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Evolution of interacting binaries with a B type primary at birth
We revisited the analytical expression for the mass ratio distributionfor non-evolved binaries with a B type primary. Selection effectsgoverning the observations were taken into account in order to comparetheory with observations. Theory was optimized so as to fit best withthe observed q-distribution of SB1s and SB2s. The accuracy of thistheoretical mass ratio distribution function is severely hindered by theuncertainties on the observations. We present a library of evolutionarycomputations for binaries with a B type primary at birth. Some liberalcomputations including loss of mass and angular momentum during binaryevolution are added to an extensive grid of conservative calculations.Our computations are compared statistically to the observeddistributions of orbital periods and mass ratios of Algols. ConservativeRoche Lobe Over Flow (RLOF) reproduces the observed distribution oforbital periods but fails to explain the observed mass ratios in therange q in [0.4-1]. In order to obtain a better fit the binaries have tolose a significant amount of matter, without losing much angularmomentum.

Astrometric orbits of SB^9 stars
Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) have been used to deriveastrometric orbital elements for spectroscopic binaries from the newlyreleased Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits(SB^9). This endeavour is justified by the fact that (i) theastrometric orbital motion is often difficult to detect without theprior knowledge of the spectroscopic orbital elements, and (ii) suchknowledge was not available at the time of the construction of theHipparcos Catalogue for the spectroscopic binaries which were recentlyadded to the SB^9 catalogue. Among the 1374 binaries fromSB^9 which have an HIP entry (excluding binaries with visualcompanions, or DMSA/C in the Double and Multiple Stars Annex), 282 havedetectable orbital astrometric motion (at the 5% significance level).Among those, only 70 have astrometric orbital elements that are reliablydetermined (according to specific statistical tests), and for the firsttime for 20 systems. This represents a 8.5% increase of the number ofastrometric systems with known orbital elements (The Double and MultipleSystems Annex contains 235 of those DMSA/O systems). The detection ofthe astrometric orbital motion when the Hipparcos IAD are supplementedby the spectroscopic orbital elements is close to 100% for binaries withonly one visible component, provided that the period is in the 50-1000 drange and the parallax is >5 mas. This result is an interestingtestbed to guide the choice of algorithms and statistical tests to beused in the search for astrometric binaries during the forthcoming ESAGaia mission. Finally, orbital inclinations provided by the presentanalysis have been used to derive several astrophysical quantities. Forinstance, 29 among the 70 systems with reliable astrometric orbitalelements involve main sequence stars for which the companion mass couldbe derived. Some interesting conclusions may be drawn from this new setof stellar masses, like the enigmatic nature of the companion to theHyades F dwarf HIP 20935. This system has a mass ratio of 0.98 but thecompanion remains elusive.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

Eclipsing binaries as standard candles. HD 23642 and the distance to the Pleiades
We present a reanalysis of the light curves of HD 23642, a detachedeclipsing binary star in the Pleiades open cluster, with emphasis on adetailed error analysis. We compare the masses and radii of the twostars to predictions of stellar evolutionary models and find that themetal and helium abundances of the Pleiades are approximately solar. Wepresent a new method for finding distances to eclipsing binaries, ofspectral types A to M, using the empirical calibrations of effectivetemperature versus surface brightness given by Kervella et al. (2004,A&A, 426, 297). We use the calibration for K-filter surfacebrightness to determine a distance of 139.1 ± 3.5 pc to HD 23642and the Pleiades. This distance is in excellent agreement with distancesfound from the use of theoretical and empirical bolometric corrections.We show that the determination of distance, both from the use of surfacebrightness relations and from the use of bolometric corrections, is moreaccurate and precise at infrared wavelengths than at opticalwavelengths. The distance to HD 23642 is consistent with that derivedfrom photometric methods and Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes, but isinconsistent with the distance measured using Hipparcos parallaxes of HD23642 and of other Pleiades stars.

A distance of 133-137 parsecs to the Pleiades star cluster
Nearby `open' clusters of stars (those that are not gravitationallybound) have played a crucial role in the development of stellarastronomy because, as a consequence of the stars having a common age,they provide excellent natural laboratories to test theoretical stellarmodels. Clusters also play a fundamental part in determining distancescales. The satellite Hipparcos surprisingly found that an extensivelystudied open cluster-the Pleiades (also known as the Seven Sisters)-hada distance of D = 118 +/- 4pc (refs 2, 3), about ten per cent smallerthan the accepted value. The discrepancy generated a spirited debatebecause the implication was that either current stellar models wereincorrect by a surprising amount or Hipparcos was giving incorrectdistances. Here we report the orbital parameters of the bright doublestar Atlas in the Pleiades, using long-baseline optical/infraredinterferometry. From the data we derive a firm lower bound of D >127pc, with the most likely range being 133 < D < 137pc. Ourresult reaffirms the fidelity of current stellar models.

A purely geometric distance to the binary star Atlas, a member of the Pleiades
We present radial velocity and new interferometric measurements of thedouble star Atlas, which permit, with the addition of publishedinterferometric data, to precisely derive the orbital parameters of thebinary system and the masses of the components. The derived semi-majoraxis, compared with its measured angular size, allows to determine adistance to Atlas of 132± 4 pc in a purely geometrical way. Underthe assumption that the location of Atlas is representative of theaverage distance of the cluster, we confirm the distance value generallyobtained through main sequence fitting, in contradiction with the earlyHipparcos result (118.3± 3.5 pc).Based on observations made with the ELODIE echelle spectrograph mountedon the 1.93-m telescope at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS),with the FEROS echelle spectrograph mounted on the 2.2-m telescope atESO-La Silla Observatory (programme No. 072.D-0235B), with the CORALIEechelle spectrograph mounted on the 1.2-m Euler Swiss telescope atESO-La Silla Observatory, with the Naval Prototype OpticalInterferometer (US Naval Observatory) and with the Mark III stellarinterferometer at Mt Wilson.

The distance to the Pleiades from orbital solution of the double-lined eclipsing binary HD 23642
Combining precise B, V photometry and radial velocities, we have beenable to derive a firm orbital solution and accurate physical parametersfor the newly discovered eclipsing binary HD 23642 in the Pleiades opencluster. The resulting distance to the binary and therefore to thecluster is 132 ± 2 pc. This closely confirms the distance modulusobtained by classical main sequence fitting methods (m - M= 5.60 or 132pc), moving cluster techniques and the astrometric orbit of Atlas. Thisis the first time the distance to a member of the Pleiades is derived byorbital solution of a double-lined eclipsing binary, and it is intendedto contribute to the ongoing discussion about the discordant Hipparcosdistance to the cluster.The photometric and spectroscopic observations discussed in this paperare electronically available from the web pagehttp://ulisse.pd.astro.it/HD_23642/Based in part on spectra collected with the ELODIE spectrograph at the1.93 m telescope of the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP), France.

Interstellar Matter near the Pleiades. VI. Evidence for an Interstellar Three-Body Encounter
This paper seeks a comprehensive interpretation of new data on Na Iabsorption toward stars in and near the Pleiades, together with existingvisible and infrared data on the distribution of dust and with radiodata on H I and CO in the cluster vicinity. The use of dust and gasmorphology to constrain tangential motions in connection with themeasured radial velocities yields estimates for the space motion of gasnear the Pleiades. Much of the kinematic complexity in the interstellarabsorption toward the Pleiades, including the presence of stronglyblueshifted components that arise in shocked gas, finds explanation inthe interaction between the cluster and foreground gas withVr(LSR)~7 km s-1 associated with the Taurus dustclouds. Taurus gas, however, cannot readily account for an absorptioncomponent having Vr(LSR)~10 km s-1 with a wide,but not continuous distribution and 21 cm emission from gas in thecluster having Vr(LSR)~0 km s-1 associated witheast-west dust filaments. Successive hypotheses for the origin of theseadditional features include Taurus gas at a higher velocity than thepervasive foreground component, additional gas at a radial velocityintermediate between that of the Taurus component and the cluster, and acloud having Vr(LSR)~10 km s-1 approaching thePleiades from the west. A satisfactory account of the full complexity ofthe interstellar medium near the Pleiades requires the last feature andthe Taurus gas, both interacting with the Pleiades and also with eachother.

Kinematical Structure of the Local Interstellar Medium: The Galactic Anticenter Hemisphere
A survey of interstellar Na I D1 and D2 absorption features in thespectra of 104 early-type stars in the second and third Galacticquadrants reveals the large-scale kinematics of the interstellar gaswithin the Galactic anticenter hemisphere at distances from the Sunbetween ~70 and ~250 pc. Employing a technique that uses both the radialvelocities and column densities of the Na I absorptions produced by theintervening gas we have identified the velocity vectors and determinedthe spatial distribution of eight interstellar clouds in the volumeexplored. The average internal H I+H2 densities of the cloudsrange between 0.03 and 1.7 cm-3, and their masses between 80and 104 Msolar, although uncertainties in thesizes of the clouds, their possible extension beyond the regionexplored, and the presence of denser gas embedded in the larger cloudsimply that these will tend to be lower limits. We have clearlyidentified clumps of denser gas immersed in the low-density gas in oneof the clouds; these clumps show internal H I+H2 densities oforder 50 cm-3. Although we are not able to detect anyinterstellar Na I within 70 pc, the sizes of some of the clouds implythat their near edges are within that range of distances from the Sun.With respect to the local standard of rest the clouds move withvelocities between 19 and 54 km s-1. Their velocity vectorsdo not support the view of a local interstellar medium uniquelydominated by expansion from centers in the Scorpio-Centaurus OBassociation; our results suggest that this expansion is present in theGalactic center hemisphere but in the Galactic anticenter hemisphere isrestricted to the immediate neighborhood of the Sun.

The Pleiades Reflection Nebula. II. Simple Model Constraints on Dust Properties and Scattering Geometry
We have used wide-field ultraviolet, optical, and far-infraredphotometric images of Pleiades reflection nebulosity to analyze dustproperties and the three-dimensional nebular geometry. Scattered lightdata were taken from 1650 and 2200 Å Wide-Field Imaging SurveyPolarimeter images and a large 4400 Å mosaic of Burrell SchmidtCCD frames. Dust thermal emission maps were extracted from IRAS data.The scattering geometry analysis is complicated by the blending of lightfrom many stars and the likely presence of more than one scatteringlayer. Despite these complications, we conclude that most of thescattered light comes from dust in front of the stars in at least twoscattering layers, one far in front and extensive, the other nearer thestars and confined to areas of heavy nebulosity. The first layer can beapproximated as an optically thin, foreground slab whose line-of-sightseparation from the stars averages ~0.7 pc. The second layer is alsooptically thin in most locations and may lie at less than half theseparation of the first layer, perhaps with some material among orbehind the stars. The association of nebulosities peripheral to the maincondensation around the brightest stars is not clear. Models withstandard grain properties cannot account for the faintness of thescattered UV light relative to the optical. Some combination ofsignificant changes in grain model albedo and phase function asymmetryvalues is required. Our best-performing model has a UV albedo of0.22+/-0.07 and a scattering asymmetry of 0.74+/-0.06. Hypotheticaloptically thick dust clumps missed by interstellar sight linemeasurements have little effect on the nebular colors but might shiftthe interpretation of our derived scattering properties from individualgrains to the bulk medium.

The Pleiades Reflection Nebula. I. Ultraviolet, Optical, and Far-Infrared Imaging Photometry
We present new wide-field optical and ultraviolet images of the Pleiadesreflection nebula that allow a more thorough evaluation of the dustscattering than any prior data set. Vacuum-UV images were taken at 1650and 2200 Å during the first flight of the Wide-Field ImagingSurvey Polarimeter (WISP), a sounding rocket-borne telescope. WISPcaptured the brighter parts of the nebula at both wavelengths, with 3σ sensitivities of 22.5 and 23.4 UV mag arcsec-2,respectively. The 5.0d×1.7d WISP field was also mapped at 4400Å with a mosaic of 40 Burrell Schmidt CCD frames using a broadbandBJ filter. The Schmidt mosaic shows extensive and intricatenebulosity down to a 5 σ sensitivity limit of 27.6 B magarcsec-2, including features undetected by photographicsurveys. We explore the intensity and color behavior of the nebula inour UV and optical images and far-infrared IRAS data. We find that thephotometric structure near bright stars is more complex than previousstudies have implied, but general trends are still apparent. The colorgradients around the stars are caused by phase function effects ratherthan internal reddening. The greater concentration of scattered lightversus thermal emission indicates that most of the observed scatteringis from foreground dust. A somewhat greater concentration of UV versusoptical light suggests grain scattering is more forward-directed atshorter wavelengths. The UV nebula is much fainter than expected fromthe stellar photometry and interstellar reddening. Explaining this UVfaintness requires either more reddening than is measured or significantalterations to current dust property estimates.

Observations of Star-Forming Regions with the Midcourse Space Experiment
We have imaged seven nearby star-forming regions, the Rosette Nebula,the Orion Nebula, W3, the Pleiades, G300.2-16.8, S263, and G159.6-18.5,with the Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope on the Midcourse SpaceExperiment (MSX) satellite at 18" resolution at 8.3, 12.1, 14.7, and21.3 μm. The large angular scale of the regions imaged (~7.2-50deg2) makes these data unique in terms of the combination ofsize and resolution. In addition to the star-forming regions, twocirrus-free fields (MSXBG 160 and MSXBG 161) and a field near the southGalactic pole (MSXBG 239) were also imaged. Point sources have beenextracted from each region, resulting in the identification over 500 newsources (i.e., no identified counterparts at other wavelengths), as wellas over 1300 with prior identifications. The extended emission from thestar-forming regions is described, and prominent structures areidentified, particularly in W3 and Orion. The Rosette Nebula isdiscussed in detail. The bulk of the mid-infrared emission is consistentwith that of photon-dominated regions, including the elephant trunkcomplex. The central clump, however, and a line of site toward thenorthern edge of the cavity show significantly redder colors than therest of the Rosette complex.

3D mapping of the dense interstellar gas around the Local Bubble
We present intermediate results from a long-term program of mapping theneutral absorption characteristics of the local interstellar medium,motivated by the availability of accurate and consistent parallaxes fromthe Hipparcos satellite. Equivalent widths of the interstellar NaID-line doublet at 5890 Å are presented for the lines-of-sighttowards some 311 new target stars lying within ~ 350 pc of the Sun.Using these data, together with NaI absorption measurements towards afurther ~ 240 nearby targets published in the literature (for many ofthem, in the directions of molecular clouds), and the ~ 450lines-of-sight already presented by (Sfeir et al. \cite{sfeir99}), weshow 3D absorption maps of the local distribution of neutral gas towards1005 sight-lines with Hipparcos distances as viewed from a variety ofdifferent galactic projections.The data are synthesized by means of two complementary methods, (i) bymapping of iso-equivalent width contours, and (ii) by densitydistribution calculation from the inversion of column-densities, amethod devised by Vergely et al. (\cite{vergely01}). Our present dataconfirms the view that the local cavity is deficient in cold and neutralinterstellar gas. The closest dense and cold gas ``wall'', in the firstquadrant, is at ~ 55-60 pc. There are a few isolated clouds at closerdistance, if the detected absorption is not produced by circumstellarmaterial.The maps reveal narrow or wide ``interstellar tunnels'' which connectthe Local Bubble to surrounding cavities, as predicted by the model ofCox & Smith (1974). In particular, one of these tunnels, defined bystars at 300 to 600 pc from the Sun showing negligible sodiumabsorption, connects the well known CMa void (Gry et al. \cite{gry85}),which is part of the Local Bubble, with the supershell GSH 238+00+09(Heiles \cite{heiles98}). High latitude lines-of-sight with the smallestabsorption are found in two ``chimneys'', whose directions areperpendicular to the Gould belt plane. The maps show that the LocalBubble is ``squeezed'' by surrounding shells in a complicated patternand suggest that its pressure is smaller than in those expandingregions.We discuss the locations of several HI and molecular clouds. Usingcomparisons between NaI and HI or CO velocities, in some cases we areable to improve the constraints on their distances. According to thevelocity criteria, MBM 33-37, MBM 16-18, UT 3-7, and MBM 54-55 arecloser than ~ 100 pc, and MBM 40 is closer than 80 pc. Dense HI cloudsare seen at less than 90 pc and 85 pc in the directions of the MBM 12and MBM 41-43 clouds respectively, but the molecular clouds themselvesmay be far beyond. The above closest molecular clouds are located at theneutral boundary of the Bubble. Only one translucent cloud, G192-67, isclearly embedded within the LB and well isolated.These maps of the distribution of local neutral interstellar NaI gas arealso briefly compared with the distribution of both interstellar dustand neutral HI gas within 300 pc.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp:cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/447

Quantitative Stellar Spectral Classification. II. Early Type Stars
The method developed by Stock & Stock (1999) for stars of spectraltypes A to K to derive absolute magnitudes and intrinsic colors from theequivalent widths of absorption lines in stellar spectra is extended toB-type stars. Spectra of this type of stars for which the Hipparcoscatalogue gives parallaxes with an error of less than 20% were observedwith the CIDA one-meter reflector equipped with a Richardsonspectrograph with a Thompson 576×384 CCD detector. The dispersionis 1.753 Å/pixel using a 600 lines/mm grating in the first order.In order to cover the spectral range 3850 Å to 5750 Å thegrating had to be used in two different positions, with an overlap inthe region from 4800 Å to 4900 Å . A total of 116 stars wasobserved, but not all with both grating positions. A total of 12measurable absorption lines were identified in the spectra and theirequivalent widths were measured. These were related to the absolutemagnitudes derived from the Hipparcos catalogue and to the intrinsiccolors (deduced from the MK spectral types) using linear and secondorder polynomials and two or three lines as independent variables. Thebest solutions were obtained with polynomials of three lines,reproducing the absolute magnitudes with an average residual of about0.40 magnitudes and the intrinsic colors with an average residual of0.016 magnitudes.

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
The Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom.

Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associations
Radial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and ``HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be ``Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446

A High-Resolution Survey of Interstellar K I Absorption
We present high-resolution (FWHM ~0.4-1.8 km s-1) spectra,obtained with the AAT UHRF, the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m coudéspectrograph, and/or the KPNO coudé feed, of interstellar K Iabsorption toward 54 Galactic stars. These new K I spectra revealcomplex structure and narrow, closely blended components in many linesof sight. Multicomponent fits to the line profiles yield estimates forthe column densities, line widths, and velocities for 319 individualinterstellar cloud components. The median component width (FWHM) and thetrue median separation between adjacent components are both <~1.2 kms-1. The median and maximum individual component K I columndensities, about 4×1010 and 1012cm-2, correspond to individual component hydrogen columndensities of about 2×1020 and 1021cm-2 and E(B-V)~0.03 and 0.17, respectively. If T istypically ~100 K, then at least half the individual components havesubsonic internal turbulent velocities. We also reexamine therelationships between the column densities of K I, Na I, C I, Li I,Htot, H2, and CH. The four trace neutral speciesexhibit essentially linear relationships with each other over wideranges in overall column density. If C is uniformly depleted by 0.4 dex,then Li, Na, and K are each typically depleted by 0.6-0.7 dex. The totalline of sight values for N(K I) and N(Na I) show roughly quadraticdependences on N(Htot), but the relationships for theensemble of individual clouds could be significantly steeper. Thesequadratic (or steeper) dependences appear to rule out significantcontributions to the ionization from cosmic rays, X-rays, and/or chargeexchange with C II in most cases. Charge exchange with negativelycharged large molecules may often be more important than radiativerecombination in neutralizing most singly ionized atomic species in coolH I clouds, however-suggesting that the true ne,nH, and thermal pressures may be significantly smaller thanthe values estimated by considering only radiative recombination. BothN(CH) and N(H2) are nearly linearly proportional to N(K I)and N(Na I) [except for 1015cm-2<~N(H2)<~1019cm-2, over which H2 makes the transition to theself-shielded regime]. Those relationships appear also to hold for manyindividual components and component groups, suggesting thathigh-resolution spectra of K I and Na I can be very useful forinterpreting lower resolution molecular data. The scatter about allthese mean relationships is generally small (<~0.1-0.2 dex), ifcertain consistently ``discrepant'' sight lines are excluded-suggestingthat both the relative depletions and the relative ionization of Li, C,Na, and K are generally within factors of 2 of their mean values.Differences noted for sight lines in Sco-Oph, in the Pleiades, near theOrion Trapezium, and in the LMC and SMC may be due to differences in thestrength and/or shape of the ambient radiation fields, perhaps amplifiedby the effects of charge transfer with large molecules.

Interstellar Matter Near the Pleiades. V. Observations of NA I toward 36 Stars
This paper reports high-resolution, moderate to high signal-to-noiseratio observations of 23 certain Pleiades members, four possiblemembers, and nine nonmembers in the Na I D lines, as well asobservations of 12 of the stars in the Na I ultraviolet doublet. Inspite of the relative proximity of the stars to the sun (even most ofthe nonmembers lie within 200 pc), the line profiles exhibit remarkablecomplexity, with up to five absorption components and equally remarkablestar-to-star variation. The velocity range, 2-20 km s-1,conforms well to the range expected for gas deflected by the passage ofthe cluster. The paper includes a careful discussion of uncertainties inthe data, the most important conclusions of which are that the velocityscatter is consistent with that expected from random errors in thewavelength calibration and that systematic errors probably are <~0.1km s-1. Appendices detail the choice of stellar data and theprocedure adopted for removing telluric absorption lines. Analysisfollows in a separate paper.

Internal kinematics and binarity of X-ray stars in the Pleiades open cluster
The classical convergent point analysis is implemented for the Pleiadesstars with proper motions in the Tycho-2 Catalogue and X-ray fluxesmeasured by the ROSAT satellite. It is demonstrated that, with thestandard astrometric errors as given in Tycho-2, strong X-ray sources inthe cluster (log L_X > 29.1, where L_X is in erg s-1)exhibit a velocity dispersion in one component of only 0.20 kms-1, while the distributions of velocity components ofmoderate (log LX < 29.1) sources and stars not detected byROSAT at all are consistent with a velocity dispersion of 0.64 kms-1. The difference is statistically significant at the levelof 1.6sigma , or 0.95 confidence limit. This result is a clue to thekinematics/X-ray luminosity segregation, similar to that previouslydiscovered in the Hyades open cluster. It is discussed that thesegregation may be caused by a wide spread of ages of the member stars.The occurrence of high X-ray luminosities is found to correlate verywell with visual binarity and multiplicity (separations > 10 AU).

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222

Another Search for Maia Variable Stars
We have used the Hipparcos epoch photometry database, andautocorrelation analysis, to search for the elusive Maiavariables-short-period B7-A3 near-main-sequence pulsating variablestars. Of several hundred stars considered, and several dozen starsstudied in detail, only a handful are possible variables: three arepossible shallow eclipsing variables; three have possible periods in therange 0.25-0.5 day, but their amplitudes are so low that they areprobably nonvariable. The most promising are HD 29573, with a period of1.6 days (but possibly a rotating variable), and γ CrB, with aperiod of 0.9 day-a period also found spectroscopically by Lehmann andcoworkers. Sirius shows variations which are probably instrumental. Twopreviously suspected Maia stars-Maia and γ UMi-are photometricallyconstant. The Maia variables-if they exist-are very rare and veryelusive.

Search for X-ray flares in the Pleiades using SoHO LASCO C3 images.
Not Available

The Normal Energy Distributions in Stellar Spectra: Giants and Supergiants
We have derived the normal spectral energy distributions for thoseearly-type subgiants, giants, and supergiants that were not investigatedin our earlier studies, which were in most cases also not included inthe studies of Sviderskiene. Color indices computed using our normalenergy distributions are in good agreement with normal colors derivedfrom observations in the Vilnius photometric system. The reliability ofour distribution curves is also demonstrated by comparisons of observedand computed (W-B)-(B-V) two-color diagrams in the WBVR system. Normalcolor indices for the photometric WBVR system are derived.

In-Flight Calibration of the ROSAT HRI Ultraviolet Sensitivity
Comparing measured and estimated count rates of a few selected samplestars, we confirm the validity and provide the in-flight calibration ofthe ROSAT HRI UV/visible effective area model in Zombeck et al. Thecount rate estimates for Betelgeuse derived with this model are inagreement with the measured HRI upper limit. This result is alsoconfirmed in an erratum by Berghöfer et al. aimed at revising theirprevious calculation, which was overestimated by more than 2 orders ofmagnitude. Adopting this ROSAT HRI UV/visible effective area model andmeasured UV/visible spectra of a set of sample stars covering the rangeof Teff 3000-40,000 K, we have built the calibration curvesto estimate UV/visible contamination count rates for any star of knownTeff, mv, and NH.

Barnard's Merope Nebula (IC 349): an Interstellar Interloper
Barnard's Merope Nebula (IC 349) is the optically brightest portion ofthe diffuse nebulosity that envelops the Pleaides but is notmorphologically similar to those nebulae. Knowledge of its true spacemotion can help clarify whether the object has a kinematic associationand possibly a common origin with the Pleiades. Here we report a meanradial velocity result obtained in 1996 from spectra where v_hel=-44.4km s^-1 and sigma_v=5.42 km s^-1 (N=5). The radial velocity result ispresented along with recent values for the object's proper motion,yielding its space motion vector. Galactic space velocity components (U,V, W)=(50.6+/-5.3, -10.3+/-6.7, 11.3+/-6.4) km s^-1, referred to theLSR, were calculated for the object. In addition, the region wasobserved in the near-infrared to determine if a protostellar object ispresent within the dusty envelope of the nebula; to an equivalentluminosity upper limit of L=0.23+/-0.05 L_solar, none was observed.These results suggest that IC 349 is kinematically unrelated to thePleiades and that it does not harbor a protostellar object in its dustyinterior.

CCD spectra of MK standards and a preliminary extension of the MK classification to the yellow-red region.
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High resolution spectroscopy over lambda lambda 8500-8750 Å for GAIA. I. Mapping the MKK classification system
We present an Echelle+CCD high resolution spectroscopic atlas (0.25Ä/pix dispersion, 0.43 Ä FWHM resolution and 20 000 resolvingpower) mapping the MKK classification system over the interval lambdalambda 8500-8750 Ä. The wavelength interval is remarkably free fromtelluric lines and it is centered on the near-IR triplet of Ca II, thehead of hydrogen Paschen series and several strong metallic lines. Thespectra of 131 stars of types between O4 and M8 and luminosity classes Ithrough V are included in the atlas. Special care was put in maintainingthe highest instrumental homogeneity over the whole set of data. Thecapability to derive accurate MKK spectral types from high resolutionobservations over the interval lambda lambda 8500-8750 Ä isdiscussed. The observations have been performed as part of an evaluationstudy of possible spectroscopic performances for the astrometric missionGAIA planned by ESA. Tables~3 and 4 are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/ Abstract.html}\fnmsep\thanks{ Thespectra of the stars listed in Table~2 are also available in electronicform at the CDS or via the personal HomePagehttp://ulisse.pd.astro.it/Astro/Atlases/}\fnmsep\thanks{ Figures 3--28are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.com

Strömgren and Hβ photometry of O and B type stars in star-forming regions. II. Monoceros OB2, Canis Major OB1 and Collinder 121
Strömgren and Hβ photometry of O and B type stars, generallybrighter than 10 mag is presented for the fields of the galactic OBassociations Monoceros OB2, Canis Major OB1 and Collinder 121. Theobservations are based on the PPM catalogue identifications and aredesigned to improve the completeness of the existing uvbybeta data forthe bright early-type stars in these fields. We present new uvbyphotometry for 343 stars and Hβ photometry for 213 of them. Theseobservations are part of our effort to study the structure of selectedstar-forming regions in the Milky Way, utilizing uvbybeta photometry.Based on data from the Strömgren Automatic Telescope of theCopenhagen Astronomical Observatory, La Silla. Tables 3 and 4 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to130.79.128.5 or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:03h49m09.70s
Apparent magnitude:3.63
Distance:116.686 parsecs
Proper motion RA:18.9
Proper motion Dec:-45
B-T magnitude:3.517
V-T magnitude:3.601

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesAtlas
Flamsteed27 Tau
HD 1989HD 23850
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 1800-2203-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1125-01283948
BSC 1991HR 1178
HIPHIP 17847

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