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# HD 159877

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 Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 On the HIPPARCOS photometry of chemically peculiar B, A, and F starsThe Hipparcos photometry of the Chemically Peculiar main sequence B, A,and F stars is examined for variability. Some non-magnetic CP stars,Mercury-Manganese and metallic-line stars, which according to canonicalwisdom should not be variable, may be variable and are identified forfurther study. Some potentially important magnetic CP stars are noted.Tables 1, 2, and 3 are available only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Angular Momentum of Main Sequence Stars and Its Relation to Stellar ActivityRotational velocities are reported for intermediate-mass main sequencestars it the field. The measurements are based on new, high S/N CCDspectra from the Coudé Feed Telescope of the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. We analyze these rotation rates for a dependence on bothmass and age. We compare the average rotation speeds of the field starswith mean velocities for young stars in Orion, the Alpha Persei cluster,the Pleiades, and the Hyades. The average rotation speeds of stars moremassive than $\sim1.6$ \msun\experience little or no change during theevolutionary lifetimes of these stars on the zero age main sequence orwithin the main sequence band. Less massive stars in the range betwee n1.6\msun\ and 1.3\msun\ also show little decline in mean rotation ratewhile they are on the main sequence, and at most a factor of 2 decreasein velocity as they evolve off the main sequence. The {\it e}-foldingtime for the loss of angular momentum b y the latter group of stars isat least 1--2 billion years. This inferred characteristic time scale forspindown is far longer than the established rotational braking time forsolar-type stars with masses below $\sim1.3$ \msun. We conclude from acomparison of the trends in rotation with trends in chromospheric andcoronal activity that the overall decline in mean rotation speed alongthe main sequence, from $\sim2$ \msun\ down to $\sim1.3$ \msun, isimposed during the pre-main sequence phase of evolution, and that thispattern changes little thereafter while the star resides on the mainsequence. The magnetic activity implicated in the rotational spindown ofthe Sun and of similar stars during their main sequence lifetimes mus ttherefore play only a minor role in determining the rotation rates ofthe intermediate mass stars, either because a solar-like dynamo is weakor absent, or else the geometry of the magnetic field is appreciablyless effective in removing angular momentu m from these stars. (SECTION:Stars) Accurate Two-dimensional Classification of Stellar Spectra with Artificial Neural NetworksWe present a solution to the long-standing problem of automaticallyclassifying stellar spectra of all temperature and luminosity classeswith the accuracy shown by expert human classifiers. We use the 15Angstroms resolution near-infrared spectral classification systemdescribed by Torres-Dodgen & Weaver in 1993. Using the spectrum withno manual intervention except wavelength registration, artificial neuralnetworks (ANNs) can classify these spectra with Morgan-Keenan types withan accuracy comparable to that obtained by human experts using 2Angstroms resolution blue spectra, which is about 0.5 types (subclasses)in temperature and about 0.25 classes in luminosity. Accuratetemperature classification requires a hierarchy of ANNs, whileluminosity classification is most successful with a single ANN. Wepropose an architecture for a fully automatic classification system. The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST Neural Network Classification of the Near-Infrared Spectra of A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...446..300W&db_key=AST Ca II H and K Filter Photometry on the UVBY System. II. The Catalog of ObservationsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....109.2828T&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. The local distribution of NA I interstellar gasWe present high-resolution absorption measurements (lambda/Delta lambdaapproximately 75,000) of the interstellar Na I D lines at 5890 A toward80 southern hemisphere early-type stars located in the localinterstellar medium (LISM). Combining these results with other sodiummeasurements taken from the literature, we produce galactic maps of thedistribution of neutral sodium column density for a total of 293 starsgenerally lying within approximately 250 pc of the Sun. These mapsreveal the approximate shape of the mid-plane contours of the rarefiedregion of interstellar space termed the Local Bubble. Its shape is seenas highly asymmetric, with a radius ranging from 30 to 300 pc, and withan average radius of 60 pc. Similar plots of the Galactic mid-planedistribution of sources emitting extreme ultraviolet radiation show thatthey also trace out similar contours of the Local Bubble derived from NaI absorption measurements. We conclude that the Local Bubble absorptioninterface can be represented by a hydrogen column density,NuETA = 2 x 1019 cm-2, which explainsboth the local distribution of Na I absorption and the observed galacticdistribution of extreme ultraviolet sources. The derived mid-planecontours of the Bubble generally reproduce the large-scale featurescarved out in the interstellar medium by several nearby galactic shellstructures. Early type high-velocity stars in the solar neighborhood. IV - Four-color and H-beta photometryResults are presented from photometric obaservations in the Stromgrenuvby four-color and H-beta systems of early-type high-velocity stars inthe solar neighborhood. Several types of photometrically peculiar starsare selected on the basis of their Stromgren indices and areprovisionally identified as peculiar A stars, field horizontal-branchstars, metal-poor stars near the Population II and old-disk turnoffs,metal-poor blue stragglers, or metallic-line A stars. Numerousphotometrically normal stars were also found. Magnetic structure in cool stars. XVII - Minimum radiative losses from the outer atmosphereThe emissions in several chromospheric and transition region lines andin coronal soft X-rays are analyzed for a sample of cool stars. Thenature of the lower-limit flux densities is explored, and evidence isgiven for the possibility of a basal, nonmagnetic heating mechanismbeing responsible for these emission fluxes up to, and perhapsincluding, the upper transition region. It is argued that the excessflux density, derived by subtraction of the basal flux density from theobserved stellar flux, is the proper measure of magnetic activity. Thelevel of the basal flux density as a function of color is determined tobe 2 x 10 exp 6 erg/sq cm/s for F-type stars and 2 x 10 exp 5 erg/sqcm/s for K-type stars. The late A-type stars - Refined MK classification, confrontation with Stromgren photometry, and the effects of rotationThe MK spectral classification for late A-type stars is refined and theeffects of rotation of spectral classification and uvby(beta) photometryfor these stars are examined. It is found that, for A3 stars, the4417/4481 A wavelength ratio produces results that are inconsistent withthe Stark broadening of the H lines. It is suggested that this ratio isnot useful as a luminosity criterion at any spectral type.Self-consistent sequences of narrow- and broadline standards areestablished. The results of the refined classification system arecompared with Stromgren photometry, showing a set of low-v sin i A-typestars with anomalously large delta(c1) indices for theirluminosity types. It is proposed that these stars are rapid rotatorsseen at fairly low inclination angles. Magnetic structure in cool stars. XV - The evolution of rotation rates and chromospheric activity of giantsFor cool giants and subgiants the observed dependence of rotationalvelocity and Ca II H and K line-core emission on color B-V isinterpreted in terms of changes in the moment of inertia by stellarevolution. Modeling of the rotational velocity during the evolution ofcool giants with masses between 2.0 and 3.0 solar masses, by taking intoaccount the change in the moment of inertia and assuming rigid-bodyrotation and conservation of angular momentum, describes the observeddecrease of v sin i with B-V. The computed evolution of the rotationalvelocity, together with the empirical relation between the Ca IIline-core emission and the rotation rate, explain the observed drop inthe Ca II line-core emission for giants at B-V = about 0.95. Forsubgiants with masses of about 1.5 solar mass, the change in the momentof inertia by itself cannot explain the observed v sin i distribution:there are indications of loss of angular momentum, presumably bymagnetic braking. An Einstein Observatory X-ray survey of main-sequence stars with shallow convection zonesThe results of an X-ray survey of bright late A and early F stars on themain B-V sequence between 0.1 and 0.5 are presented. All the stars wereobserved with the Einstein Observatory for a period of at least 500seconds. The survey results show significantly larger X-ray luminositiesfor the sample binaries than for the single stars. It is suggested thatthe difference is due to the presence of multiple X-ray sources inbinaries. It is shown that the X-ray luminosities for single starsincrease rapidly with increasing color, and that the relation Lx/Lbol isequal to about 10 to the -7th does not hold for A stars. No correlationwas found between X-ray luminosity and projected equatorial rotationvelocity. It is argued on the basis of the observations that X-rayemission in the sample stars originated from coronae. The availableobservational evidence supporting this view is discussed. Catalogue of the energy distribution data in spectra of stars in the uniform spectrophotometric system.Not Available Spectral classification from the ultraviolet line features of S2/68 spectra. V - Supplement seriesThe paper presents the ultraviolet classification of more than 450 B-Aand F spectra obtained with the sky survey telescope mounted on the TD1satellite. Concerning abnormal objects, attention is given to the Bestars, the binary stars, the helium weak stars, and the lambda Booobjects. With regard to Be stars, it is concluded that the 1930 Awavelength feature is linked to the existence of either shell structuresor Fe II emission lines in the visual spectral range. In addition, it issuggested that stellar spectra at wavelengths of 1410, 1610-20 and 2400A are equivalent to the He-weak group in the classical range. Prediction of spectral classification from photometric observations - Application of the UVBY beta photometry and the MK spectra classification. II - General caseAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1980A&A....85...93M&db_key=AST Prediction of spectral classification from photometric observations-application to the UVBY beta photometry and the MK spectral classification. I - Prediction assuming a luminosity classAn algorithm based on multiple stepwise and isotonic regressions isdeveloped for the prediction of spectral classification from photometricdata. The prediction assumes a luminosity class with reference touvbybeta photometry and the MK spectral classification. The precisionattained is about 90 percent and 80 percent probability of being withinone spectral subtype respectively for luminosity groups I and V and forluminosity groups III and IV. A list of stars for which discrepanciesappear between photometry and spectral classification is given. Detection of errors in spectral classification by cluster analysisCluster analysis methods are applied to the photometric catalogue ofuvby-beta measurements by Hauck and Lindemann (1973) and point out 249stars the spectral type of which should be reconsidered or thephotometric indices of which should be redetermined. Four-colour and H BET photometry of some bright southern stars- II.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1972MNRAS.160..155S&db_key=AST Rotation of evolving A and F stars.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1972A&A....18..428D&db_key=AST K-Line Photometry of Southern a StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971ApJS...23..421H&db_key=AST Line strengths for southern OB stars-II. Observations with moderate dispersionAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1969MNRAS.144...31B&db_key=AST Radial velocities of fundamental southern stars IIAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1961MNRAS.123..233B&db_key=AST
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