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Evolution of magnetic fields in stars across the upper main sequence: I. Catalogue of magnetic field measurements with FORS 1 at the VLT
To properly understand the physics of Ap and Bp stars it is particularlyimportant to identify the origin of their magnetic fields. For that, anaccurate knowledge of the evolutionary state of stars that have ameasured magnetic field is an important diagnostic. Previous resultsbased on a small and possibly biased sample suggest that thedistribution of magnetic stars with mass below 3 M_ȯ in the H-Rdiagram differs from that of normal stars in the same mass range (Hubriget al. 2000). In contrast, higher mass magnetic Bp stars may well occupythe whole main-sequence width (Hubrig, Schöller & North 2005b).In order to rediscuss the evolutionary state of upper main sequencemagnetic stars, we define a larger and bias-free sample of Ap and Bpstars with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes and reliably determinedlongitudinal magnetic fields. We used FORS 1 at the VLT in itsspectropolarimetric mode to measure the magnetic field in chemicallypeculiar stars where it was unknown or poorly known as yet. In thisfirst paper we present our results of the mean longitudinal magneticfield measurements in 136 stars. Our sample consists of 105 Ap and Bpstars, two PGa stars, 17 HgMn stars, three normal stars, and nine SPBstars. A magnetic field was for the first time detected in 57 Ap and Bpstars, in four HgMn stars, one PGa star, one normal B-type star and fourSPB stars.

B Star Rotational Velocities in h and χ Persei: A Probe of Initial Conditions during the Star Formation Epoch?
Projected rotational velocities (vsini) have been measured for 216 B0-B9stars in the rich, dense h and χ Persei double cluster and comparedwith the distribution of rotational velocities for a sample of fieldstars having comparable ages (t~12-15 Myr) and masses (M~4-15Msolar). For stars that are relatively little evolved fromtheir initial locations on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) (those withmasses M~4-5 Msolar), the mean vsini measured for the h andχ Per sample is slightly more than 2 times larger than the meandetermined for field stars of comparable mass, and the cluster and fieldvsini distributions differ with a high degree of significance. Forsomewhat more evolved stars with masses in the range 5-9Msolar, the mean vsini in h and χ Per is 1.5 times thatof the field; the vsini distributions differ as well, but with a lowerdegree of statistical significance. For stars that have evolvedsignificantly from the ZAMS and are approaching the hydrogen exhaustionphase (those with masses in the range 9-15 Msolar), thecluster and field star means and distributions are only slightlydifferent. We argue that both the higher rotation rates and the patternof rotation speeds as a function of mass that differentiatemain-sequence B stars in h and χ Per from their field analogs werelikely imprinted during the star formation process rather than a resultof angular momentum evolution over the 12-15 Myr cluster lifetime. Wespeculate that these differences may reflect the effects of the higheraccretion rates that theory suggests are characteristic of regions thatgive birth to dense clusters, namely, (1) higher initial rotationspeeds; (2) higher initial radii along the stellar birth line, resultingin greater spin-up between the birth line and the ZAMS; and (3) a morepronounced maximum in the birth line radius-mass relationship thatresults in differentially greater spin-up for stars that become mid- tolate-B stars on the ZAMS.

A catalog of stellar magnetic rotational phase curves
Magnetized stars usually exhibit periodic variations of the effective(longitudinal) magnetic field Be caused by their rotation. Wepresent a catalog of magnetic rotational phase curves, Be vs.the rotational phase φ, and tables of their parameters for 136stars on the main sequence and above it. Phase curves were obtained bythe least squares fitting of sine wave or double wave functions to theavailable Be measurements, which were compiled from theexisting literature. Most of the catalogued objects are chemicallypeculiar A and B type stars (127 stars). For some stars we also improvedor determined periods of their rotation. We discuss the distribution ofparameters describing magnetic rotational phase curves in our sample.All tables and Appendix A are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Heavy Element Abundances in Late-B and Early-A Stars. I. Co-Added IUE Spectra of HgMn Stars
Very heavy elements (Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, and Bi) are found to be enhanced inthe atmospheres of the chemically peculiar stars of the upper mainsequence by up to a million times the solar system levels. Suchenhancements are believed to result from atmospheric dynamics (i.e.,diffusion) rather than scenarios that dredge up nuclear-processedmaterial to the surface or transfer processed material between binarycompanions. However, the theoretical framework needs to be furtherconstrained by observations beyond the realm of the spectral types forwhich such abundance enhancements are observed at optical wavelengths.The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite collected spectraof bright stars for which chemical peculiarities have been derived fromground-based data. For several elements the abundance enhancements haveonly been recently measured using Hubble Space Telescope data and havetherefore not yet been exploited in the IUE data. We have initiated aprogram to analyze IUE high-dispersion spectra to more fullycharacterize the pattern of very heavy element enhancement for manymercury-manganese (HgMn) stars and to potentially extend the spectralclass (effective temperature) boundaries over which these abundanceanomalies are known to exist. The abundances of very heavy elements inchemically normal B and A-type stars provide a base level that may becompared with the solar system abundances. These early spectral typestars may therefore reveal clues for galactic chemical evolution studiessince they were formed at a later epoch than the Sun in the history ofthe Galaxy. This first paper presents the motivation for the analyses tofollow, outlines our spectral co-addition technique for IUE spectra, anddiscusses the choice of model atmospheres and the synthetic spectrumprocedures, while initiating the study by highlighting the abundance ofgold in several HgMn stars.

Vertical distribution of chromium in the atmospheres of HgMn stars
We use multiplet 30 Cr II lines in the wings of Hbeta totest the hypothesis of an anomalous concentration of Cr in the upperlayers of the atmospheres of a sample of 10 HgMn stars. These lines areat different distances from the H_beta line center and are thereforeformed at different depths in the stellar atmosphere. Except for HD49606, all HgMn stars show an increase in Cr abundance with height inthe stellar atmosphere. A similar vertical distribution of Cr, but lesspronounced, has been previously found in Am stars. In contrast, novariation of Cr abundance with the depth has been found for the normallate B-type star HD 196426 and the weak magnetic late B-type star HD168733. It is possible that in HgMn stars the vertical stratificationparameter, a, depends on T_eff, with the strongest vertical gradientbeing found in the hotter stars. No correlation was found between a andthe average stellar abundance log varepsilon (Cr/H).Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla and Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes Nos. 62.L-0348, 65.I-0644,67.D-0579).

Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars
This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

On the relationship between the mercury-manganese stars and the metallic-lined stars
An HR diagram indicating the positions of the HgMn and the Am starsanalyzed by the senior author and his collaborators shows that thecoolest HgMn stars and the hottest Am stars are found on the samestellar evolutionary tracks and hence the former must evolve into thelater. The explanation of the dividing line between these two types ofnonmagnetic chemically peculiar stars where the Hg abundances suddenlychange their degree of overabundance is a major test of the theorieswhich try to explain the anomalous abundances of such stars. Some otherimportant relationships are found which can also serve as tests oftheories which purport to explain the properties of these stars.

On the behavior of the Cii 4267.261, 6578.052 and 6582.882 Å lines in chemically peculiar and standard stars
With the aim of investigating the possible particular behavior of carbonin a sample of chemically peculiar stars of the main sequence withoutturning to modeling, we performed spectroscopic observations of threeimportant and usually prominent single ionized carbon lines: 4267.261,6578.052 and 6582.882 Å. In addition, we observed a large numberof standard stars in order to define a kind of normality strip, usefulfor comparing the observed trend for the peculiar stars. We paidparticular attention to the problem of the determination of fundamentalatmospheric parameters, especially for the chemically peculiar stars forwhich the abundance anomalies change the flux distribution in such a waythat the classical photometric methods to infer effective temperaturesand gravities parameter cannot be applied. Regarding CP stars, we founda normal carbon abundance in Hg-Mn, Si (with some exceptions) and Hestrong stars. He weak stars are normal too, but with a large spread outof the data around the mean value. A more complicated behavior has beennoted in the group of SrCrEu stars: four out of seven show a strongoverabundance, being the others normal.

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

Neon abundances in normal late-B and mercury-manganese stars
We make new non-local thermodynamic equilibrium calculations to deducethe abundances of neon from visible-region echelle spectra of selectedNei lines in seven normal stars and 20HgMn stars. We find that the beststrong blend-free Ne line that can be used at the lower end of theeffective temperature Teff range is λ6402, althoughseveral other potentially useful Nei lines are found in the red regionof the spectra of these stars. The mean neon abundance in the normalstars (logA=8.10) is in excellent agreement with the standard abundanceof neon (8.08). However, in HgMn stars neon is almost universallyunderabundant, ranging from marginal deficits of 0.1-0.3dex tounderabundances of an order of magnitude or more. In many cases, thelines are so weak that only upper limits can be established. The mostextreme example found is υ Her with an underabundance of at least1.5dex. These underabundances are qualitatively expected from radiativeacceleration calculations, which show that Ne has a very small radiativeacceleration in the photosphere, and that it is expected to undergogravitational settling if the mixing processes are sufficiently weak andthere is no strong stellar wind. According to theoretical predictions,the low Ne abundances place an important constraint on the intensity ofsuch stellar winds, which must be less than10-14Msolaryr-1 if they arenon-turbulent.

Manganese abundances in mercury-manganese stars
We use exact curve-of-growth analysis and spectral synthesis to deducethe abundance of Mn from high signal-to-noise ratio visible-regionechelle spectra of selected Mn i and MnII lines in 24 HgMn stars. Theresults are compared with the Mn abundances derived from UV resonancelines by Smith & Dworetsky. We find excellent agreement for severalunblended Mn lines and confirm the temperature dependence of the Mnabundance found by Smith & Dworetsky. The MnII lines at lambdalambda 4206 and 4326 are much stronger than one would predict from themean Mn abundances. The lack of agreement is greatest for stars with thestrongest MnII lines. Using ad hoc multicomponent fits to the profilesof sharp-lined stars, we show that most of the discrepancies can beexplained by hyperfine structure that desaturates the lines, with fullwidths of the order of 0.06-0.09 A.

Mercury Elemental and Isotopic Abundances in Mercury-Manganese Stars
Hg II abundances have been determined for 42 mercury-manganese (HgMn)stars by fitting synthetic spectra to observed spectra of the 3984Å Hg II line. Twenty of the stars had lines sharp enough to allowtheir Hg isotopic abundance mixes to be estimated. The Hg abundance isreported for more HgMn stars here than in any other single work. Nocorrelation was found between Hg II abundance and T_eff or the meancentral wavelength of HgMn lambda3984 stars. The mean central wavelengthof lambda3984 , an indicator of the Hg isotopic mix, is looselycorrelated with T_eff: stars with primarily heavy Hg isotopes tend to becooler, although one star, 46 Aql, has almost pure ^204Hg and T_eff inabout the middle of the temperature range for HgMn stars. We find thatthere is no evidence that any of the HgMn stars have ^196Hg or ^198Hg.For the very sharp-lined stars, the ^204Hg abundance decreases withincreasing T_eff. No correlation is seen between the mean centralwavelength and the surface gravity. No correlation was found between theprojected rotational velocity and the Hg II abundance or the centralwavelength of lambda3984, although this result may be biased by theselection of stars with low reported vsini. Hg I lambda4358 was measuredat high spectral resolution for seven HgMn stars. The isotopic shiftsare too small, and the hyperfine components are too weak to allowunambiguous isotopic abundance ratios to be found. Hg I abundancescorrelate fairly well with Hg II abundances. Some of the Hg isotopicmixtures are difficult to explain using only diffusion. HR 7245 hasapproximately equal abundances of ^199Hg, ^200Hg, ^202Hg, and ^204Hg butvery little ^201Hg, and 11 Per has Hg that is mostly ^199Hg and ^204Hg.Calculations show that hyperfine splitting of ^201Hg changes theradiative forces it feels compared with other isotopes, which may alterdiffusion of that isotope enough to explain its absence in HR 7245, butwe have found no possible explanation for the Hg isotopic mix found in11 Per. These are the first very high resolution measurements of Hg IIlambda3984 for HR 7245 and 11 Per. Although diffusion may be acting inHgMn stars, either there are one or more other mechanisms acting to helpproduce the overabundances and isotopic mixtures seen or ourunderstanding of diffusion is lacking on some important point.

Variability of the Hei5876 { Angstroms} line in early type chemically peculiar stars
Chemically peculiar stars present spectral and photometric variabilitywith a single period. In the oblique rotator model, the non homogeneousdistribution of elements on the stellar surface is at the origin of theobserved variations. As to helium weak stars, it has been suggested thatphotometric and helium line equivalent width variations are out ofphase. To understand the behaviour of helium in CP stars, we haveobtained time resolved spectra of the Hei5876\ { Angstroms} line for asample of 16 chemically peculiar stars in the spectral range B3 - A1 andbelonging to different sub-groups. The Hei5876 { Angstroms} line is tooweak to be measured in the spectra of the stars HD 24155, HD 41269, andHD 220825. No variation of the equivalent width of the selected He linehas been revealed in the stars HD 22920, HD 24587, HD 36589, HD 49606,and HD 209515. The equivalent width variation of the Hei5876 {Angstroms} line is in phase with the photometric variability for thestars HD 43819, HD 171247 and HD 176582. On the contrary it is out ofphase for the stars HD 28843, HD 182255 and HD 223640. No clear relationhas been found for the stars HD 26571 and HD 177003.

UVBY photometry of the chemically peculiar stars HD 15980, HR 1094, 33 Gem, and HD 115708
Differential Strömgren uvby photometry obtained with the FourCollege Automated Photoelectric Telescope shows that the hot HgMn star33 Gem is photometrically constant. The Si star HD 15980 is found to bea variable whose period is significantly greater than 2 years. Theunusual magnetic chemically peculiar Co star HR 1094 is discovered to bea low amplitude photometric variable with the magnetic field period ofHill & Blake, 2.9761 days. The ephemeris for the magnetic chemicallypeculiar star HD 115708 of Wade et al. is confirmed with the error inits period of 5.07622 days being greatly reduced. The {u}, {v}, {b}, and{y} light curves for both HR 1094 and HD 115708 exhibit differenceswhich indicate complex elemental photospheric abundance distributions.Tables 3-6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Gallium abundances in mercury-manganese stars
There is a widespread assertion in the literature that the optical Galines give much higher abundances than the UV lines. We have determinedGa abundances in HgMn stars taking the observed hyperfine structure ofthe optical Ga II lines into account. This reduces these abundances towithin 0.2 dex of the values from the resonance lines.

On the HIPPARCOS photometry of chemically peculiar B, A, and F stars
The Hipparcos photometry of the Chemically Peculiar main sequence B, A,and F stars is examined for variability. Some non-magnetic CP stars,Mercury-Manganese and metallic-line stars, which according to canonicalwisdom should not be variable, may be variable and are identified forfurther study. Some potentially important magnetic CP stars are noted.Tables 1, 2, and 3 are available only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The observed periods of AP and BP stars
A catalogue of all the periods up to now proposed for the variations ofCP2, CP3, and CP4 stars is presented. The main identifiers (HD and HR),the proper name, the variable-star name, and the spectral type andpeculiarity are given for each star as far as the coordinates at 2000.0and the visual magnitude. The nature of the observed variations (light,spectrum, magnetic field, etc.) is presented in a codified way. Thecatalogue is arranged in three tables: the bulk of the data, i.e. thosereferring to CP2, CP3, and CP4 stars, are given in Table 1, while thedata concerning He-strong stars are given in Table 2 and those foreclipsing or ellipsoidal variables are collected in Table 3. Notes arealso provided at the end of each table, mainly about duplicities. Thecatalogue contains data on 364 CP stars and is updated to 1996, October31. This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS,Strasbourg, France.

Helium peculiar stars in the red spectral region
Based upon 33 A/mm dispersion spectroscopic material we examine ifequivalent widths of H and He lines can be used for the detection of newhelium-peculiar stars. The answer is affirmative and we present some newcandidates discovered this way. We have also investigated if the use ofdifferent helium lines than those of the (3) D series (4026, 4471)modifies the assignments of helium peculiar stars. This is not the case,since the use of lambda 6678 ((1) D) and lambda 7065 (3S) gives the sameresults. Based on observations obtained at the Haute ProvenceObservatory (CNRS)

The HR-diagram from HIPPARCOS data. Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of BP - AP stars
The HR-diagram of about 1000 Bp - Ap stars in the solar neighbourhoodhas been constructed using astrometric data from Hipparcos satellite aswell as photometric and radial velocity data. The LM method\cite{luri95,luri96} allows the use of proper motion and radial velocitydata in addition to the trigonometric parallaxes to obtain luminositycalibrations and improved distances estimates. Six types of Bp - Apstars have been examined: He-rich, He-weak, HgMn, Si, Si+ and SrCrEu.Most Bp - Ap stars lie on the main sequence occupying the whole width ofit (about 2 mag), just like normal stars in the same range of spectraltypes. Their kinematic behaviour is typical of thin disk stars youngerthan about 1 Gyr. A few stars found to be high above the galactic planeor to have a high velocity are briefly discussed. Based on data from theESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite and photometric data collected in theGeneva system at ESO, La Silla (Chile) and at Jungfraujoch andGornergrat Observatories (Switzerland). Tables 3 and 4 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The gallium problem in HgMn stars
Previous studies of visible-region high-excitation lines of ion{Ga}{ii}in HgMn stars have usually concluded that these lines (lambda lambda4251-4262 and lambda 6334) yield abundance estimates for gallium ~1 dexgreater than the UV resonance lines. Of the explanations proposed in theliterature, we find that the presence of hyperfine structure (hfs) inthe lines is the most likely. We analyse Lick Hamilton Echelle CCDspectra by spectrum synthesis with the code UCLSYN. Using the Bidelman& Corliss (bidelman) measurements of hfs in ion{Ga}{ii}, and thecalculations given by Lanz et al. (lanz), with the oscillator strengthsby Ryabchikova & Smirnov (rya, b), we determine a difference inabundance (visual-UV) of only 0.2 dex. Of this difference, about 0.1 dexcan be explained by the simplified approximation to the true hfs, whichcan be estimated theoretically, and the remaining 0.1 dex can probablybe accounted for by the stratification of Ga found by Smith (smith, b.,smith, d.). We conclude that the visible-region and UV abundances are inagreement within the errors of the determinations, and that the anomalypreviously found by several investigations is an artifact of thesimplified atomic line structures assumed, or results from the use ofvery different gf-values from those adopted here.

A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (, or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Magnesium abundance in main sequence B-type and magnetic chemically peculiar stars.
The abundance of magnesium for a sample of 19 main sequence B-type and41 magnetic chemically peculiar stars has been derived by spectrumsynthesis analysis of the MgII448.1nm line under the LTE assumption. Thelogarithm of the average Mg abundance for the main sequence stars is log(N(MgII)/N(Tot))=-4.28+/-0.19. Comparing magnetic chemically peculiar(Cp) and main sequence stars with equal effective temperature andgravity, one finds that the magnesium abundance tends to be lower inpeculiar stars with the exception of helium rich stars where thiselement can be overabundant. In Cp stars with effective temperature ofabout 14000K, the magnesium abundance does not depend on gravity,microturbulent velocity or rotational period. There appears to exist acorrelation between the magnesium abundance and the surface magneticfield, with the stars poorest in magnesium presenting the strongestmagnetic fields. In accord with the theory of magnetically controlleddiffusion - which predicts a non-homogeneous distribution of magnesiumover the stellar surface and stratification in the photosphere - somepeculiar stars show evidence of spectral variability with the rotationalphase; the respective magnesium abundances of the HgMn stars HD49606 andHD78316 depend on optical depth.

Elemental abundances in normal late-B and HgMn stars from co-added IUE spectra V. Mercury.
Atmospheric mercury abundances are derived for a sample of 40main-sequence, late-B stars, of which 14 are classified normal, and 26are known chemically peculiar stars of HgMn or related He-weak types.The observational material for this study comprises co-added,short-wavelength IUE spectra encompassing the HgII λ1942resonance line, coupled with a selection of new and publishedmeasurements (equivalent widths and centroid wavelengths) of the opticalHgII λ3984 and HgI λ4358 lines. The analysis includes anexplicit treatment of the isotopic and hyperfine structure of theselines, and allows for star-to-star variations in the isotopiccomposition of mercury within the framework of an assumed,mass-dependent fractionation model. The relative isotopic abundances ofmercury (as defined by a dimensionless mix parameter, q) are determinedusing the graphical method pioneered by White et al. In agreement withprevious studies, q is found to be strongly anti-correlated witheffective temperature, in the sense that the coolest stars are dominatedby the heaviest isotopes (e.g., ^202^Hg and ^204^Hg). New isotopic-mixparameters for three programme stars - 87 Psc (q=0.3), 28 Her (q=2.8),and HR 7775 (q=1.5) - reinforce that anti-correlation. Syntheticreconstruction of the λ3984 line in those programme stars forwhich high-resolution spectra are available tends to confirm theisotopic mixtures derived using the graphical method, and lends validityto the mass-dependent fractionation model in general. However, theλ3984 feature observed in the cool HgMn star HR 7775 can only besatisfactorily reproduced by using a tailored isotopic mixture, whichdeparts significantly from that predicted by the q-formalism. Theλ1942 resonance line is detected in 10 normal B stars, for whichthe mean isotope-summed mercury abundance of 1.96+/-0.34dex (on thescale where logN(H)=12) exceeds the meteoritic value by nearly 3σ.The mercury abundances derived for the HgMn stars vary between ~5 and7dex, except for two objects (53 Tau and HR 2676) in which theabundances are consistent with those observed in the normal stars. TheHe-weak stars in the programme (33 Gem, HR 6000, 36 Lyn, and 46 Aql)appear to be mildly enriched in mercury, but to an extent rendereduncertain by unknown isotopic-mix parameters. The abundances obtainedfrom the optical and ultraviolet lines agree to within their estimatederrors, which lends weight to the view that the metastable lower levelof λ3984 (5d^9^6s^2^^2^D_5/2_) is not overpopulated with respectto its LTE value. The isotope-summed mercury abundances are notcorrelated with the effective temperatures, surface gravities, or degreeof isotopic fractionation of the programme stars; nor is there evidencefor systematic changes in the surface mercury abundances of HgMn starsalong evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram.

Elemental abundances of the mercury-manganese stars HR 89 and 33 Geminorum
Using ATLAS9 model atmospheres and two spectrograms each of themercury-manganese stars HR 89 and 33 Geminorum obtained with a 3 kpixellong CCD, camera 5 and grating A at the Kitt Peak National Observatorycoude feed telescope, we derive the elemental abundances of these stars.Both are extraordinary objects with Mn abundances similar to those of Feand marked He deficiencies. 33 Gem is the hottest known HgMn star.

The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.

Elemental abundances in normal late-B and HgMn stars from co-added IUE spectra. IV. Gallium.
An analysis is presented of the ultraviolet gallium resonance lines inInternational Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra of 40 normal,superficially normal, and HgMn-type late-B stars. Gallium abundances arederived by fitting the GaIIλ1414, and GaIIIλλ1495,1534 lines with synthetic spectra computed under the conventionalassumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and atmosphericchemical homogeneity. We find that the derived upper limits on thegallium abundances of the normal and superficially normal stars areconsistent with the solar value. However, gallium is overabundant inessentially all HgMn stars, including the cooler examples such as HR4072, χ Lup, and ι CrB, where the enhancements are relativelymoderate and unambiguous identification of the resonance lines dependscritically on newly available laboratory wavelengths. Furthermore, thegallium overabundances in the HgMn stars exhibit a loose correlationwith effective temperature, similar in most respects to those identifiedfor manganese and copper in the same stars except for the presence ofthe anomalously Ga-rich, cool HgMn star HR 7775. We show that asystematic discrepancy between the abundances derived from the Ga^+^ andGa^2+^ ions in the hotter HgMn stars (T_eff_>12000K) can be explainedby radiative transfer effects in the presence of a stratification ofgallium at optical depths above logτ_0_=~0. This `stratificationmodel' can also account for the anomalously shaped Gaiii λ1495profiles observed in the extreme cases of μ Lep, HR 2844, and HR 7143(as demonstrated in a previous paper), and is consistent with publishedpredictions of radiative diffusion theory for non-magnetic stars.

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

A new list of effective temperatures of chemically peculiar stars. II.
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Elemental abundances in normal late-B and HgMn stars from co-added IUE spectra. 3: Copper and zinc
Atmospheric abundances of copper and zinc are derived for a sample of 40normal, superficially normal, and HgMn-type main-sequence late-B starsby local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) spectrum-synthesis analysis ofco-added high-resolution International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)spectra. In the normal and superficially normal stars, the abundances ofthese elements are generally consistent with their solar values, towithin the limits of observational and analytical error. In most (butnot all) HgMn stars, copper is found to be overabundant and, moreover,exhibits a pronounced positive correlation with effective temperaturesimilar to that seen for manganese. Zinc is typically deficient in theHgMn stars with underabundances of 2 dex or more in many cases, althoughit is apparently overabundant in three program stars and present atessentially solar abundance in three others. There appears to be nocharacteristic distinguishing those HgMn stars which are zinc-rich orzinc-normal from those that are zinc-deficient. These results providefurther evidence for the existence of a sub-group of hot, mild HgMnstars characterized, in the context of this work, by relatively moderateoverabundances of copper when compared with other 'genuine' HgMn starsof similar effective temperature. While the copper abundance correlationwith effective temperature would appear to be a possible signature ofradiative diffusion in the atmospheres of HgMn stars, the inexplicablydichotomous behavior of zinc in the same objects could prove difficultto reconcile with existing parameter-free models of this mechanism.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:06h49m49.80s
Apparent magnitude:5.85
Distance:284.091 parsecs

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Flamsteed33 Gem
HD 1989HD 49606
BSC 1991HR 2519

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