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Extended envelopes around Galactic Cepheids. I. ℓ Carinae from near and mid-infrared interferometry with the VLTI
We present the results of long-baseline interferometric observations ofthe bright southern Cepheid ℓ Carinae in the infrared N (8-13 μm)and K (2.0-2.4 μm) bands, using the MIDI and VINCI instruments of theVLT Interferometer. We resolve in the N band a large circumstellarenvelope (CSE) that we model with a Gaussian of 3 Rstar(≈500 Rȯ ≈ 2-3 AU) half width at half maximum. Thesignature of this envelope is also detected in our K band data as adeviation from a single limb darkened disk visibility function. Thesuperimposition of a Gaussian CSE on the limb darkened disk model of theCepheid star results in a significantly better fit of our VINCI data.The extracted CSE parameters in the K band are a half width at halfmaximum of 2 Rstar, comparable to the N band model, and atotal brightness of 4% of the stellar photosphere. A possibility is thatthis CSE is linked to the relatively large mass loss rate of ℓ Car.Though its physical nature cannot be determined from our data, wediscuss an analogy with the molecular envelopes of RV Tauri, redsupergiants and Miras.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

Evolution from AGB to planetary nebula in the MSX survey
We investigate the evolution of oxygen- and carbon-rich AGB stars,post-AGB objects, and planetary nebulae using data collected mainly fromthe MSX catalogue. Magnitudes and colour indices are compared with thosecalculated from a grid of synthetic spectra that describe the post-AGBevolution beginning at the onset of the superwind. We find that carbonstars and OH/IR objects form two distinct sequences in the (K-[8.3])×([8.3]-[14.7]) MSX colour diagram. OH/IR objects are distributedin two groups: the bluest ones are crowded near [14.7]-[21.3]≃ 1and [8.3]-[14.7]≃ 2, and a second, redder group is spread over alarge area in the diagram, where post-AGB objects and planetary nebulaeare also found. High mass-loss rate OH/IR objects, post-AGB stars, andplanetary nebulae share the same region in the (K-[8.3])×([8.3]-[14.7]) and [14.7]-[21.3]×([8.3]-[14.7]) colour-colourdiagrams. This region in the diagram is clearly separated from a bluerone where most OH/IR stars are found. We use a grid of models ofpost-AGB evolution, which are compared with the data. The gap in thecolour-colour diagrams is interpreted as the result of the rapidtrajectory in the diagram of the stars that have just left the AGB.Based on results obtained by the MSX survey.Tables 1 to 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/565

J - K DENIS photometry of a VLTI-selected sample of bright southern stars
We present a photometric survey of bright southern stars carried outusing the DENIS instrument equipped with attenuating filters. Theobservations were carried out not using the survey mode of DENIS, butwith individual target pointings. This project was stimulated by theneed to obtain near-infrared photometry of stars to be used in earlycommissioning observations of the ESO Very Large TelescopeInterferometer, and in particular to establish a network of brightcalibrator sources.We stress that near-infrared photometry is peculiarly lacking for manybright stars. These stars are saturated in 2MASS as well as in regularDENIS observations. The only other observations available for brightinfrared stars are those of the Two Micron Sky Survey dating from overthirty years ago. These were restricted to declinations above≈-30°, and thus cover only about half of the sky accessible fromthe VLTI site.We note that the final 2MASS data release includes photometry of brightstars, obtained by means of point-spread function fitting. However, thismethod only achieves about 30% accuracy, which is not sufficient formost applications.In this work, we present photometry for over 600 stars, each with atleast one and up to eight measurements, in the J and K filters. Typicalaccuracy is at the level of 0\fm05 and 0\fm04 in the J and K_s bands,respectively.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/413/1037

The cool circumstellar environment of IRAS 08182-6000: radiative transfer modelling of TiO absorption bands
IRAS 08182-6000 has very red infrared colours, with an excess at K andL, and a silicate absorption feature at 9.7 μm. Optical spectra showstrong, narrow absorption bands of TiO and AlO and weaker bands of VOthat are indicative of formation in a very cool region, superimposed ona late F-type or early G-type spectrum. It is similar to the unusualstar U Equ = IRAS 20547+0247 and both are high-velocity stars. Thesecharacteristics, together with spectroscopic indications of low surfacegravity, suggest that these stars are of low mass and are possibly at apost-AGB stage of evolution. IRAS 08182-6000 brightened by severalmagnitudes during 12 yr of photometric observation. Photospheric andsome circumstellar atomic absorption lines are evident, as well asatomic lines seen in emission that differ in radial velocity from thosein absorption by c. 50 km s-1. Molecular bands of theγ, γ' and α systems of circumstellar TiO have beenmodelled using a one-dimensional radiative transfer code that makes useof the most recent laboratory and theoretical spectroscopic data on TiO.It was found necessary to invoke a non-local thermodynamic equilibriummodel, which resulted in the determination of different rotational,spin-orbit and vibrational temperatures for the TiO gas, all of whichlie well below the temperature at which TiO begins to deplete from thegas phase due to grain formation.

CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
The Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom.

Yellow Hypergiants as Dynamically Unstable Post-Red Supergiant Stars
According to recent theoretical studies, the majority of single starsmore massive than 30 Msolar successfully evolve into redsupergiants but then lose most of their hydrogen envelopes andmetamorphose into hot blue remnants. While they are cool, they becomedynamically unstable as a result of high radiation pressure and partialionization of the gases in their outer layers. It is shown here thatthese unstable red supergiant models repeatedly shrink and reexpand on athermal timescale when perturbed by heavy bursts of mass loss.Consequently, they fill up the domain of yellow hypergiants on theHertzsprung-Russell diagram and display very fast rates of evolutionthere, as observed.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222

Ca II activity and rotation in F-K evolved stars
Ca II H and K high resolution observations for 60 evolved stars in thefield and in 5 open clusters are presented. From these spectrachromospheric fluxes are derived, and a homogeneous sample of more than100 giants is built adding data from the literature. In addition, formost stars, rotational velocities were derived from CORAVELobservations. By comparing chromospheric emission in the cluster starswe confirm the results of Pasquini & Brocato (1992): chromosphericactivity depends on the stellar effective temperature, and mass, whenintermediate mass stars (M ~ 4 Msun) are considered. TheHyades and the Praesepe clump giants show the same level of activity, asexpected from stars with similar masses and effective temperatures. Adifference of up to 0.4 dex in the chromospheric fluxes among the Hyadesgiants is recorded and this sets a clear limit to the intrinsic spreadof stellar activity in evolved giants. These differences in otherwisevery similar stars are likely due to stellar cycles and/or differencesin the stellar initial angular momentum. Among the field stars none ofthe giants with (V-R)o < 0.4 and Ia supergiants observedshows a signature of Ca II activity; this can be due either to the realabsence of a chromosphere, but also to other causes which preclude theappearance of Ca II reversal. By analyzing the whole sample we find thatchromospheric activity scales linearly with stellar rotational velocityand a high power of stellar effective temperature: F'k ~Teff7.7 (Vsini)0.9. This result can beinterpreted as the effect of two chromospheric components of differentnature: one mechanical and one magnetic. Alternatively, by using theHipparcos parallaxes and evolutionary tracks, we divide the sampleaccording to the stellar masses, and we follow the objects along anevolutionary track. For each range of masses activity can simply beexpressed as a function of only one parameter: either theTeff or the angular rotation Omega , with laws F'k~ Omega alpha , because angular velocity decreases witheffective temperature along an evolutionary track. By using theevolutionary tracks and the observed Vsini we investigate the evolutionof the angular momentum for evolved stars in the range 1-5Msun. For the 1.6-3 solar mass stars the data are consistentwith the IOmega =const law while lower and higher masses follow a lawsimilar to IOmega 2=const, where I is the computed stellarmomentum of inertia. We find it intriguing that Vsini remains almostconstant for 1Msun stars along their evolution; if a similarbehavior is shared by Pop II stars, this could explain the relativelyhigh degree of activity observed in Pop II giants. Finally, through theuse of models, we have verified the consistency of the F'k ~Omega alpha and the IOmega beta = Const lawsderived, finding an excellent agreement. This representation, albeitcrude (the models do not consider, for instance, mass losses) representsthe evolution of Ca II activity and of the angular momentum in asatisfactory way in most of the portion of HR diagram analyzed.Different predictions could be tested with observations in selectedclusters. Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla. Tables 1-3are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions
The FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over more than twocenturies and summarized in the FK5. Part I of the FK6 (abbreviatedFK6(I)) contains 878 basic fundamental stars with direct solutions. Suchdirect solutions are appropriate for single stars or for objects whichcan be treated like single stars. From the 878 stars in Part I, we haveselected 340 objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since theirinstantaneous proper motions and mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,199 of the stars in Part I are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives in addition to the SI mode the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(I) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.35 mas/year. This isabout a factor of two better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.67 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(I) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.50 mas/year, which is by a factor of more than 4better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 2.21mas/year (cosmic errors included).

Spectroscopic binary orbits from photoelectric radial velocities. Paper 148: HR 7955
Not Available

The Yellow Hypergiants HR 8752 and rho Cassiopeiae near the Evolutionary Border of Instability
High-resolution near-ultraviolet spectra of the yellow hypergiants HR8752 and rho Cassiopeiae indicate high effective temperatures, placingboth stars near the low-T_eff border of the ``yellow evolutionaryvoid.'' At present, the temperature of HR 8752 is higher than ever. Forthis star we found T_eff=7900+/-200 K, whereas rho Cassiopeiae hasT_eff=7300+/-200 K. Both HR 8752 and rho Cassiopeiae have developedstrong stellar winds with V_&infy;~=120 and V_&infy;~=100 km s^-1,respectively. For HR 8752 we estimate an upper limit for the sphericallysymmetric mass loss of 6.7x10^-6 M_solar yr^-1. Over the past decadestwo yellow hypergiants appear to have approached an evolutionary phase,which has never been observed before. We present the first spectroscopicevidence of the blueward motion of a cool super/hypergiant on the H-Rdiagram.

Five-colour photometry of OB-stars in the Southern Hemisphere
Observations of OB-stars, made in 1959 and 1960 at the Leiden SouthernStation near Hartebeespoortdam, South Africa, with the VBLUW photometerattached to the 90 cm light-collector, are given in this paper. They arecompared with photometry obtained by \cite[Graham (1968),]{gra68}\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977),]{wal77} \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} and \cite[Van Genderen et al. (1984).]{gen84} Formulaefor the transformation of the present observations to those of\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977)]{wal77} and \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} are given. Table 4 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The central depth of the Ca II triplet lines as a discriminant of chromospheric activity in late type stars
Not Available

HIPPARCOS photometry of 24 variable massive stars (alpha Cygni variables)
The photometric variability of 24 alpha Cyg variables, i.e. variablesuper-and hypergiants, observed by the Hipparcos satellite is described.Three of the selected stars are situated in the SMC, 12 in the LMC andthe remaining 9 in the Galactic plane. Four of them are hot S Dor-typevariables, or LBVs (luminous blue variables) and two are possiblemembers of this class. Light curves are presented for all stars. Forfive stars, among which one LBV, the variability was discovered from theHipparcos photometric data. Results of period searches are presentedand, when relevant, folded light curves are shown. The linear ephemerisof two variables was revised. For most of the program stars theHipparcos magnitude scale (Hp) differs from the V of the UBV system byla 0fm1 . For all variables temperatures and M_bol are given. Galacticforeground reddening for the objects in the Magellanic Clouds are givenbased on IRAS maps.

The yellow hypergiants
We list the main stellar data of known hypergiants and similarlyluminous stars, and then concentrate on a review of the yellowhypergiants. These stars are post-red supergiants evolving alongblueward loops in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Their properties,their location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and their occasionalmass ejections are related to a region of atmospheric instability in theH-R diagram, the Yellow Void. The `bouncing against the border of theVoid' of three objects: ρ Cas, HR8752 and IRC+10420, is described.The apparent atmospheric instability of yellow hypergiants is related tothe atmospheric pulsations. There are indications that the approach tothe Void is associated with an increased amplitude of the pulsation andwith enhanced mass loss. The observed small-scale motion field is onlyapparently strongly supersonic; the observed large stochastic velocitiesare the quasi-stochastically varying thermal motions in the many hotsheets that occur in the wakes of many small shocks, while the realhydrodynamic velocity component is small and subsonic. This shock-wavefield is also responsible for the observed rate of mass loss and foremission in the wings of Hα . Most yellow hypergiants haveenvelopes containing gas and dust, but a thick extended envelope,presumably dissipating and showing bipolar outflow, is only known aroundIRC+10420. At the interface of the bipolar wind and the interstellarmedium one or more stationary shocks may develop as is observed in thecase of IRC+10420 and suspected with ρ Cas.

A search for evolutionary changes in the periods of low-amplitude Cepheids.
Not Available

An obstacle to the late evolution of massive stars
During their evolution, massive stars first swell and thus become redsupergiants, after which they shrink again to evolve to the bluesupergiant phase. When, during this blueward loop, the effectivephotospheric temperature T_eff has increased to values of about 7000 K,the main part of the photosphere becomes moderately unstable.Observations of the yellow hypergiant star HD 217476=HR 8752 show thatthe approach to this instability region may lead to phases of enhancedmass loss and consequent reduced surface temperature, after which T_effslowly increases until it again `bounces' against the atmosphericinstability region. Two such bounces have been observed in the last 30yr and a third seems imminent; frequent observations of this star aretherefore useful. Other `yellow hypergiants', like rhoCas and IRC+10420,seem to show the same behaviour. Repeated observations of these starsmay help us to understand how massive stars pass the instability regionduring their evolution towards the blue supergiant phase.

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (, or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Colour excesses of F-G supergiants and Cepheids from Geneva photometry.
A reddening scale for F-G supergiants and Cepheids is presented.Supergiants with low reddenings or in clusters form the basis of thecalibration. In this sense, it is entirely empirical. The data have beenobtained in the Geneva photometric system. Comparisons with otherreddening scales show no disagreement. The only problem is with Fernie'sscale for Cepheids (1990), where a systematic trend exists. Its originis not clear. It is suggested to extend the number of supergiants withindependently obtained colour excesses in order to test the existence ofa possible luminosity dependence of the calibration. A period-colourrelation for Cepheids is deduced, on the basis of the present reddeningcorrections. It gives strong support for V473 Lyr being a secondovertone pulsator.

Photoelectric BV Observations of V382 Car
Not Available

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

The position corrections of 1400 stars observed with PA II in San Juan.
Not Available

Metal enrichment in elliptical galaxies and globular clusters through the study of iron and H-Beta spectral indices
Chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies and globular clusters isaddressed through a combined study of the iron indices at 5270 and 5335A, and of the H-Beta line strength. The observational database of 74standard stars (both dwarfs and giants) referred to in a previous paper(Buzzoni et al. (1992)) complemented with the data of Faber et al.(1985) and Gorgas et al. (1993) allowed us to explore here Fe and H-Betaindex dependence on stellar temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Thederived fitting functions were then included into Buzzoni's (1989) codefor population synthesis in order to derive expected integrated indicesfor simple stellar populations and compare with observations. Partitionof metals in the current chemical mix of galaxies and globulars has beenconstrained supporting the claim that light alpha elements might beenhanced in the globular cluster metal-poor population. An alternativeconclusion resting on the standard framework with (alpha/Fe) = 0 wouldrequire a systematically larger age, about 18-20 Gyr. Iron and magnesiumin ellipticals are found in average solar but a systematic trend of(Mg/Fe) vs global metallicity does exist with iron more deficient withrespect to magnesium at high Z. We conclude that this effect mightindicate that Fe abundance per unit mass in the galaxies is constant(suggesting a constant rate per unit mass of SN I events) while lightmetals supplied by SNe II should have been more effectively enrichedwith increasing galactic total mass.

Second astrolabe catalogue of Santiago.
Positions for 350 FK5 and 164 FK5 Extension stars as determined with theDanjon astrolabe of Santiago and differences astrolabe-catalogue aregiven for Equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch of eachstar. The average mean error in alpha is +/-0.005s and +/-0.07" indelta. The mean epoch of observation of the catalogue is J1979.96.

The CA II triplet lines in cool stars
Observations of the infrared triplet lines of ionized calcium arepresented for 91 stars brighter than m_v_=+7.0 in the spectral rangeF8-M4 of all luminosity classes and over a range of metallicities [Fe/H]from -0.65 to +0.60. The above spectra have been obtained at a spectralresolution of 0.4 A with a coude echelle spectrograph using the ThomsonCCD as the detector. This study has been undertaken primarily toinvestigate the dependence of the Ca II triplet strengths over the broadrange of atmospheric parameters like luminosity, temperature andmetallicity. The Ca II triplet lines are a powerful diagnostic of thestellar populations in galaxies because of their sensitivity to theabove parameters. Our detailed analysis indicates a strong correlationbetween the equivalent width of the Ca II triplet lines and surfacegravity, much stronger in metal rich stars than in metal poor stars. TheCa II equivalent widths are fairly insensitive to temperature over therange of luminosity covered. However, they are found to be quitesensitive to metallicity, more conspicuously in supergiants than ingiants and dwarfs. Observations are compared with recent theoreticalcalculations of these lines in NLTE atmospheres.

Stromgren and H-Beta Photometry of OB Associations and Open Clusters - Part Two - TRIANGULUM:16 and CARINA:OB2
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993MNRAS.261..847K&db_key=AST

The 1.5-1.7 micrometer spectrum of cool stars: Line identifications, indices for spectral classification and the stellar content of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068
The first aim of this paper is to determine which lines or narrowmolecular bands in the H-band spectra of cool stars could be of interestfor the classification of K-M stars. For this purpose we present highquality, medium resolution (R approximates 1500) spectra of field stars(mostly K-M giants and supergiants) and compare them with detailedsynthetic spectra computed on the basis of existing model atmospheresfor red giants. The agreement between theoretical and observed spectrais good and virtually all the observed features can be accounted for bylines of (12)CO, (13)CO, OH, Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe. We analyze in detailthe relative contribution of these and other species and conclude thatthe feature at 1.62 micrometers which is weak in early K but very strongin late M stars, is mainly due to the CO(6-3) band-head, while that at1.59 micrometers, which is prominent in all stars later than G, isprimarily attributable to silicon up to early M types, while in late Mstars this feature is strongly contaminated by OH lines. We choose thesetwo features as 'spectral classificators' and measure their equivalentwidths in more than 40 G, K, M giants and supergiants. From these datait is found that CO 1.62 in giants increases rapidly and with arelatively small scatter going to later spectral types. Supergiants havedeeper CO(6-3) and display a larger scatter. The (1.62)/(2.29) ratiosteadily increases going to cooler stars but does not vary significantlywith luminosity class. A very useful ratio is (1.62)/(1.59) whichincreases by a large factor from early K to late M stars and couldtherefore be a powerful tool to identify and estimate the averagespectral type of cool stars in complex objects like active galaxynuclei. To demonstrate such a possibility we also present long slitspectra of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 where the equivalent widths ofall stellar features are found to decrease in the central 4 arcsecaround the nucleus but the (1.62)/(1.59) ratio, and hence the averagestellar temperature, does not change significantly. The estimatedaverage spectral type is late-K which is compatible with either an oldand very metallic bulge population or a younger one associated with arecent starburst. These data also show that the non-stellar continuumaccounts for approximately 30% and approximately equal to or greaterthan 80% of the flux at 1.62 and 2.3 micrometers respectively in thecentral 4.4 arcsec. The features around 1.6 micrometers are thus muchless diluted than CO(2, 0) and hence offer advantages for studies of thestellar content in such objects. The non-stellar nuclear emission isvery red and most probably associated with a hot (T approximately equalor greater than 800 K) dust component.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:11h08m35.40s
Apparent magnitude:3.91
Distance:1818.182 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-4.4
Proper motion Dec:2.1
B-T magnitude:5.505
V-T magnitude:4.052

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Namesx Car
V382 Car   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 96918
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 8628-2484-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0300-11652201
BSC 1991HR 4337
HIPHIP 54463

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