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HD 78712 (RS Cancri)



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Atomic hydrogen in asymptotic giant branch circumstellar environments. A case study: X Her
We report the detection of the HI line at 21 cm from the circumstellarshell around the asymptotic giant branch star X Her using theposition-switching technique with the Nançay Radio Telescope. Atthe star position, the line shows two components: (i) a broad one [fullwidth at half-maximum (FWHM) ~ 13 kms-1] centred at -72.2kms-1 and (ii) a narrow one (FWHM ~ 4 kms-1)centred at ~-70.6kms -1. Our map shows that the sourceassociated to the broad component is asymmetric with material flowingpreferentially towards the north-east. This source extends to ~10 arcmin(~0.4pc) from the star in that direction. On the other hand, the narrowcomponent is detected only at the star position and indicates materialflowing away from the observer. The total mass of atomic hydrogen is~6.5 × 10-3Msolar which, within a factor of2, agrees with the estimate obtained from IRAS data at 60 μm.

The semi-regular variable RS Cancri: one period, two, or many?
Not Available

The S-Type Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars RS Cnc, ST Her, OP Her And HR Peg
We present FCAPT differential Johnson l BV and Cousins l RI photometryand radial velocities of the S-type AGB stars RS Cnc, ST Her, OP Her andHR Peg. We performed multiperiodic analyses of this photometry to learnabout the frequencies of variability. The l B, V, R, and l I lightcurves are generally in phase. RS Cnc has periods of order 122 and 248days. Repeating the analyses using our data with the extensive l V and lR photometry of Percy et al. (2001) shows several periods near 248 daysand a period near 135 days. The primary period of ST Her appears to beabout 144 days although it is manifested most readily by its 103 dayalias. OP Her and HR Peg exhibit periods, respectively, of about 416 and116 days and of 54 and 74 days. The differences between our data set andthe larger one of Percy et al. (2001) for RS Cnc raises importantquestions about multiperiodic analyses for AGB stars.Tables 2, 4 and 6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

High-Resolution Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Asymptotic Giant Branch Star RV Bootis with the Steward Observatory Adaptive Optics System
We present high-resolution (~0.1"), very high Strehl ratio (0.97+/-0.03)mid-IR adaptive optics (AO) images of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB)star RV Boo utilizing the MMT adaptive secondary AO system. RV Boo wasobserved at a number of wavelengths over two epochs (9.8 μm in 2003May and 8.8, 9.8, and 11.7 μm in 2004 February) and appeared slightlyextended at all wavelengths. While the extension is very slight at 8.8and 11.7 μm, the extension is somewhat more pronounced at 9.8 μm.With such high Strehl ratios, we can achieve superresolutions of 0.1" bydeconvolving RV Boo with a point-spread function (PSF) derived from anunresolved star. We tentatively resolve RV Boo into a 0.16" FWHMextension at a position angle of 120°. At a distance of390+250-100 pc, this corresponds to a FWHM of60+40-15 AU. We measure a total flux at 9.8 μmof 145+/-24 Jy for the disk and star. Based on a dust thermal emissionmodel for the observed IR spectral energy distribution and the 9.8 μmAO image, we derive a disk dust mass of 1.6×10-6Msolar and an inclination of 30°-45° from edge-on. Wediscuss whether the dust disk observed around RV Boo is an example ofthe early stages in the formation of asymmetric structure in planetarynebulae.

Broad-band photometric colors and effective temperature calibrations for late-type giants. I. Z = 0.02
We present new synthetic broad-band photometric colors for late-typegiants based on synthetic spectra calculated with the PHOENIX modelatmosphere code. The grid covers effective temperatures T_eff=3000dots5000 K, gravities log g=-0.5dots{+3.5}, and metallicities[M/H]=+0.5dots{-4.0}. We show that individual broad-band photometriccolors are strongly affected by model parameters such as molecularopacities, gravity, microturbulent velocity, and stellar mass. Ourexploratory 3D modeling of a prototypical late-type giant shows thatconvection has a noticeable effect on the photometric colors too, as italters significantly both the vertical and horizontal thermal structuresin the outer atmosphere. The differences between colors calculated withfull 3D hydrodynamical and 1D model atmospheres are significant (e.g.,Δ(V-K)˜0.2 mag), translating into offsets in effectivetemperature of up to 70 K. For a sample of 74 late-type giants in theSolar neighborhood, with interferometric effective temperatures andbroad-band photometry available in the literature, we compare observedcolors with a new PHOENIX grid of synthetic photometric colors, as wellas with photometric colors calculated with the MARCS and ATLAS modelatmosphere codes. We find good agreement of the new synthetic colorswith observations and published T_eff-color and color-color relations,especially in the T_eff-(V-K), T_eff-(J-K) and (J-K)-(V-K) planes.Deviations from the observed trends in the T_eff-color planes aregenerally within ±100 K for T_eff=3500 to 4800 K. Syntheticcolors calculated with different stellar atmosphere models agree to±100 K, within a large range of effective temperatures andgravities. The comparison of the observed and synthetic spectra oflate-type giants shows that discrepancies result from the differencesboth in the strengths of various spectral lines/bands (especially thoseof molecular bands, such as TiO, H2O, CO) and the continuum level.Finally, we derive several new T_eff-log g-color relations for late-typegiants at solar-metallicity (valid for T_eff=3500 to 4800 K), based bothon the observed effective temperatures and colors of the nearby giants,and synthetic colors produced with PHOENIX, MARCS and ATLAS modelatmospheres.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclusters
The availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165}

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

Really Cool Stars and the Star Formation History at the Galactic Center
We present λ/Δλ=550-1200 near-infrared H and Kspectra for a magnitude-limited sample of 79 asymptotic giant branch andcool supergiant stars in the central ~5 pc (diameter) of the Galaxy. Weuse a set of similar spectra obtained for solar neighborhood stars withknown Teff and Mbol that is in the same range asthe Galactic center (GC) sample to derive Teff andMbol for the GC sample. We then construct the H-R diagram forthe GC sample. Using an automated maximum likelihood routine, we derivea coarse star formation history of the GC. We find that (1) roughly 75%of the stars formed in the central few parsecs are older than 5 Gyr; (2)the star formation rate (SFR) is variable over time, with a roughly 4times higher SFR in the last 100 Myr compared to the average SFR; (3)our model can match dynamical limits on the total mass of stars formedonly by limiting the initial mass function to masses above 0.7Msolar (this could be a signature of mass segregation or ofthe bias toward massive star formation from the unique star formationconditions in the GC); (4) blue supergiants account for 12% of the totalsample observed, and the ratio of red to blue supergiants is roughly1.5; and (5) models with isochrones with [Fe/H]=0.0 over all ages fitthe stars in our H-R diagram better than models with lower [Fe/H] in theoldest age bins, consistent with the finding of Ramírez et al.that stars with ages between 10 Myr and 1 Gyr have solar [Fe/H].

Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Taurus-Auriga
We present high-resolution optical spectra obtained with the HIRESspectrograph on the W. M. Keck I Telescope of seven low-mass T Tauristars (LMTTs) and brown dwarfs in Taurus-Auriga. The observed Li I 6708Å absorption, low surface gravity signatures, and radialvelocities confirm that all are members of the Taurus star-formingregion; no new spectroscopic binaries are identified. Four of the seventargets observed appear to be T Tauri brown dwarfs. Of particularinterest is the previously classified ``continuum T Tauri star'' GM Tau,which has a spectral type of M6.5 and possibly a substellar mass. Thesespectra, in combination with previous high-resolution spectra of LMTTs,are used to understand the formation and early evolution of objects inTaurus-Auriga with masses near and below the stellar/substellarboundary. None of the LMTTs in Taurus are rapidly rotating (vsini<30km s-1), unlike low-mass objects in Orion. Many of the slowlyrotating, nonaccreting stars and brown dwarfs exhibit prominent Hαemission (equivalent widths of 3-36 Å), indicative of activechromospheres. We demonstrate empirically that the full width at 10% ofthe Hα emission profile peak is a more practical and possibly moreaccurate indicator of accretion than either the equivalent width ofHα or optical veiling: 10% widths >270 km s-1 areclassical T Tauri stars (i.e., accreting), independent of stellarspectral type. Although LMTTs can have accretion rates comparable tothat of more typical, higher mass T Tauri stars (e.g., K7-M0 spectraltypes), the average mass accretion rate appears to decrease withdecreasing mass. A functional form of M~M is consistent with theavailable data, but the dependence is difficult to establish because ofboth selection biases in observed samples and the decreasing frequencyof active accretion disks at low masses (M<0.2 Msolar).The diminished frequency of accretion disks for LMTTs, in conjunctionwith their lower, on average, mass accretion rates, implies that theyare formed with less massive disks than higher mass T Tauri stars. Theradial velocities, circumstellar properties, and known binaries do notsupport the suggestion that many of the lowest mass members of Taurushave been ejected from higher stellar density regions within the cloud.Instead, LMTTs appear to have formed and are evolving in the same way ashigher mass T Tauri stars, but with smaller disks and shorter disklifetimes.

Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE Data
For a complete 12 μm flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources(F12>=150 Jy, |b|>=5deg), the majority ofwhich are AGB stars (~87%), we have extracted light curves in seveninfrared bands between 1.25 and 60 μm using the database of theDiffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument on the CosmicBackground Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using previous infrared surveys,we filtered these light curves to remove data points affected by nearbycompanions and obtained time-averaged flux densities and infraredcolors, as well as estimates of their variability at each wavelength. Inthe time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation ofsemiregulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giantswithout circumstellar dust (i.e., V-[12]<5) and with little or novisual variation (ΔV<0.1 mag). The DIRBE 1.25-25 μm colorsbecome progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE databaseincreases along the oxygen-rich sequence nondusty slightly varying redgiants-->SRb/Lb-->SRa-->Mira-->OH/IR and the carbon-richSRb/Lb-->Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that theseare evolutionary sequences involving the continued production andejection of dust. The carbon stars are redder than their oxygen-richcounterparts for the same variability type, except in theF12/F25 ratio, where they are bluer. Of the 28sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearlyvariable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 mag at4.9 μm and ~0.6 mag at 12 μm, consistent with them being verydusty Mira-like variables. We also present individual DIRBE light curvesof a few selected stars. The DIRBE light curves of the semiregularvariable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm occur 10-20 days before those at 4.9 and 12μm, and, at 4.9 and 12 μm, another maximum is seen between the twonear-infrared maxima.

Wing Near-Infrared, TiO-Band, and V-Band Photometry of Chromospherically Active Star λ Andromedae
As a pilot program, Wing near-IR, TiO-band, and V-band photometry isbeing conducted of the RS Canum Venaticorum type, chromosphericallyactive, G8 IV-III star λ Andromedae. The objective is toinvestigate a possible relationship between variation of the ~54 dayrotationally starspot modulated visual light curve and TiO absorptionstrength. The TiO (γ,0,0) absorption band strength at λ=719nm is very sensitive to temperature for cool stars and manifests itselfin cooler starspot regions (T<=4000 K). TiO photometry has anadvantage over conventional photometry in that it provides unambiguousmeasures of the fractional cool starspot coverage. In addition, as thestars rotate, the variation in the TiO index yields information aboutthe longitudinal distribution of the starspots. Importantly, combiningthe TiO photometry with the V-band and near-IR light curves allows thediscrimination of white-light faculae (=hot spot) and cool starspotcontributions. Initial results of this study indicate that the observedV-band and near-IR continua light variations found for λ Andprimarily arise from bright spot (plage) features rather than darkstarspots as is usually assumed. This is in contrast to current theoriesthat the visual light variation is solely due to dark spots. Modelsusing both bright and dark spot features have been developed and arebeing used to fit the light and TiO-index curves. The models account forcool/hot spot characteristics such as projected filling factor andtemperature. The long-term variation of V light and TiO index have beeninvestigated to search for any activity cycles.

The H I emission profile of RS Cnc
The H I line at 21 cm has been detected in the direction of the S-typeAGB star RS Cnc with the Nançay Radio Telescope (NRT). Theprofile is composite and similar to the CO rotational line profiles. Itis composed of a narrow rectangular component overimposed on a widerGaussian one, both centred on the stellar radial velocity. The narrowcomponent has a width of 4 km s-1 and is unresolved (withthe NRT beam size of 4arcmin in alpha ). The Gaussian component has awidth (FWHM) of 12 km s-1 and seems resolved by the NRT.These components trace at least 2 different episodes of mass loss by RSCnc. We argue that the atomic hydrogen responsible for the narrowrectangular profile was likely formed in the stellar atmosphere whichcould thus be devoid of molecular hydrogen, although we cannot strictlyexclude that up to 25% may have been produced by photodissociation ofH2. As predicted 20 years ago by Glassgold & Huggins,such a situation should be common to giants with stellar effectivetemperature larger than 2500 K. This property is relevant to theatmospheric structure of these sources and probably also to thecharacteristics of their winds.

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

Evidence for Very Extended Gaseous Layers around O-rich Mira Variables and M Giants
Nine bright O-rich Mira stars and five semiregular variable cool Mgiants have been observed with the Infrared and Optical Telescope Array(IOTA) interferometer in both K' (~2.15 μm) and L' (~3.8 μm)broadband filters, in most cases at very close variability phases. Allof the sample Mira stars and four of the semiregular M giants showstrong increases, from ~=20% to ~=100%, in measured uniform-disk (UD)diameters between the K' and L' bands. (A selection of hotter M starsdoes not show such a large increase.) There is no evidence that K' andL' broadband visibility measurements should be dominated by strongmolecular bands, and cool expanding dust shells already detected aroundsome of these objects are also found to be poor candidates for producingthese large apparent diameter increases. Therefore, we propose that thismust be a continuum or pseudocontinuum opacity effect. Such an apparentenlargement can be reproduced using a simple two-component modelconsisting of a warm (1500-2000 K), extended (up to ~=3 stellar radii),optically thin (τ~=0.5) layer located above the classicalphotosphere. The Planck weighting of the continuum emission from the twolayers will suffice to make the L' UD diameter appear larger than the K'UD diameter. This two-layer scenario could also explain the observedvariation of Mira UD diameters versus infrared wavelength-outside ofstrong absorption bands-as already measured inside the H, K, L, and Natmospheric windows. This interpretation is consistent with the extendedmolecular gas layers (H2O, CO, etc.) inferred around some ofthese objects from previous IOTA K'-band interferometric observationsobtained with the Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination (FLUOR)and from Infrared Space Observatory and high-resolution ground-based FTSinfrared spectra. The two-component model has immediate implications.For example, the Mira photosphere diameters are smaller than previouslyrecognized-this certainly implies higher effective temperatures, and itmay favor fundamental mode pulsation. Also, the UD model fails generallyto represent the brightness distribution and has very limitedapplicability for Mira stars. The presence of a very extended gas layerextending up to ~=3 stellar radii seems now well established on a fairsample of asymptotic giant branch stars ranging from late-type giants tolong-period variables, with some probable impact on stellar modelatmospheres and mass-loss mechanisms.

L'-Band Interferometric Observations of Evolved Stars
Ten bright Miras, six semiregular variable giants, and two semiregularvariable supergiants have been observed with the Infrared-OpticalTelescope Array interferometer in the L' band (from 3.4 to 4.1 μm).Observations were carried out in 2000 March and November with theFLUOR/TISIS instrument, using optimized single-mode waveguides foroptical recombination and a dedicated chopping system for accuratesubtraction of slow thermal background drifts. Four of the sources (theMira stars R Leo and R Cnc, α Ori, and RS Cnc) were observed inboth runs. We report on visibility measurements and derive L' broadbanduniform disk (UD) diameter best fits for all 18 stars in our sample. Wealso detect strong departures from UD models in some peculiar cases.

Near-infrared observations of candidate extrinsic S stars
Photometric observations in the near infrared for 161 S stars, including18 Tc-rich (intrinsic) stars, 19 Tc-deficient (extrinsic) ones and 124candidates for Tc-deficient S stars, are presented in this paper. Basedon some further investigations into the infrared properties of bothTc-rich and Tc-deficient S stars, 104 candidates are identified as verylikely Tc-deficient S stars. The large number of infrared-selectedTc-deficient S stars provides a convenient way to study the physicalproperties and the evolutionary status of this species of S stars.

CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
The Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom.

Long-Term VRI Photometry of Small-Amplitude Red Variables. I. Light Curves and Periods
We report up to 5000 days of VRI photometry, from a robotic photometrictelescope, of 34 pulsating red giants, namely, TV Psc, EG And, Z Psc, RZAnd, 4 Ori, RX Lep, UW Lyn, η Gem, μ Gem, ψ1 Aur,V523 Mon, V614 Mon, HD 52690, Y Lyn, BC CMi, X Cnc, UX Lyn, RS Cnc, VYUMa, ST UMa, TU CVn, FS Com, SW Vir, 30 Her, α1 Her,V642 Her, R Lyr, V450 Aql, V1293 Aql, δ Sge, EU Del, V1070 Cyg, WCyg, and μ Cep, as well as a few variable comparison stars. V, R, andI variations are generally in phase. The length and density of the dataenable us to look for variations on timescales ranging from days toyears. We use both power-spectrum (Fourier) analysis and autocorrelationanalysis, as well as light-curve analysis; these three approaches arecomplementary. The variations range from regular to irregular, but inmost of the stars, we find a period in the range of 20-200 days, whichis probably due to low-order radial pulsation. In many of the stars, wealso find a period which is an order of magnitude longer. It may be dueto rotation, or it may be due to a new kind of convectively inducedoscillatory thermal mode, recently proposed by P. Wood.

Sine Waves in the Light Curves of RS Cancri
The light curve of a semiregular variable star is often erratic,sometimes showing considrable variability and other times showingvirtually none. This behavior may be due to the interaction of multipleperiods. During the past three decades, the light curve of the SRcvariable RS Cancri has appeared to be sinusoidal on at least two, andpossibly more, occasions.

Stars with the Largest Hipparcos Photometric Amplitudes
A list of the 2027 stars that have the largest photometric amplitudes inHipparcos Photometry shows that most variable stars are all Miras. Thepercentage of variable types change as a function of amplitude. Thiscompilation should also be of value to photometrists looking forrelatively unstudied, but large amplitude stars.

Nucleosynthesis and Mixing on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. III. Predicted and Observed s-Process Abundances
We present the results of s-process nucleosynthesis calculations forasymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of different metallicities anddifferent initial stellar masses (1.5 and 3 Msolar), and wepresent comparisons of them with observational constraints fromhigh-resolution spectroscopy of evolved stars over a wide metallicityrange. The computations were based on previously published stellarevolutionary models that account for the third dredge-up phenomenonoccurring late on the AGB. Neutron production is driven by the13C(α,n)16O reaction during the interpulseperiods in a tiny layer in radiative equilibrium at the top of the He-and C-rich shell. The neutron source 13C is manufacturedlocally by proton captures on the abundant 12C; a few protonsare assumed to penetrate from the convective envelope into the radiativelayer at any third dredge-up episode, when a chemical discontinuity isestablished between the convective envelope and the He- and C-richzones. A weaker neutron release is also guaranteed by the marginalactivation of the reaction 22Ne(α,n)25Mgduring the convective thermal pulses. Owing to the lack of a consistentmodel for 13C formation, the abundance of 13Cburnt per cycle is allowed to vary as a free parameter over a wideinterval (a factor of 50). The s-enriched material is subsequently mixedwith the envelope by the third dredge-up, and the envelope compositionis computed after each thermal pulse. We follow the changes in thephotospheric abundance of the Ba-peak elements (heavy s [hs]) and thatof the Zr-peak ones (light s [ls]), whose logarithmic ratio [hs/ls] hasoften been adopted as an indicator of the s-process efficiency (e.g., ofthe neutron exposure). Our model predictions for this parameter show acomplex trend versus metallicity. Especially noteworthy is theprediction that the flow along the s-path at low metallicities drainsthe Zr and Ba peaks and builds an excess at the doubly magic208Pb, which is at the termination of the s-path. We thendiscuss the effects on the models of variations in the crucialparameters of the 13C pocket, finding that they are notcritical for interpreting the results. The theoretical predictions arecompared with published abundances of s-elements for AGB giants ofclasses MS, S, SC, post-AGB supergiants, and for various classes ofbinary stars, which supposedly derive their composition by mass transferfrom an AGB companion. This is done for objects belonging both to theGalactic disk and to the halo. The observations in general confirm thecomplex dependence of neutron captures on metallicity. They suggest thata moderate spread exists in the abundance of 13C that isburnt in different stars. Although additional observations are needed,it seems that a good understanding has been achieved of s-processoperation in AGB stars. Finally, the detailed abundance distributionincluding the light elements (CNO) of a few s-enriched stars atdifferent metallicities are examined and satisfactorily reproduced bymodel envelope compositions.

On the Relations between Infrared Colors and Mass Loss Rates for S Stars
A relation between the infrared color K-[12] and the mass loss rate,dM/dt, is found for the intrinsic S stars. This relation isqualitatively similar to the ones for carbon stars and oxygen-rich Mirastars, but quantitatively different. It could be useful in the contextof the near infrared surveys, DENIS and 2MASS, which are in progress.Correlations between J-K and [12]-[25] indices and dM/dt are found to beloose for S stars.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

Hipparcos parallaxes for Mira-like long-period variables
This paper concerns the calibration of the K period-luminosity relationfor Mira variables using Hipparcos parallaxes. K magnitudes areavailable for 255 Mira-like variables which were observed by Hipparcos.Period-luminosity zero-points are evaluated for various subgroups ofdata. The best solution for oxygen-rich Miras, which uses 180 stars,omitting the short-period red group (which had different kinematics fromthe short-period blue stars) and the low-amplitude variables, provides azero-point of σ2σ2π +(0.4605)2π2PL(K)σ2K + σ2PL(K),0.84+/-0.14mag, which implies a distance modulus for the LargeMagellanic Cloud of σK = 0.3ΔK√N,18.64+/-0.14mag, or perhaps slightly greater if a metallicity correctionis required, in good agreement with the value derived from Cepheids. Thezero-point of the period-luminosity relation for carbon stars is brieflydiscussed. Linear diameters are derived for red variables with measuredangular diameters and parallaxes, and are used to examine thelong-standing question of the pulsation mode(s) of these stars. Evidenceis presented to suggest that most of them are pulsating in the same modeand, if published model atmospheres are correct, this is probably thefirst overtone. Some discussion is given of sequences in theperiod-luminosity and period-colour diagrams and their bearing on thepulsation mode problem.

Mira kinematics from Hipparcos data: a Galactic bar to beyond the Solar circle
The space motions of Mira variables are derived from radial velocities,Hipparcos proper motions and a period-luminosity relation. Thepreviously known dependence of Mira kinematics on the period ofpulsation is confirmed and refined. In addition, it is found that Miraswith periods in the range 145-200d in the general Solar neighbourhoodhave a net radial outward motion from the Galactic Centre of75+/-18kms-1. This, together with a lag behind the circularvelocity of Galactic rotation of 98+/-19kms-1, is interpretedas evidence for an elongation of their orbits, with their major axesaligned at an angle of ~17° with the Sun-Galactic Centre line,towards positive Galactic longitudes. This concentration seems to be acontinuation to the Solar circle and beyond of the bar-like structure ofthe Galactic bulge, with the orbits of some local Miras probablypenetrating into the bulge. These conclusions are not sensitive to thedistance scale adopted. A further analysis is given of the short-period(SP) red group of Miras discussed in companion papers in this series. InAppendix A the mean radial velocities and other data for 842 oxygen-richMira-like variables are tabulated. These velocities were derived frompublished optical and radio observations.

On the Variability of K5-M Stars
I investigate the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of K5-M stars to seethe pattern of activity of these stars. A few stars for which furtherstudy is desirable are identified.

Long-Term VRI Photometry of Pulsating Red Giants
We report up to 5000 days of VRI photometry, from a robotic photometrictelescope, of 37 pulsating red giants, namely: TV Psc, EG And, Z Psc, RZAnd, 4 Ori, RX Lep, η Gem, μ Gem, UW Lyn, ψ 1 Aur,V523 Mon, V614 Mon, HD 52690, Y Lyn, BC CMi, X Cnc, UX Lyn, RS Cnc, VYUMa, ST UMa, TU CVn, FS Com, 35 Com, SW Vir, 30 Her, α1 Her, V642 Her, R Lyr, HD 174621, V450 Aql, V1293 Aql,δ Sge, EU Del, V1070 Cyg, W Cyg, μ Cep, and ν Cep. V, R, andI variations are generally in phase. The length and density of the dataenable us to look for variations on time scales ranging from days toyears. We use both power-spectrum (Fourier) analysis, andautocorrelation analysis, as well as light-curve analysis; these threeapproaches are complementary. The variations range from regular toirregular but, in most of the stars, we find a period in the range of 20to 200 days which is probably due to low-order radial pulsation. In manyof the stars, we also find a period which is an order of magnitudelonger. It may be due to rotation, or it may be due to a new kind ofconvectively-induced oscillatory thermal mode, recently proposed byPeter Wood. Supported by NASA, NSF, and NSERC Canada.

Dust features in the 10-mu m infrared spectra of oxygen-rich evolved stars
We have analyzed the 8-13.5 mu m UKIRT CGS3 spectra of 142 M-type starsincluding 80 oxygen-rich AGB stars and 62 red supergiants, with a viewto understanding the differences and similarities between the dustfeatures of these stars. We have classified the spectra into groupsaccording to the observed appearance of the infrared features. In eachcase the normalized continuum-subtracted spectrum has been compared tothose of the other stars to find similarities and form groups. The dustfeatures of the AGB stars are classified into six groups: broad AGB,where the feature extends from 8 mu m to about 12.5 mu m with littlestructure; broad+sil AGB, which consists of a broad feature with anemerging 9.7 mu m silicate bump; and four silicate AGB groups in which a``classic'' 9.7 mu m silicate feature gets progressively narrower.Likewise, the supergiant spectra have also been classified into groups,however these do not all coincide with the AGB star groups. In thesupergiant case we again have six groups: featureless, where there islittle or no emission above the continuum; broad Super, where thefeature extends from about 9 mu m to about 13 mu m; and four silicateSuper groups, which again show a progression towards the narrowest``classic'' 9.7 mu m silicate feature. We compare the mean spectrum foreach group, which yields two main results. Firstly, while the``classic'' silicate feature is essentially identical for both AGB starsand red supergiants, the broad features observed for these two stellartypes are quite different. We suggest that the dust in these twoenvironments follows different evolutionary paths, with the dust aroundMira stars, whose broad feature spectra can be fit by a combination ofalumina (Al2O3) and magnesium silicate,progressing from this composition to dust dominated by magnesiumsilicate only, while the dust around supergiants, whose broad featurecan be fit by a combination of Ca-Al-rich silicate andAl2O3, progresses from this initial composition toone eventually also dominated by magnesium silicate. The reason for thedifference in the respective broad features is not clear as yet, butcould be influenced by lower C/O ratios and chromospheric UV radiationfields in supergiant outflow environments. The second result concernsthe 12.5 - 13.0 mu m feature discovered in IRAS LRS spectra and widelyattributed to Al2O3. This feature is seenpredominantly in the spectra of semiregular variables, sometime in Mirasand only once (so far) in supergiant spectra. We argue that it isunlikely that this feature is due to Al2O3 or, ashas more recently been suggested, spinel(MgAl2O4), but could be associated with silicondioxide or highly polymerized silicates (not pyroxenes or olivines).

Emerging trends of optical interferometry in astronomy
The current status of the high spatial resolution imaging interferometryin optical astronomy is reviewed in the light of theoreticalexplanation, as well as of experimental constraints that exist in thepresent day technology. The basic mathematical interlude pertinent tothe interferometric technique and its applications in astronomicalobservations are presented in detail. An elaborate account of the randomrefractive index fluctuations of the atmosphere producing randomaberrations in the telescope pupil, elucidating the trade offs betweenlong-exposure and short-exposure imaging is given. Further, the othermethods viz., (i) speckle spectroscopy, (ii) speckle polarimetry, (iii)phase closure, (iv) aperture synthesis, (v) pupil plane interferometry,(vi) differential speckle interferometry etc., using single moderate orlarge telescopes are described as well. The salient features of variousdetectors that are used for recording short-exposure images aresummarized. The mathematical intricacies of the data processingtechniques for both Fourier modulus and Fourier phase are analyzed; thevarious schemes of image restoration techniques are examined as wellwith emphasis set on their comparisons. The recent technologicalinnovation to compensate the deleterious effects of the atmosphere onthe telescope image in real-time is enumerated. The experimentaldescriptions of several working long baseline interferometers in thevisible band are summarized. The astrophysical results obtained tilldate are highlighted.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:09h10m38.70s
Apparent magnitude:5.95
Distance:121.803 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-8
Proper motion Dec:-32
B-T magnitude:7.86
V-T magnitude:6.273

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesRS Cancri
HD 1989HD 78712
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 2492-1847-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1200-06244952
BSC 1991HR 3639
HIPHIP 45058

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