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The origin and chemical evolution of carbon in the Galactic thin and thick discs*
In order to trace the origin and evolution of carbon in the Galacticdisc, we have determined carbon abundances in 51 nearby F and G dwarfstars. The sample is divided into two kinematically distinct subsampleswith 35 and 16 stars that are representative of the Galactic thin andthick discs, respectively. The analysis is based on spectral synthesisof the forbidden [CI] line at 872.7nm using spectra of very highresolution (R~ 220000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N >~ 300)that were obtained with the Coudé Echelle Spectrograph (CES)spectrograph by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.6-m telescopeat La Silla in Chile. We find that [C/Fe] versus [Fe/H] trends for thethin and thick discs are totally merged and flat for subsolarmetallicities. The thin disc that extends to higher metallicities thanthe thick disc shows a shallow decline in [C/Fe] from [Fe/H]~ 0 and upto [Fe/H]~+0.4. The [C/O] versus [O/H] trends are well separated betweenthe two discs (due to differences in the oxygen abundances) and bear agreat resemblance to the [Fe/O] versus [O/H] trends. Our interpretationof our abundance trends is that the sources that are responsible for thecarbon enrichment in the Galactic thin and thick discs have operated ona time-scale very similar to those that are responsible for the Fe and Yenrichment [i.e. SNIa and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars,respectively]. We further note that there exist other observational datain the literature that favour massive stars as the main sources forcarbon. In order to match our carbon trends, we believe that the carbonyields from massive stars then must be very dependent on metallicity forthe C, Fe and Y trends to be so finely tuned in the two discpopulations. Such metallicity-dependent yields are no longer supportedby the new stellar models in the recent literature. For the Galaxy, wehence conclude that the carbon enrichment at metallicities typical ofthe disc is mainly due to low- and intermediate-mass stars, whilemassive stars are still the main carbon contributor at low metallicities(halo and metal-poor thick disc).

Secular apsidal configuration of non-resonant exoplanetary systems
Using a high-order (order 12) expansion of the perturbative potential inpowers of eccentricities [Libert, A.-S., Henrard, J., 2005. Celest.Mech. Dynam. Astron. 93, 187 200], we study the secular effects of twocoplanar planets which are not in mean motion resonances. The mainresults concern eccentricity variations, oscillation amplitude of theangular difference of the apsidal lines (Δϖ) and frequency ofsuch an oscillation. We show that this analytical approach describescorrectly the behaviour of most of the exosystems and underlines theknown limitations of the linear Laplace Lagrange theory. Apsidalconfiguration of υ Andromedae, HD 168443, HD 169830, HD 38529, HD74156 and HD 12661 are examined. We also point out the great sensitivityof the υ Andromedae system to the initial values (e(0),e(0) or Δϖ(0)).

Stability and 2:1 resonance in the planetary system HD 829431
We have explored the secular dynamical evolution of the HD 82943 systemwith two resonant giant planets, by simulating various planetaryconfigurations via direct numerical integration. We also studied theirorbital motions in phase space. In the numerical integrations over107 yr, we found that all the stable orbits are connectedwith the 2:1 resonance. Typically, there exists the libration of the tworesonant arguments 1 and (or) 2 on the sametimescale. Hence, both of the semi-major axes are strongly constrainedto behave in a regular way, due to the confinement of the libration ofthe related angles. Using the analytical model we considered the motionof the inner planet in phase space for different values of the outerplanet's eccentricity e2 and of the relative apsidallongitude . We found that the 2:1 orbital resonance is easily preservedwhen= 0† and when e2 is not too large. A moderatee2 can lock the two planets into deep resonance. The resultsby the analytical method agree well with those by the numericalsimulation, both revealing the 2:1 resonance architecture.

Two Suns in The Sky: Stellar Multiplicity in Exoplanet Systems
We present results of a reconnaissance for stellar companions to all 131radial velocity-detected candidate extrasolar planetary systems known asof 2005 July 1. Common proper-motion companions were investigated usingthe multiepoch STScI Digitized Sky Surveys and confirmed by matching thetrigonometric parallax distances of the primaries to companion distancesestimated photometrically. We also attempt to confirm or refutecompanions listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog, in the Catalogsof Nearby Stars Series by Gliese and Jahreiß, in Hipparcosresults, and in Duquennoy & Mayor's radial velocity survey. Ourfindings indicate that a lower limit of 30 (23%) of the 131 exoplanetsystems have stellar companions. We report new stellar companions to HD38529 and HD 188015 and a new candidate companion to HD 169830. Weconfirm many previously reported stellar companions, including six starsin five systems, that are recognized for the first time as companions toexoplanet hosts. We have found evidence that 20 entries in theWashington Double Star Catalog are not gravitationally bound companions.At least three (HD 178911, 16 Cyg B, and HD 219449), and possibly five(including HD 41004 and HD 38529), of the exoplanet systems reside intriple-star systems. Three exoplanet systems (GJ 86, HD 41004, andγ Cep) have potentially close-in stellar companions, with planetsat roughly Mercury-Mars distances from the host star and stellarcompanions at projected separations of ~20 AU, similar to the Sun-Uranusdistance. Finally, two of the exoplanet systems contain white dwarfcompanions. This comprehensive assessment of exoplanet systems indicatesthat solar systems are found in a variety of stellar multiplicityenvironments-singles, binaries, and triples-and that planets survive thepost-main-sequence evolution of companion stars.

Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets
We present a catalog of nearby exoplanets. It contains the 172 knownlow-mass companions with orbits established through radial velocity andtransit measurements around stars within 200 pc. We include fivepreviously unpublished exoplanets orbiting the stars HD 11964, HD 66428,HD 99109, HD 107148, and HD 164922. We update orbits for 83 additionalexoplanets, including many whose orbits have not been revised sincetheir announcement, and include radial velocity time series from theLick, Keck, and Anglo-Australian Observatory planet searches. Both thesenew and previously published velocities are more precise here due toimprovements in our data reduction pipeline, which we applied toarchival spectra. We present a brief summary of the global properties ofthe known exoplanets, including their distributions of orbital semimajoraxis, minimum mass, and orbital eccentricity.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. The Keck Observatory was made possible by thegenerous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Dwarfs in the Local Region
We present lithium, carbon, and oxygen abundance data for a sample ofnearby dwarfs-a total of 216 stars-including samples within 15 pc of theSun, as well as a sample of local close giant planet (CGP) hosts (55stars) and comparison stars. The spectroscopic data for this work have aresolution of R~60,000, a signal-to-noise ratio >150, and spectralcoverage from 475 to 685 nm. We have redetermined parameters and derivedadditional abundances (Z>10) for the CGP host and comparison samples.From our abundances for elements with Z>6 we determine the meanabundance of all elements in the CGP hosts to range from 0.1 to 0.2 dexhigher than nonhosts. However, when relative abundances ([x/Fe]) areconsidered we detect no differences in the samples. We find nodifference in the lithium contents of the hosts versus the nonhosts. Theplanet hosts appear to be the metal-rich extension of local regionabundances, and overall trends in the abundances are dominated byGalactic chemical evolution. A consideration of the kinematics of thesample shows that the planet hosts are spread through velocity space;they are not exclusively stars of the thin disk.

Chemical Composition of the Planet-harboring Star TrES-1
We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of the parent star ofthe transiting extrasolar planet TrES-1. Based on high-resolution KeckHIRES and Hobby-Eberly Telescope HRS spectra, we have determinedabundances relative to the Sun for 16 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc,Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba). The resulting averageabundance of <[X/H]>=-0.02+/-0.06 is in good agreement withinitial estimates of solar metallicity based on iron. We compare theelemental abundances of TrES-1 with those of the sample of stars withplanets, searching for possible chemical abundance anomalies. TrES-1appears not to be chemically peculiar in any measurable way. Weinvestigate possible signs of selective accretion of refractory elementsin TrES-1 and other stars with planets and find no statisticallysignificant trends of metallicity [X/H] with condensation temperatureTc. We use published abundances and kinematic information forthe sample of planet-hosting stars (including TrES-1) and severalstatistical indicators to provide an updated classification in terms oftheir likelihood to belong to either the thin disk or the thick disk ofthe Milky Way. TrES-1 is found to be very likely a member of thethin-disk population. By comparing α-element abundances of planethosts and a large control sample of field stars, we also find thatmetal-rich ([Fe/H]>~0.0) stars with planets appear to besystematically underabundant in [α/Fe] by ~0.1 dex with respect tocomparison field stars. The reason for this signature is unclear, butsystematic differences in the analysis procedures adopted by differentgroups cannot be ruled out.

Abundance ratios of volatile vs. refractory elements in planet-harbouring stars: hints of pollution?
We present the [ X/H] trends as a function of the elemental condensationtemperature TC in 88 planet host stars and in avolume-limited comparison sample of 33 dwarfs without detected planetarycompanions. We gathered homogeneous abundance results for many volatileand refractory elements spanning a wide range of T_C, from a few dozento several hundred kelvin. We investigate possible anomalous trends ofplanet hosts with respect to comparison sample stars to detect evidenceof possible pollution events. No significant differences are found inthe behaviour of stars with and without planets. This is consistent witha "primordial" origin of the metal excess in planet host stars. However,a subgroup of 5 planet host and 1 comparison sample stars stands out ashaving particularly high [ X/H] vs. TC slopes.

A search for water masers toward extrasolar planets
Context: .Water is the most common triatomic molecule in the universeand the basis of life on Earth. Astrophysical masers have been widelystudied in recent years and have been shown to be invaluable probes ofthe details of the environment in which they are found. Water masers,for instance, are often detected toward low-mass star-forming regions.Doppler radial-velocity surveys have detected about 160exoplanets.Aims.Observations of water masers from exoplanetary systemswould give us a new detailed window through which to explorethem.Methods.We present a search for water masers toward eighteenextrasolar planets using the newly upgraded Australia Telescope CompactArray at 12 mm. A sensitivity of ˜25 mJy beam-1 and anangular resolution of ~10'' were achieved at 22.235 GHz. Results.Nomaser lines are clearly observed.

Abundances of refractory elements in the atmospheres of stars with extrasolar planets
Aims.This work presents a uniform and homogeneous study of chemicalabundances of refractory elements in 101 stars with and 93 without knownplanetary companions. We carry out an in-depth investigation of theabundances of Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Na, Mg and Al. The newcomparison sample, spanning the metallicity range -0.70< [Fe/H]<0.50, fills the gap that previously existed, mainly at highmetallicities, in the number of stars without known planets.Methods.Weused an enlarged set of data including new observations, especially forthe field "single" comparison stars . The line list previously studiedby other authors was improved: on average we analysed 90 spectral linesin every spectrum and carefully measured more than 16 600 equivalentwidths (EW) to calculate the abundances.Results.We investigate possibledifferences between the chemical abundances of the two groups of stars,both with and without planets. The results are globally comparable tothose obtained by other authors, and in most cases the abundance trendsof planet-host stars are very similar to those of the comparison sample.Conclusions.This work represents a step towards the comprehension ofrecently discovered planetary systems. These results could also beuseful for verifying galactic models at high metallicities andconsequently improve our knowledge of stellar nucleosynthesis andgalactic chemical evolution.

Oxygen abundances in planet-harbouring stars. Comparison of different abundance indicators
We present a detailed and uniform study of oxygen abundances in 155solar type stars, 96 of which are planet hosts and 59 of which form partof a volume-limited comparison sample with no known planets. EWmeasurements were carried out for the [O I] 6300 Å line and the OI triplet, and spectral synthesis was performed for several OH lines.NLTE corrections were calculated and applied to the LTE abundanceresults derived from the O I 7771-5 Å triplet. Abundances from [OI], the O I triplet and near-UV OH were obtained in 103, 87 and 77dwarfs, respectively. We present the first detailed and uniformcomparison of these three oxygen indicators in a large sample ofsolar-type stars. There is good agreement between the [O/H] ratios fromforbidden and OH lines, while the NLTE triplet shows a systematicallylower abundance. We found that discrepancies between OH, [O I] and the OI triplet do not exceed 0.2 dex in most cases. We have studied abundancetrends in planet host and comparison sample stars, and no obviousanomalies related to the presence of planets have been detected. Allthree indicators show that, on average, [O/Fe] decreases with [Fe/H] inthe metallicity range -0.8< [Fe/H] < 0.5. The planet host starspresent an average oxygen overabundance of 0.1-0.2 dex with respect tothe comparison sample.

Photospheric CNO Abundances of Solar-Type Stars
We determined the C, N, and O abundances of 160 nearby F, G, and Kdwarfs and subgiants by using spectra obtained with the HIDESspectrograph at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, with the purposes of(1) establishing the runs of [C/Fe], [N/Fe], and [O/Fe] for thesegalactic disk stars in the metallicity range of -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲+0.4, (2) searching for any difference in the CNO abundances ofplanet-host stars as compared to non-planet-host stars, and (3)examining the consistency of the abundances derived from different linesto check the validity of the analysis. The non-LTE effect on theabundance determination was taken into consideration based on ourextensive statistical-equilibrium calculations. We confirmed thatconsistent abundances are mostly accomplished between different lines,and that [C/Fe] as well as [O/Fe] progressively increase with a decreasein [Fe/H] with the slope of the former (˜ 0.2‑0.3) beingshallower than the latter (˜ 0.4‑0.5), while [N/Fe] does notshow any clear systematic trend with the metallicity. The [C/Fe],[N/Fe], and [O/Fe] values of 27 planet-harboring stars (included in oursample of 160 stars) were shown to be practically indistinguishable fromthose exhibited by non-planet-harboring stars of similar metallicities.

Lithium Abundances of F-, G-, and K-Type Stars: Profile-Fitting Analysis of the Li I 6708 Doublet
An extensive profile-fitting analysis was performed for the Li(+Fe)6707-6708Å feature of nearby 160 F-K dwarfs/subgiants (including27 planet-host stars) in the Galactic disk ( 7000 K ≳Teff ≳ 5000 K, -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.4), in orderto establish the photospheric lithium abundances of these stars. Thenon-LTE effect (though quantitatively insignificant) was taken intoaccount based on our statistical equilibrium calculations, which werecarried out on an adequate grid of models. Our results confirmed most ofthe interesting observational characteristics revealed by recentlypublished studies, such as the bimodal distribution of the Li abundancesfor stars at Teff ≳ 6000 K, the satisfactory agreementof the upper envelope of the A(Li) vs. [Fe/H] distribution with thetheoretical models, the existence of a positive correlation betweenA(Li) and the stellar mass, and the tendency of lower lithium abundancesof planet-host stars (as compared to stars without planets) at thenarrow ``transition'' region of 5900 K ≳ Teff ≳5800 K. The solar Li abundance derived from this analysis is 0.92 (H =12.00), which is by 0.24dex lower than the widely referenced standardvalue of 1.16.

Spectroscopic Study on the Atmospheric Parameters of Nearby F--K Dwarfs and Subgiants
Based on a collection of high-dispersion spectra obtained at OkayamaAstrophysical Observatory, the atmospheric parameters (Teff,log g, vt, and [Fe/H]) of 160 mid-F through early-K starswere extensively determined by the spectroscopic method using theequivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines along with the numericaltechnique of Takeda et al. (2002, PASJ, 54, 451). The results arecomprehensively discussed and compared with the parameter values derivedby different approaches (e.g., photometric colors, theoreticalevolutionary tracks, Hipparcos parallaxes, etc.) as well as with thepublished values found in various literature. It has been confirmed thatour purely spectroscopic approach yields fairly reliable and consistentresults.

A link between the semimajor axis of extrasolar gas giant planets and stellar metallicity
The fact that most extrasolar planets found to date are orbitingmetal-rich stars lends credence to the core accretion mechanism of gasgiant planet formation over its competitor, the disc instabilitymechanism. However, the core accretion mechanism is not refined to thepoint of explaining orbital parameters such as the unexpected semimajoraxes and eccentricities. We propose a model that correlates themetallicity of the host star with the original semimajor axis of itsmost massive planet, prior to migration, assuming that the coreaccretion scenario governs giant gas planet formation. The modelpredicts that the optimum regions for planetary formation shift inwardsas stellar metallicity decreases, providing an explanation for theobserved absence of long-period planets in metal-poor stars. We compareour predictions with the available data on extrasolar planets for starswith masses similar to the mass of the Sun. A fitting procedure producesan estimate of what we define as the zero-age planetary orbit (ZAPO)curve as a function of the metallicity of the star. The model hints thatthe lack of planets circling metal-poor stars may be partly caused by anenhanced destruction probability during the migration process, becausethe planets lie initially closer to their central star.

Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars (SPOCS). I. 1040 F, G, and K Dwarfs from Keck, Lick, and AAT Planet Search Programs
We present a uniform catalog of stellar properties for 1040 nearby F, G,and K stars that have been observed by the Keck, Lick, and AAT planetsearch programs. Fitting observed echelle spectra with synthetic spectrayielded effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projectedrotational velocity, and abundances of the elements Na, Si, Ti, Fe, andNi, for every star in the catalog. Combining V-band photometry andHipparcos parallaxes with a bolometric correction based on thespectroscopic results yielded stellar luminosity, radius, and mass.Interpolating Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the luminosity, effectivetemperature, metallicity, and α-element enhancement of each staryielded a theoretical mass, radius, gravity, and age range for moststars in the catalog. Automated tools provide uniform results and makeanalysis of such a large sample practical. Our analysis method differsfrom traditional abundance analyses in that we fit the observed spectrumdirectly, rather than trying to match equivalent widths, and wedetermine effective temperature and surface gravity from the spectrumitself, rather than adopting values based on measured photometry orparallax. As part of our analysis, we determined a new relationshipbetween macroturbulence and effective temperature on the main sequence.Detailed error analysis revealed small systematic offsets with respectto the Sun and spurious abundance trends as a function of effectivetemperature that would be inobvious in smaller samples. We attempted toremove these errors by applying empirical corrections, achieving aprecision per spectrum of 44 K in effective temperature, 0.03 dex inmetallicity, 0.06 dex in the logarithm of gravity, and 0.5 kms-1 in projected rotational velocity. Comparisons withprevious studies show only small discrepancies. Our spectroscopicallydetermined masses have a median fractional precision of 15%, but theyare systematically 10% higher than masses obtained by interpolatingisochrones. Our spectroscopic radii have a median fractional precisionof 3%. Our ages from isochrones have a precision that variesdramatically with location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We planto extend the catalog by applying our automated analysis technique toother large stellar samples.

A 2 Micron H2 Spectral Survey of Proto-Planetary Nebulae
We measured 2.1-2.3 μm spectra for a mostly complete sample of knownproto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) at declinations north of -30°. Thisspectral range includes the H2 emission lines 1-0 S(1), 1-0S(0), 2-1 S(1), 2-1 S(2), and 3-2 S(3). We detected H2emission from 16 of the 51 objects in our survey. Twelve of these arenew detections, doubling the number of PPNe with detected H2emission. We find that H2 emission commences at a spectralclass of mid-G in PPNe with bipolar morphologies and optically thickequatorial regions; in fact, all bipolar F-G PPNe with an opticallythick equatorial region have collisionally excited H2emission. Radiative excitation becomes important in PPNe when thecentral star reaches an early B spectral type, just beforephotoionization of the nebula and the commencement of the planetarynebula (PN) phase. Almost all of the PPNe with B central stars showH2 emission, with either a purely radiative or a mixedcollisional plus radiative spectrum. Since H2 emission israre in nonbipolar PNe, the destruction of the H2 in thenonbipolars must be roughly coincident with the photoionization of thenebula. As with H2-emitting PNe, the bipolarH2-emitting PPNe are found at low Galactic latitudes.Optically thin H2-emitting nebulae are not similarlyrestricted to low latitudes. Brγ emission is detected in 15 of thesources, including all those of B spectral type.

Planets and Infrared Excesses: Preliminary Results from a Spitzer MIPS Survey of Solar-Type Stars
As part of a large Spitzer MIPS Guaranteed Time Observation program, wehave searched for infrared excesses due to debris disks toward 26 FGKfield stars known from radial velocity (RV) studies to have one or moreplanets. While none of these stars show excesses at 24 μm, we havedetected 70 μm excesses around six stars at the 3 σ confidencelevel. The excesses are produced by cool material (<100 K) locatedbeyond 10 AU, well outside the ``habitable zones'' of these systems andconsistent with the presence of Kuiper Belt analogs with ~100 times moreemitting surface area than in our own planetary system. Theseplanet-bearing stars are, by selection for RV studies, typically olderthan 1 Gyr, and the stars identified here with excesses have a medianage of 4 Gyr. We find a preliminary correlation of both the frequencyand the magnitude of dust emission with the presence of known planets.These are the first stars outside the solar system identified as havingboth well-confirmed planetary systems and well-confirmed IR excesses.

Orbital Solutions to the HD 160691 (μ Arae) Doppler Signal
We perform a dynamical analysis of the recently updated set of theradial velocity (RV) measurements of HD 160691 (μ Arae). Thekinematic, double-Keplerian model of the measurements leads to abest-fit solution that is unstable and self-disrupting in less than20,000 yr. In order to derive dynamically stable configurations that aresimultaneously consistent with the RV data, we use the so-called GAMP(genetic algorithm with MEGNO penalty). Using this method, we derivemeaningful limits on the parameters of the outer planet that alsoprovide a stable behavior of the system. The best-fit solutions arelocated in a shallow valley of(χ2ν)1/2 in the (ac,ec)-plane, extending over 2 AU (for the formal 1 σconfidence interval of the best fit). We find two equally good best-fitsolutions leading to qualitatively different orbital configurations. Oneof them corresponds to the center of the 5:1 mean motion resonance(MMR), and the second one describes a configuration between the 11:2 and17:3 MMRs. If the formal best-fit errors of the orbital parameters aretaken into account, the HD 160691 system can likely be found in the zoneof the phase space filled with low-order MMRs of the type p:1, with5

The Planet-Metallicity Correlation
We have recently carried out spectral synthesis modeling to determineTeff, logg, vsini, and [Fe/H] for 1040 FGK-type stars on theKeck, Lick, and Anglo-Australian Telescope planet search programs. Thisis the first time that a single, uniform spectroscopic analysis has beenmade for every star on a large Doppler planet search survey. We identifya subset of 850 stars that have Doppler observations sufficient todetect uniformly all planets with radial velocity semiamplitudes K>30m s-1 and orbital periods shorter than 4 yr. From this subsetof stars, we determine that fewer than 3% of stars with-0.5<[Fe/H]<0.0 have Doppler-detected planets. Above solarmetallicity, there is a smooth and rapid rise in the fraction of starswith planets. At [Fe/H]>+0.3 dex, 25% of observed stars have detectedgas giant planets. A power-law fit to these data relates the formationprobability for gas giant planets to the square of the number of metalatoms. High stellar metallicity also appears to be correlated with thepresence of multiple-planet systems and with the total detected planetmass. This data set was examined to better understand the origin of highmetallicity in stars with planets. None of the expected fossilsignatures of accretion are observed in stars with planets relative tothe general sample: (1) metallicity does not appear to increase as themass of the convective envelopes decreases, (2) subgiants with planetsdo not show dilution of metallicity, (3) no abundance variations for Na,Si, Ti, or Ni are found as a function of condensation temperature, and(4) no correlations between metallicity and orbital period oreccentricity could be identified. We conclude that stars with extrasolarplanets do not have an accretion signature that distinguishes them fromother stars; more likely, they are simply born in higher metallicitymolecular clouds.Based on observations obtained at Lick and Keck Observatories, operatedby the University of California, and the Anglo-Australian Observatories.

Prospects for Habitable ``Earths'' in Known Exoplanetary Systems
We have examined whether putative Earth-mass planets could remainconfined to the habitable zones (HZs) of the 111 exoplanetary systemsconfirmed by 2004 August. We find that in about half of these systemsthere could be confinement for at least the past 1000 Myr, though insome cases only in variously restricted regions of the HZ. The HZmigrates outward during the main-sequence lifetime, and we find that inabout two-thirds of the systems an Earth-mass planet could be confinedto the HZ for at least 1000 Myr sometime during the main-sequencelifetime. Clearly, these systems should be high on the target list forexploration for terrestrial planets. We have reached our conclusions bydetailed investigations of seven systems, which has resulted in anestimate of the distance from the giant planet within which orbitalstability is unlikely for an Earth-mass planet. This distance is givenby nRH, where RH is the Hill radius of the giantplanet and n is a multiplier that depends on the giant's orbitaleccentricity and on whether the Earth-mass planet is interior orexterior to the giant planet. We have estimated n for each of the sevensystems by launching Earth-mass planets in various orbits and followingtheir fate with a hybrid orbital integrator. We have then evaluated thehabitability of the other exoplanetary systems using nRHderived from the giant's orbital eccentricity without carrying outtime-consuming orbital integrations. A stellar evolution model has beenused to obtain the HZs throughout the main-sequence lifetime.

On the ages of exoplanet host stars
We obtained spectra, covering the CaII H and K region, for 49 exoplanethost (EH) stars, observable from the southern hemisphere. We measuredthe chromospheric activity index, R'{_HK}. We compiled previouslypublished values of this index for the observed objects as well as theremaining EH stars in an effort to better smooth temporal variations andderive a more representative value of the average chromospheric activityfor each object. We used the average index to obtain ages for the groupof EH stars. In addition we applied other methods, such as: Isochrone,lithium abundance, metallicity and transverse velocity dispersions, tocompare with the chromospheric results. The kinematic method is a lessreliable age estimator because EH stars lie red-ward of Parenago'sdiscontinuity in the transverse velocity dispersion vs dereddened B-Vdiagram. The chromospheric and isochrone techniques give median ages of5.2 and 7.4 Gyr, respectively, with a dispersion of 4 Gyr. The medianage of F and G EH stars derived by the isochrone technique is 1-2 Gyrolder than that of identical spectral type nearby stars not known to beassociated with planets. However, the dispersion in both cases is large,about 2-4 Gyr. We searched for correlations between the chromosphericand isochrone ages and L_IR/L* (the excess over the stellarluminosity) and the metallicity of the EH stars. No clear tendency isfound in the first case, whereas the metallicy dispersion seems toslightly increase with age.

Sulphur abundance in Galactic stars
We investigate sulphur abundance in 74 Galactic stars by using highresolution spectra obtained at ESO VLT and NTT telescopes. For the firsttime the abundances are derived, where possible, from three opticalmultiplets: Mult. 1, 6, and 8. By combining our own measurements withdata in the literature we assemble a sample of 253 stars in themetallicity range -3.2  [Fe/H]  +0.5. Two important features,which could hardly be detected in smaller samples, are obvious from thislarge sample: 1) a sizeable scatter in [S/Fe] ratios around [Fe/H]˜-1; 2) at low metallicities we observe stars with [S/Fe]˜ 0.4, aswell as stars with higher [S/Fe] ratios. The latter do not seem to bekinematically different from the former ones. Whether the latter findingstems from a distinct population of metal-poor stars or simply from anincreased scatter in sulphur abundances remains an open question.

The CORALIE survey for southern extra-solar planets. XIII. A pair of planets around HD 202206 or a circumbinary planet?
Long-term precise Doppler measurements with the CORALIE spectrographreveal the presence of a second planet orbiting the solar-type star HD202206. The radial-velocity combined fit yields companion masses ofm2sin i=17.4 MJup and 2.44 MJup,semi-major axes of a=0.83 AU and 2.55 AU, and eccentricities of e=0.43and 0.27, respectively. A dynamical analysis of the system further showsa 5/1 mean motion resonance between the two planets. This system is ofparticular interest since the inner planet is within the brown-dwarflimits while the outer one is much less massive. Therefore, either theinner planet formed simultaneously in the protoplanetary disk as asuperplanet, or the outer Jupiter-like planet formed in a circumbinarydisk. We believe this singular planetary system will provide importantconstraints on planetary formation and migration scenarios.

Abundances of Na, Mg and Al in stars with giant planets
We present Na, Mg and Al abundances in a set of 98 stars with knowngiant planets, and in a comparison sample of 41 “single”stars. The results show that the [X/H] abundances (with X = Na, Mg andAl) are, on average, higher in stars with giant planets, a resultsimilar to the one found for iron. However, we did not find any strongdifference in the [X/Fe] ratios, for a fixed [Fe/H], between the twosamples of stars in the region where the samples overlap. The data wasused to study the Galactic chemical evolution trends for Na, Mg and Aland to discuss the possible influence of planets on this evolution. Theresults, similar to those obtained by other authors, show that the[X/Fe] ratios all decrease as a function of metallicity up to solarvalues. While for Mg and Al this trend then becomes relatively constant,for Na we find indications of an upturn up to [Fe/H] values close to0.25 dex. For metallicities above this value the [Na/Fe] becomesconstant.

Abundance trends in kinematical groups of the Milky Way's disk
We have compiled a large catalogue of metallicities and abundance ratiosfrom the literature in order to investigate abundance trends of severalalpha and iron peak elements in the thin disk and the thick disk of theGalaxy. The catalogue includes 743 stars with abundances of Fe, O, Mg,Ca, Ti, Si, Na, Ni and Al in the metallicity range -1.30 < [Fe/H]< +0.50. We have checked that systematic differences betweenabundances measured in the different studies were lower than randomerrors before combining them. Accurate distances and proper motions fromHipparcos and radial velocities from several sources have been retreivedfor 639 stars and their velocities (U, V, W) and galactic orbits havebeen computed. Ages of 322 stars have been estimated with a Bayesianmethod of isochrone fitting. Two samples kinematically representative ofthe thin and thick disks have been selected, taking into account theHercules stream which is intermediate in kinematics, but with a probabledynamical origin. Our results show that the two disks are chemicallywell separated, they overlap greatly in metallicity and both showparallel decreasing alpha elements with increasing metallicity, in theinterval -0.80 < [Fe/H] < -0.30. The Mg enhancement with respectto Fe of the thick disk is measured to be 0.14 dex. An even largerenhancement is observed for Al. The thick disk is clearly older than thethin disk with tentative evidence of an AMR over 2-3 Gyr and a hiatus instar formation before the formation of the thin disk. We do not observea vertical gradient in the metallicity of the thick disk. The Herculesstream has properties similar to that of the thin disk, with a widerrange of metallicity. Metal-rich stars assigned to the thick disk andsuper-metal-rich stars assigned to the thin disk appear as outliers inall their properties.

α-, r-, and s-process element trends in the Galactic thin and thick disks
From a detailed elemental abundance analysis of 102 F and G dwarf starswe present abundance trends in the Galactic thin and thick disks for 14elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Y, Ba, and Eu).Stellar parameters and elemental abundances (except for Y, Ba and Eu)for 66 of the 102 stars were presented in our previous studies (Bensbyet al. [CITE], A&A, 410, 527, [CITE], A&A, 415, 155). The 36stars that are new in this study extend and confirm our previous resultsand allow us to draw further conclusions regarding abundance trends. Thes-process elements Y and Ba, and the r-element Eu have also beenconsidered here for the whole sample for the first time. With this newlarger sample we now have the following results: 1) smooth and distinctabundance trends that for the thin and thick disks are clearlyseparated; 2) the α-element trends for the thick disk show typicalsignatures from the enrichment of SN Ia; 3) the thick disk stellarsample is in the mean older than the thin disk stellar sample; 4) thethick disk abundance trends are invariant with galactocentric radii(R_m); 5) the thick disk abundance trends appear to be invariant withvertical distance (Z_max) from the Galactic plane. Adding furtherevidence from the literaure we argue that a merger/interacting scenariowith a companion galaxy to produce a kinematical heating of the stars(that make up today's thick disk) in a pre-existing old thin disk is themost likely formation scenario for the Galactic thick disk. The 102stars have -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.4 and are all in the solarneighbourhood. Based on their kinematics they have been divided into athin disk sample and a thick disk sample consisting of 60 and 38 stars,respectively. The remaining 4 stars have kinematics that make themkinematically intermediate to the two disks. Their chemical abundancesalso place them in between the two disks. Which of the two diskpopulations these 4 stars belong to, or if they form a distinctpopulation of their own, can at the moment not be settled. The 66 starsfrom our previous studies were observed with the FEROS spectrograph onthe ESO 1.5-m telescope and the CES spectrograph on the ESO 3.6-mtelescope. Of the 36 new stars presented here 30 were observed with theSOFIN spectrograph on the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, 3 withthe UVES spectrograph on VLT/UT2, and 3 with the FEROS spectrograph onthe ESO 1.5-m telescope. All spectra have high signal-to-noise ratios(typically S/N≳ 250) and high resolution (R˜ 80 000, 45 000,and 110 000 for the SOFIN, FEROS, and UVES spectra, respectively).Based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope on LaPalma, Spain, and at the European Southern Observatories on La Silla andParanal, Chile, Proposals # 65.L-0019(B), 67.B-0108(B), 69.B-0277. FullTables [see full text], [see full text] and [see full text] are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/433/185

On the possible correlation between the orbital periods of extrasolar planets and the metallicity of the host stars
We investigate a possible correlation between the orbital periods P ofthe extrasolar planet sample and the metallicity [Fe/H] of their parentstars. Close-in planets, on orbits of a few days, are more likely to befound around metal-rich stars. Simulations show that a weak correlationis present. This correlation becomes stronger when only single starswith one detected planet are considered. We discuss several potentialsources of bias that might mimic the correlation, and find that they canbe ruled out, but not with high significance. If real, the absence ofvery short-period planets around the stellar sample with [Fe/H] < 0.0can be interpreted as evidence of a metallicity dependence of themigration rates of giant planets during formation in the protoplanetarydisc. The observed P-[Fe/H] correlation can be falsified or confirmed byconducting spectroscopic or astrometric surveys of metal-poor stars([Fe/H] < -0.5) in the field.

Capture and escape in the elliptic restricted three-body problem
Several families of irregular moons orbit the giant planets. These moonsare thought to have been captured into planetocentric orbits afterstraying into a region in which the gravitation of the planet dominatessolar perturbations (the Hill sphere). This mechanism requires a sourceof dissipation, such as gas drag, in order to make capture permanent.However, capture by gas drag requires that particles remain inside theHill sphere long enough for dissipation to be effective. Recently wehave proposed that in the circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP)particles may become caught up in sticky chaotic layers, which tends toprolong their sojourn within the Hill sphere of the planet therebyassisting capture. Here, we show that this mechanism survivesperturbations due to the ellipticity of the orbit of the planet.However, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the ability of the planetto capture moons decreases with increasing orbital eccentricity. At theactual orbital eccentricity of Jupiter, this results in approximately anorder of magnitude lower capture probability than estimated in thecircular model. Eccentricities of planetary orbits in the Solar systemare moderate but this is not necessarily the case for extrasolarplanets, which typically have rather eccentric orbits. Therefore, ourfindings suggest that these extrasolar planets are unlikely to havesubstantial populations of irregular moons.

The dynamical structure of the habitable zone in the HD 38529, HD 168443 and HD 169830 systems
The dynamical structure of the habitable zone in the multipleexoplanetary systems HD 38529, HD 168443 and HD 169830 is investigated.By using long-time numerical integration and fast chaos-detectionmethods, it is shown that the habitable zone of all three systems ismostly chaotic. There is a stable region between the two known planetsonly in the system HD 38529, near the inner edge of the habitable zone,where a third planet could exist. This region is stable for a wide rangeof orbital eccentricity and mass of the larger outer planet. Thestability region is divided by higher-order mean motion resonances,which are studied in detail. It seems that higher-order resonances areimportant in exoplanetary systems due to the large planetary masses andlarge orbital eccentricities.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:18h27m49.50s
Apparent magnitude:5.92
Distance:36.324 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0
Proper motion Dec:15
B-T magnitude:6.509
V-T magnitude:5.961

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 169830
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 6869-1277-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0600-33750583
BSC 1991HR 6907
HIPHIP 90485

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