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 Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. IV. Differential PhotometryFive hundred seventy-six magnitude difference measures are presented for260 binary stars. These measures are derived from CCD-based speckleobservations taken at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak NationalObservatory during the period 1997-2000. Separations of the systemsrange from over 1" down to near the diffraction limit of the telescope.A study of multiple measures of the same targets indicates that themeasures have a typical uncertainty of better than 0.13 mag per 2 minuteobservation, and that multiple observations can be averaged to arrive atsmaller uncertainties. Results presented here are also compared, insofaras it is possible, with measures in the Hipparcos Catalogue and toprevious studies using adaptive optics. No major systematic errors wereidentified.The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University ofWisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the NationalOptical Astronomy Observatory. Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. II. Relative Astrometry Measures during 1998-2000Five hundred twelve relative astrometry measures are presented for 253double stars, including 53 double stars discovered by Hipparcos. In 15cases, relative astrometry is reported for the first time for newlyconfirmed pairs. In addition, 20 high-quality nondetections ofcompanions are reported for stars suspected of being nonsingle byHipparcos. Observations were taken using a fast-readout CCD camerasystem at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. In comparingthese measures with ephemeris predictions for binary stars with verywell known orbits, we find that the measurement precision is better than3 mas in separation and 1° in position angle per individualobservation. Measurement precision and detection capabilities are fullydiscussed, and confirmed orbital motion is reported in four cases of theHipparcos double star discoveries. The WIYN Observatory is a jointfacility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University,Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 Speckle Observations of Double Stars with PISCO at Pic du Midi: Measurements in 1998We present astrometric measurements of binary stars based on speckleobservations of 164 independent sequences of observations(~104 frames each) made with the PISCO speckle camera at Picdu Midi. These measurements concern 147 objects, of which 134 were foundto be double with a separation in the range 0.1"-1.0". These objectswere mainly selected among grade 3 orbits to improve the accuracy oftheir orbits and to constrain their masses. We discovered the binarityof 59 Aql with an angular separation of 0.09"+/-0.01". Emerging trends of optical interferometry in astronomyThe current status of the high spatial resolution imaging interferometryin optical astronomy is reviewed in the light of theoreticalexplanation, as well as of experimental constraints that exist in thepresent day technology. The basic mathematical interlude pertinent tothe interferometric technique and its applications in astronomicalobservations are presented in detail. An elaborate account of the randomrefractive index fluctuations of the atmosphere producing randomaberrations in the telescope pupil, elucidating the trade offs betweenlong-exposure and short-exposure imaging is given. Further, the othermethods viz., (i) speckle spectroscopy, (ii) speckle polarimetry, (iii)phase closure, (iv) aperture synthesis, (v) pupil plane interferometry,(vi) differential speckle interferometry etc., using single moderate orlarge telescopes are described as well. The salient features of variousdetectors that are used for recording short-exposure images aresummarized. The mathematical intricacies of the data processingtechniques for both Fourier modulus and Fourier phase are analyzed; thevarious schemes of image restoration techniques are examined as wellwith emphasis set on their comparisons. The recent technologicalinnovation to compensate the deleterious effects of the atmosphere onthe telescope image in real-time is enumerated. The experimentaldescriptions of several working long baseline interferometers in thevisible band are summarized. The astrophysical results obtained tilldate are highlighted. Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem HIPPARCOS BinariesThe ESA Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 12,000 doublestars and discovered 3406 new systems. In addition to these, 4706entries in the Hipparcos Catalogue correspond to double star solutionsthat did not provide the classical parameters of separation and positionangle (rho,theta) but were the so-called problem stars, flagged G,''O,'' V,'' or X'' (field H59 of the main catalog). An additionalsubset of 6981 entries were treated as single objects but classified byHipparcos as suspected nonsingle'' (flag S'' in field H61), thusyielding a total of 11,687 problem stars.'' Of the many ground-basedtechniques for the study of double stars, probably the one with thegreatest potential for exploration of these new and problem Hipparcosbinaries is speckle interferometry. Results are presented from aninspection of 848 new and problem Hipparcos binaries, using botharchival and new speckle observations obtained with the USNO and CHARAspeckle cameras. Speckle observations of double and multiple stars at PIC DU Midi: Measurements during 1995 and 1997 and new orbitsWe present speckle observations of 48 double and multiple stars observedwith the 2-meter Télescope Bernard Lyot'' (TBL) in December1995, January 1997 and June 1997. Angular separations, absolute positionangles and relative photometry result from these observations. Neworbital elements have been recalculated for 8 double stars. Based onobservations made with 2 m Telescope Bernard Lyot, Pic du Midi, France.Tables 3 to 10 are only available in electronic form only via the CDS atftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. Figures 3 and 4 are onlyavailable in electronic form via http://edpsciences.com Speckle imaging of binary stars: Use of ratios of twofold probability density functionsThe probability imaging technique applied to double stars speckle datais presented within the framework of a new approach, giving moredirectly the intensity ratio and relative position of the components.The twofold probability density function is used for this purpose. Atheoretical model is developed, pointing out a relevant quantity deducedfrom the twofold probability density functions of the binary system anda nearby reference star. A method using this quantity is proposed toreconstruct the binary system, together with a reference-less version ofit. The practical implementation of the method is tested for limitingcases and is improved by numerical simulations. Making use of theresulting procedure, intensity ratios and relative positions of thecomponents are obtained for three close binary stars: beta Del, Moa\" \i1=SAO; 12917 and gamma Per. Based on observations obtained at BernardLyot telescope, Pic du Midi de Bigorre, France, and William Hershelltelescope, La Palma, Spain. The Angular Momentum of Main Sequence Stars and Its Relation to Stellar ActivityRotational velocities are reported for intermediate-mass main sequencestars it the field. The measurements are based on new, high S/N CCDspectra from the Coudé Feed Telescope of the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. We analyze these rotation rates for a dependence on bothmass and age. We compare the average rotation speeds of the field starswith mean velocities for young stars in Orion, the Alpha Persei cluster,the Pleiades, and the Hyades. The average rotation speeds of stars moremassive than $\sim1.6$ \msun\experience little or no change during theevolutionary lifetimes of these stars on the zero age main sequence orwithin the main sequence band. Less massive stars in the range betwee n1.6\msun\ and 1.3\msun\ also show little decline in mean rotation ratewhile they are on the main sequence, and at most a factor of 2 decreasein velocity as they evolve off the main sequence. The {\it e}-foldingtime for the loss of angular momentum b y the latter group of stars isat least 1--2 billion years. This inferred characteristic time scale forspindown is far longer than the established rotational braking time forsolar-type stars with masses below $\sim1.3$ \msun. We conclude from acomparison of the trends in rotation with trends in chromospheric andcoronal activity that the overall decline in mean rotation speed alongthe main sequence, from $\sim2$ \msun\ down to $\sim1.3$ \msun, isimposed during the pre-main sequence phase of evolution, and that thispattern changes little thereafter while the star resides on the mainsequence. The magnetic activity implicated in the rotational spindown ofthe Sun and of similar stars during their main sequence lifetimes mus ttherefore play only a minor role in determining the rotation rates ofthe intermediate mass stars, either because a solar-like dynamo is weakor absent, or else the geometry of the magnetic field is appreciablyless effective in removing angular momentu m from these stars. (SECTION:Stars) Hot Inner Disks that Appear and Disappear around Rapidly Rotating A-Type DwarfsAt any one time, approximately one-quarter of the most rapidly rotatingnormal A-type dwarfs (V sin i >= 200 km s-1) show shell lines of TiII in the near-ultraviolet. Our observations during 22 years show thatthe lines appear and disappear on timescales of decades but do notdisplay significant changes within 1 year. This implies that they arenot remnants of the star formation but rather are probably caused bysporadic mass-loss events. A working hypothesis is that all A-type starsthat are rotating near their limits have these shells, but for onlyone-quarter of the time. Because these lines do not appear in stars withsmaller sin i, the shells must be disks. These are hot inner disks thatmay or may not be related to the cool outer disks seen by Smith andTerrile around beta Pic or through infrared excesses around Vega andother A-type dwarfs. The similar, limited line widths indicate that thedisks are ~7 R* above the stellar surfaces. Mesures de vitesses radiales. VIII. Accompagnement AU sol DU programme d'observation DU satellite HIPPARCOSWe publish 1879 radial velocities of stars distributed in 105 fields of4^{\circ} \times 4^{\circ}. We continue the PPO series \cite[(Fehrenbachet al. 1987;]{Feh87} \cite[Duflot et al. 1990, 1992 and 1995),]{Du90}using the Fehrenbach objective prism method. Table 1 only available inelectronic form at CDS via to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Discovery of a new bright close double star.We report in this note the discovery of a close double star. Thebinarity of the bright star SAO 12917 is determined from visible speckleinterferometry with the Bernard Lyot telescope. The separation and theposition angle of the binary system are measured together with arelative photometry in the three visible spectral bands B, V and R. Thedata reduction is performed making use of a cross-correlation technique,derived from the speckle masking technique. We discuss the nature of thecomponents and roughly estimate that the period of this double starsystem is about 13 years. The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. Prediction of spectral classification from photometric observations - Application of the UVBY beta photometry and the MK spectra classification. II - General caseAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1980A&A....85...93M&db_key=AST Absolute luminosity calibration of Stroemgren's 'late group'A statistical parallax method based on the principle of maximumlikelihood is used to calibrate absolute luminosities for samples ofcooler stars constituting the 'late group' defined by Stromgren (1966).The samples examined include 415 stars of all luminosity classes and asubset comprising 86 main-sequence stars. Linear calibration relationsinvolving the Stromgren beta, (b-y), and bracketted c1 indices arederived which yield mean absolute magnitudes with an accuracy of 0.09magnitude for the overall sample and 0.13 magnitude for themain-sequence subsample. Several second-order relations are considered,and the results are compared with Crawford's (1975) calibrations as wellas with mean absolute magnitudes obtained from trigonometric parallaxes.The possible effect of interstellar absorption on the calibrationrelations is also investigated. Rotation and shell spectra among A-type dwarfs.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973ApJ...182..809A&db_key=AST Rotation of evolving A and F stars.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1972A&A....18..428D&db_key=AST Photographical photometry of comets Arend-Roland (1956h) and Giacobini-Zinner (1959b)Not Available
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