF filament, suggesting that the main differencebetween the spatial distributions of the 2 μm continuum and the 3.29μm IEF emission is related to the incident stellar flux. The 3.29μm IEF is widely attributed to an aromatic CH stretch, while the 2μm continuum emission may be due to transient heating of tiny grains,fluorescence of aromatic molecules, or photoluminescence of largergrains. Our results suggest that the 3.29 μm IEF carriers are likelyto be distinct from but related to the 2 μm continuum emitters. Ourfindings also imply that in NGC 7023 the 2 μm continuum emitters aremainly associated with H I, while the 3.29 μm IEF carriers areprimarily found in warm H2, but that both the 2 μmcontinuum emitters and the 3.29 μm IEF carriers can survive in H I orH2.

The total-to-selective extinction ratio determined from near IR photometry of OB stars
The paper presents an extensive list of the total to selectiveextinction ratios R calculated from the infrared magnitudes of 597 O andB stars using the extrapolation method. The IR magnitudes of these starswere taken from the literature. The IR colour excesses are determinedwith the aid of "artificial standards" - Wegner (1994). The individualand mean values of total to selective extinction ratios R differ in mostcases from the average value R=3.10 +/-0.05 - Wegner (1993) in differentOB associations. The relation between total to selective extinctionratios R determined in this paper and those calculated using the "methodof variable extinction" and the Cardelli et al. (1989) formulae isdiscussed. The R values presented in this paper can be used to determineindividual absolute magnitudes of reddened OB stars with knowntrigonometric parallaxes.

High-Precision Near-Infrared Photometry of a Large Sample of Bright Stars Visible from the Northern Hemisphere
We present the results of 8 yr of infrared photometric monitoring of alarge sample of stars visible from Teide Observatory (Tenerife, CanaryIslands). The final archive is made up of 10,949 photometric measuresthrough a standard InSb single-channel photometer system, principally inJHK, although some stars have measures in L'. The core of this list ofstars is the standard-star list developed for the Carlos SánchezTelescope. A total of 298 stars have been observed on at least twooccasions on a system carefully linked to the zero point defined byVega. We present high-precision photometry for these stars. The medianuncertainty in magnitude for stars with a minimum of four observationsand thus reliable statistics ranges from 0.0038 mag in J to 0.0033 magin K. Many of these stars are faint enough to be observable with arraydetectors (42 are K>8) and thus to permit a linkage of the bright andfaint infrared photometric systems. We also present photometry of anadditional 25 stars for which the original measures are no longeravailable, plus photometry in L' and/or M of 36 stars from the mainlist. We calculate the mean infrared colors of main-sequence stars fromA0 V to K5 V and show that the locus of the H-K color is linearlycorrelated with J-H. The rms dispersion in the correlation between J-Hand H-K is 0.0073 mag. We use the relationship to interpolate colors forall subclasses from A0 V to K5 V. We find that K and M main-sequence andgiant stars can be separated on the color-color diagram withhigh-precision near-infrared photometry and thus that photometry canallow us to identify potential mistakes in luminosity classclassification.

Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars
This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.

JHK Standards for Small Telescopes
The AAVSO Futures meeting, held in Madison, WI, in May 2001, proposedthat the AAVSO support near-infrared research with small telescopes. Aphotometer, the SSP-4, has been developed to provide J- and H-bandcapability for a reasonable cost. However, proper calibrated photometryrequires a set of standard stars. This paper describes such a set ofstars, suitable for small telescopes, and with accurate coordinates,proper motions, and high-quality magnitudes.

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectra
We present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033

An atlas of 2.4 to 4.1 mu m ISO/SWS spectra of early-type stars
We present an atlas of spectra of O- and B-type stars, obtained with theShort Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) during the Post-Helium program ofthe Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). This program is aimed at extendingthe Morgan & Keenan classification scheme into the near-infrared.Later type stars will be discussed in a separate publication. Theobservations consist of 57 SWS Post-Helium spectra from 2.4 to 4.1 μm, supplemented with 10 spectra acquired during the nominal mission witha similar observational setting. For B-type stars, this sample providesample spectral coverage in terms of subtype and luminosity class. ForO-type stars, the ISO sample is coarse and therefore is complementedwith 8 UKIRT Larcmin -band observations. In terms of the presence ofdiagnostic lines, the Larcmin -band is likely the most promising of thenear-infrared atmospheric windows for the study of the physicalproperties of B stars. Specifically, this wavelength interval containsthe Bralpha , Pfgamma , and other Pfund lines which are probes ofspectral type, luminosity class and mass loss. Here, we present simpleempirical methods based on the lines present in the 2.4 to 4.1 mu minterval that allow the determination of i) the spectral type of Bdwarfs and giants to within two subtypes; ii) the luminosity class of Bstars to within two classes; iii) the mass-loss rate of O stars and Bsupergiants to within 0.25 dex. Based on observations with ISO, an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PIcountries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The appendix is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin.qcat?J/A+A/384/473

Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem Hipparcos Binaries. II. Observations Obtained in 1998-1999 from McDonald Observatory
The Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 9734 known doublestars, 3406 new double stars, and 11,687 unresolved but possible doublestars. The high angular resolution afforded by speckle interferometrymakes it an efficient means to confirm these systems from the ground,which were first discovered from space. Because of its coverage of adifferent region of angular separation-magnitude difference(ρ-Δm) space, speckle interferometry also holds promise toascertain the duplicity of the unresolved Hipparcos ``problem'' stars.Presented are observations of 116 new Hipparcos double stars and 469Hipparcos ``problem stars,'' as well as 238 measures of other doublestars and 246 other high-quality nondetections. Included in these areobservations of double stars listed in the Tycho-2 Catalogue andpossible grid stars for the Space Interferometry Mission.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222

Helium and Carbon Abundances in Late-B and Early-A Supergiants
The abundances of carbon and helium were determined for representativelate-B and early-A supergiants based on the C I lines (9078, 9089, 9095,9112) in the near-IR, C II lines (4267, 6151), and the He I 6678 line,in an aim to investigate the nature of the envelope-mixing in theseevolved stars based on the anomaly (if any) of these elements combinedwith that of N and O published before. It turned out that N tends toincrease with a decrease in C, showing a tendency of conserving the sumof C+N nuclei, which suggests that the anomaly of C and N may bereasonably interpreted as being due to mixing of the CN-processedmaterial. However, this increase/decrease in N/C, indicative ofdredge-up of the H-burning product, is not accompanied by anyHe-enrichment. Even surprisingly, the observed tendency is just theopposite, i.e., [He/H] appears to decrease progressively in accordancewith a lowering of [C/H]. Instead of regarding this apparentcharacteristics as being real, we tentatively speculate that someactivity-related line-weakening mechanism (e.g., irradiance of X-rays)might act on the formation of He I lines, the extent of which isindirectly related to the efficiency of envelope mixing via stellarrotation.

Optical Spectrum of the Bipolar Nebula AFGL 2688
Based on echelle spectra obtained at the prime focus of the 6-mtelescope, we have determined for the first time the detailed chemicalcomposition of one of the components of the bipolar nebula identifiedwith the intense infrared source AFGL 2688 by the model-atmospheremethod. The iron abundance [Fe/H] = -0.59 dex derived for AFGL 2688suggests that the object probably belongs to an intermediate populationof the Galaxy. The stellar atmosphere exhibits high carbon and nitrogenabundances, [C/Fe] = +0.73 and [N/Fe] = +2.00, and C/O > 1,confirming that the object is at the post-AGB stage. However, thedetected overabundance of s-process elements (yttrium and barium)relative to iron is modest: [X/Fe] = +0.55. The lanthanides are evenless enhanced: for La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, the mean abundance relative toiron is [la/Fe] = +0.26. This behavior of the heavy metals is consistentwith the low intensity of the 21-micrometer band in the infraredspectrum of AFGL 2688; the intensity of this emission band is great inthe spectra of all the studied PPN with large overabundances ofs-process elements. An analysis of the radial velocities measured fromspectral features originating in the atmosphere and in the circumstellarshell has revealed a high-velocity (~60 km/s) component of the stellarwind from AFGL 2688.

The Normal Energy Distributions in Stellar Spectra: Giants and Supergiants
We have derived the normal spectral energy distributions for thoseearly-type subgiants, giants, and supergiants that were not investigatedin our earlier studies, which were in most cases also not included inthe studies of Sviderskiene. Color indices computed using our normalenergy distributions are in good agreement with normal colors derivedfrom observations in the Vilnius photometric system. The reliability ofour distribution curves is also demonstrated by comparisons of observedand computed (W-B)-(B-V) two-color diagrams in the WBVR system. Normalcolor indices for the photometric WBVR system are derived.

A spectral analysis of Deneb (A2 Iae)
This study presents a detailed model atmosphere abundance analysis ofDeneb which was performed using Kurucz LTE ATLAS9 model atmospheres. Theatmospheric parameters were determined from Mg I/II and Fe I/IIequilibrium, and by fitting the Hgamma profile and opticalregion spectrophotometry. The compromise values which best satisfy thesecriteria are T_eff = 9000 K and log g = 1.45. The Mg I, Mg II, Si II, TiII, Cr II, Fe I, and Fe II lines yield microturbulences of 3.60, 6.50,8.50, 8.00, 11.90, 3.60, and 10.40 km s-1, respectively. Anaverage microturbulence of 7 km s-1 was used for the otheratomic species. From a comparision of the synthetic spectrum with theobservations, the best value for the rotational velocity is v sin i = 25km s-1, and for the macroturbulent velocity is zeta = 14 kms-1, which are similar to those of some earlier derivedvalues. Also, the individual spectrograms have a range of radialvelocity variation of ~ 15 km s-1 which is approximatelyequal to macroturbulent velocity. These values of the macroturbulenceand the range of radial velocity variation are close to the sum of theamplitudes (10.44 km s-1) of all the pulsation periods foundby Lucy (\cite{lucy}), who also suggested that the surface motions ofthe atmosphere of Deneb can be identified with macroturbulence. Denebshowed a definite helium underabundance with a well determined He/Hvalue = 0.071. The CNO values (C being mildly deficient, N being inmoderate excess, and an O being slightly deficient) are consistent withthe mixing of the CNO-cycled products into the surface layers from theprocessed materials presumably dredged-up from the interior. Aluminiumis mildly deficient by ~ 0.24 dex with respect to solar value, whilesulfur is moderately underabundant by ~ 0.43 dex in Deneb. Mg and Sihave the solar abundances. The metal abundances (Ca to Ni) tend to begreater than solar except for Sc which is slightly deficient. The heavyelements abundances (Sr, Y, and Zr) are all greater than solar. Theseabundance patterns conform to the common tendency seen with other normalPopulation I A supergiants found by Venn (\cite{venna}). The rare-earthelements (Ba, La, and Eu) which have been unexplored in other Galacticearly A-type supergiants are significantly overabundant relative theSun. Based on data obtained at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory,Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada.Table A.1 is only available electronically with the On-Line publicationat http://link.springer.de/link/service/00230/

New 3 Micron Spectra of Young Stellar Objects with H_2O Ice Bands
We present new ground-based 3 μm spectra of 14 young stellar objectswith H_2O ice absorption bands. The broad absorption feature at 3.47μm was detected toward all objects, and its optical depth iscorrelated with the optical depth of H_2O ice, strengthening an earlierfinding. The broad absorption feature at 3.25 μm was detected towardtwo more sources, and an upper limit is given for a third source. Theoptical depths of the 3.25 μm feature obtained to date are bettercorrelated with the optical depth of the refractory silicate dust thanwith that of H_2O ice. If this trend is confirmed, this would supportour proposed identification of the feature as the C-H stretch ofaromatic hydrocarbons at low temperature. An absorption feature at 3.53μm due to solid methanol was detected for the first time toward MonR2/IRS 2, as well as toward W33A and GL 2136. The wavelengths of theCH_3OH features toward W33A, GL 2136, and NGC 7538/IRS 9 can be fittedby CH_3OH-rich ices, whereas the wavelength of the feature toward MonR2/IRS 2 suggests an H_2O-rich ice environment. Solid methanolabundances toward GL 2136, NGC 7538/IRS 9, and Mon R2/IRS 2 are 3%-5%relative to H_2O ice. There is an additional narrow absorption featurenear 3.47 μm toward W33A. For the object W51/IRS 2, spatiallyresolved spectra from 2 to 4 μm indicate that the H_2O ice is locatedpredominantly in front of the eastern component and that the H_2O iceextinction is much deeper than previously estimated. For the object RNO91, spectra from 2 to 4 μm reveal stellar (or circumstellar) CO gasabsorption and deeper H_2O ice extinction than previously estimated.

Probing the Dust-enshrouded Regions of the Interacting Galaxy System ARP 299:A Near-Infrared Study
We present high spectral resolution (lambda/deltalambda≅10^3)Pabeta(1.28 μm) and Brgamma(2.17 μm), 3.29 μm dust feature, andnear-infrared broadband images of the Arp 299=NGC 3690/IC 694 galaxysystem. The emission is found to be concentrated at the positions ofthree active regions, known as sources A, B, and C. From ourBrgamma/Pabeta flux ratio we find the visual extinction toward theionized gas in A, B, and C is ~6, 6, and 2 magnitudes, respectively,assuming case B recombination and a foreground screen geometry for theobscuring material. Our observations can be explained entirely by astarburst model for the Arp 299 system. The putative active galacticnucleus (AGN) in source A does not dominate the properties of thissource. We see no evidence of broad recombination lines. In addition,the ratio of the 3.29 μm dust feature to total luminosity, a tracerof starburst activity, is consistent in each source with that seen inM82 and other starburst galaxies. Also, our imaging observations revealthat the dust feature emission is concentrated in the nucleus of sourceA, contrary to the extended annular distribution of the feature emissionseen surrounding the nucleus of the more distant Seyfert galaxy NGC7469. In this galaxy, the absence of the feature emission in the nucleushas been attributed to the destruction of the dust carriers in the hardradiation field surrounding the AGN. Our observations suggest that allof the active regions in Arp 299 are characterized by starburstepisodes. The observed CO indices and Brgamma equivalent widths implythat source B is older than source A and source C is the youngeststar-forming region. Although these regions are probably complexphysical systems not necessarily characterized by a single coevalpopulation of stars, we have compared our observations with aninstantaneous starburst model with a Salpeter initial mass function.Using this simple model, we find starburst ages of ~6x10^6, 8x10^6, and4x10^6 for sources A, B, and C, respectively.

A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 Stars
Ultraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories.

Radii and Effective Temperatures for G, K, and M Giants and Supergiants
Interferometrically determined angular diameters obtained at the PalomarTestbed Interferometer (PTI) for 69 giant and supergiant stars arepresented. Spectral types of the 59 giant stars generally lie between G6and M6, although a B7 giant is included; the nine bright giants andsupergiants have spectral types between F5 and M5. Comparison of theresults to those from the IR Optical Telescope Array interferometerindicate no statistically significant difference between the two datasets. The use of Hipparcos parallaxes allows us to measure linear sizesdirectly for these stars, which range in size from 10 to 260 solarradii. In conjunction with previous results as reported by Dyck et al.,the total of 113 giant stars provides empirically determineddependencies of effective temperature and linear radius upon spectraltype and V-K color.

A HIPPARCOS Census of the Nearby OB Associations
A comprehensive census of the stellar content of the OB associationswithin 1 kpc from the Sun is presented, based on Hipparcos positions,proper motions, and parallaxes. It is a key part of a long-term projectto study the formation, structure, and evolution of nearby young stellargroups and related star-forming regions. OB associations are unbound``moving groups,'' which can be detected kinematically because of theirsmall internal velocity dispersion. The nearby associations have a largeextent on the sky, which traditionally has limited astrometricmembership determination to bright stars (V<~6 mag), with spectraltypes earlier than ~B5. The Hipparcos measurements allow a majorimprovement in this situation. Moving groups are identified in theHipparcos Catalog by combining de Bruijne's refurbished convergent pointmethod with the ``Spaghetti method'' of Hoogerwerf & Aguilar.Astrometric members are listed for 12 young stellar groups, out to adistance of ~650 pc. These are the three subgroups Upper Scorpius, UpperCentaurus Lupus, and Lower Centaurus Crux of Sco OB2, as well as VelOB2, Tr 10, Col 121, Per OB2, alpha Persei (Per OB3), Cas-Tau, Lac OB1,Cep OB2, and a new group in Cepheus, designated as Cep OB6. Theselection procedure corrects the list of previously known astrometricand photometric B- and A-type members in these groups and identifiesmany new members, including a significant number of F stars, as well asevolved stars, e.g., the Wolf-Rayet stars gamma^2 Vel (WR 11) in Vel OB2and EZ CMa (WR 6) in Col 121, and the classical Cepheid delta Cep in CepOB6. Membership probabilities are given for all selected stars. MonteCarlo simulations are used to estimate the expected number of interloperfield stars. In the nearest associations, notably in Sco OB2, thelater-type members include T Tauri objects and other stars in the finalpre-main-sequence phase. This provides a firm link between the classicalhigh-mass stellar content and ongoing low-mass star formation. Detailedstudies of these 12 groups, and their relation to the surroundinginterstellar medium, will be presented elsewhere. Astrometric evidencefor moving groups in the fields of R CrA, CMa OB1, Mon OB1, Ori OB1, CamOB1, Cep OB3, Cep OB4, Cyg OB4, Cyg OB7, and Sct OB2, is inconclusive.OB associations do exist in many of these regions, but they are eitherat distances beyond ~500 pc where the Hipparcos parallaxes are oflimited use, or they have unfavorable kinematics, so that the groupproper motion does not distinguish it from the field stars in theGalactic disk. The mean distances of the well-established groups aresystematically smaller than the pre-Hipparcos photometric estimates.While part of this may be caused by the improved membership lists, arecalibration of the upper main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram may be called for. The mean motions display a systematicpattern, which is discussed in relation to the Gould Belt. Six of the 12detected moving groups do not appear in the classical list of nearby OBassociations. This is sometimes caused by the absence of O stars, but inother cases a previously known open cluster turns out to be (part of) anextended OB association. The number of unbound young stellar groups inthe solar neighborhood may be significantly larger than thoughtpreviously.

On correlations between diffuse interstellar bands
One way to better apprehend the problem of diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) is to search for correlations between the bands in a large sampleof spectra towards various lines of sight: a strict correlation mayimply that a common carrier is at the origin of the bands, whereas anon-correlation means that different species are involved. We proposethis observational test for 10 DIBs collected in up to 62 Galactic linesof sight. Strong DIBs do not strictly correlate, and sometimes thecorrelation is very poor. Only one example of a strict correlation hasbeen found in our sample between the DIBs at 6614 and 6196 Ä, thatcould signify a single carrier for those two bands. The general absenceof strict correlations is discussed in the context of molecular carriersfor the DIBs.

Oxygen Abundances in Late-B through F Supergiants
A spectral-synthesis analysis was performed for twenty-six late-Bthrough F supergiants (including Cepheids) in order to determine theirphotospheric oxygen abundances from the O I 6156--8 feature, whiletaking into account the non-LTE effect, which is progressivelyT_eff-dependent from < 0.1 dex for F-type supergiants to ~ 0.4 dexfor late-B ones in terms of the non-LTE abundance correction. Theresulting oxygen abundances show a moderate underabundance relative tothe Sun ([O/H] ~ -0.3) along with a remarkably small scatter (within +/-0.1 dex) over this wide temperature range. Considering the recentevidence that the solar oxygen abundance is mildly enhanced by 0.2--0.3dex relative to that of the galactic gas which forms young stars, weconclude that the original O-composition in the atmosphere of thesesupergiants had suffered almost no appreciable alteration during theirpast evolutionary history, even though signs of significant mixing ofCN-cycle or NeNa-cycle products are evident. This excludes thepossibility of any global-mixing mechanism, such that producing asignificant reduction of oxygen due to a deep dredge-up of considerableON-processed material, whatever the details of the envelope-mixingprocess for these relatively massive stars may be.

Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Physical Conditions that Facilitate the Formation or Preservation of Their Carriers
This paper suggests that the formation and/or preservation of thecarriers of at least some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs)depends on the level of ionization of certain interstellar atoms, suchas potassium and calcium inside H I clouds. The spectral lines of theseelements are apparently well correlated with the narrow diffuse bands,such as 5797 or 6379 Angstroms. Thus, the physical conditions thatfacilitate the growing abundance of neutral alkali atoms also facilitatethe formation or preservation of the carriers of the narrow diffusebands. The broad features, such as 5780 or 6284 Angstroms, apparentlyoriginate in different ionization conditions.

Long-term visual spectrophotometric behaviour of Be stars
The long-term spectrophotometric variations of 49 Be stars are studiedusing the U and V magnitudes of the UBV system, the total Balmerdiscontinuity D and the visible gradient Phi _rb. BCD spectrophotometricand photometric data in five different photometric systems, obtained inmost cases since 1950 and reduced to the BCD system, were used. The(U,D), (V,D), (Phi _rb,D) and (Phi _rb,V) correlations obtained differfrom star to star and they can be single or double-valued. They differclearly for Be phases or Be-shell phases. Be stars with small Vsin ishowing the ``spectrophotometric shell behaviour'': D > D_*, werefound. This finding implies either that strongly flattened models ofcircumstellar envelopes are in doubt for these stars, or that not all Bestars are rapid rotators. Comparison of observed variations with thosepredicted for model Be stars with spherical circumstellar envelopes ofvariable densities and dimensions implies that spectrophotometricpatterns of Be phases are due to circumstellar envelopes in low opacityregimes, while those of spectrophotometric shell phases are due tocircumstellar envelopes in high opacity regimes. In a given star, theenvelope regions responsible for the observed variations of D and Phi_rbin spectrophotometric shell phases seem to be smaller and denser thanthose producing the observed variations of these parameters inspectrophotometric Be phases. The high positive RV found in strong shellphases might favor the formation of compact circumstellar layers nearthe star. Figure 6 is only available in electronic form at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:21h17m25.00s
Apparent magnitude:4.23
Distance:1388.889 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0.2
Proper motion Dec:-4.3
B-T magnitude:4.343
V-T magnitude:4.248

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Bayerσ Cyg
Flamsteed67 Cyg
HD 1989HD 202850
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 3173-3151-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1275-15235583
BSC 1991HR 8143
HIPHIP 105102

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