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 Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear MotionUseful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr). What Is Happening at Spectral Type F5 in Hyades F Stars?Aiming at a better understanding of the mechanisms heating thechromospheres, transition regions, and coronae of cool stars, we studyultraviolet, low-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Space TelescopeImaging Spectrograph spectra of Hyades main-sequence F stars. We studythe B-V dependence(s) of the chromospheric and transition layer emissionline fluxes and their dependences on rotational velocities. We find thatthe transition layer emission line fluxes and also those of strongchromospheric lines decrease steeply between B-V=0.42 and 0.45, i.e., atspectral type F5, for which the rotational velocities also decreasesteeply. The magnitude of the line-flux decrease increases for lines ofions with increasing degree of ionization. This shows that the line-fluxdecrease is not due to a change in the surface filling factor but ratherdue to a change of the relative importance of different heatingmechanisms. For early F stars with B-V<0.42 we find for thetransition layer emission lines increasing fluxes for increasing vsini,indicating magnetohydrodynamic heating. The vsini dependence isstrongest for the high-ionization lines. On the other hand, the lowchromospheric lines show no dependence on vsini, indicating acousticshock heating for these layers. This also contributes to the heating ofthe transition layers. The Mg II and Ca II lines show decreasing fluxesfor increasing vsini, as long as vsini is less than ~40 kms-1. The coronal X-ray emission also decreases for increasingvsini, except for vsini larger than ~100 km s-1. We have atpresent no explanation for this behavior. For late F stars thechromospheric lines show vsini dependences similar to those observed forearly F stars, again indicating acoustic heating for these layers. Wewere unable to determine the vsini dependence of the transition layerlines because of too few single star targets. The decrease of emissionline fluxes at the spectral type F5, with steeply decreasing vsini,indicates, however, a decreasing contribution of magnetohydrodynamicheating for the late F stars. The X-ray emission for the late F starsincreases for increasing vsini, indicating magnetohydrodynamic heatingfor the coronae of the late F stars, different from the early F stars.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated,under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associationsRadial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.125.8) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446 Empirical calibration of the near-infrared Ca ii triplet - II. The stellar atmospheric parametersWe present a homogeneous set of stellar atmospheric parameters(Teff, logg, [Fe/H]) for a sample of about 700 field andcluster stars which constitute a new stellar library in the near-IRdeveloped for stellar population synthesis in this spectral region(λ8350-9020). Having compiled the available atmospheric data inthe literature for field stars, we have found systematic deviationsbetween the atmospheric parameters from different bibliographicreferences. The Soubiran, Katz & Cayrel sample of stars with verywell determined fundamental parameters has been taken as our standardreference system, and other papers have been calibrated and bootstrappedagainst it. The obtained transformations are provided in this paper.Once most of the data sets were on the same system, final parameterswere derived by performing error weighted means. Atmospheric parametersfor cluster stars have also been revised and updated according to recentmetallicity scales and colour-temperature relations. A Hipparcos study of the Hyades open cluster. Improved colour-absolute magnitude and Hertzsprung-Russell diagramsHipparcos parallaxes fix distances to individual stars in the Hyadescluster with an accuracy of ~ 6 percent. We use the Hipparcos propermotions, which have a larger relative precision than the trigonometricparallaxes, to derive ~ 3 times more precise distance estimates, byassuming that all members share the same space motion. An investigationof the available kinematic data confirms that the Hyades velocity fielddoes not contain significant structure in the form of rotation and/orshear, but is fully consistent with a common space motion plus a(one-dimensional) internal velocity dispersion of ~ 0.30 kms-1. The improved parallaxes as a set are statisticallyconsistent with the Hipparcos parallaxes. The maximum expectedsystematic error in the proper motion-based parallaxes for stars in theouter regions of the cluster (i.e., beyond ~ 2 tidal radii ~ 20 pc) isla 0.30 mas. The new parallaxes confirm that the Hipparcos measurementsare correlated on small angular scales, consistent with the limitsspecified in the Hipparcos Catalogue, though with significantly smalleramplitudes'' than claimed by Narayanan & Gould. We use the Tycho-2long time-baseline astrometric catalogue to derive a set of independentproper motion-based parallaxes for the Hipparcos members. The newparallaxes provide a uniquely sharp view of the three-dimensionalstructure of the Hyades. The colour-absolute magnitude diagram of thecluster based on the new parallaxes shows a well-defined main sequencewith two gaps''/turn-offs''. These features provide the first directobservational support of Böhm-Vitense's prediction that (the onsetof) surface convection in stars significantly affects their (B-V)colours. We present and discuss the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram (log L versus log T_eff) for an objectively defined set of 88high-fidelity members of the cluster as well as the delta Scuti startheta 2 Tau, the giants delta 1, theta1, epsilon , and gamma Tau, and the white dwarfs V471 Tau andHD 27483 (all of which are also members). The precision with which thenew parallaxes place individual Hyades in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram is limited by (systematic) uncertainties related to thetransformations from observed colours and absolute magnitudes toeffective temperatures and luminosities. The new parallaxes providestringent constraints on the calibration of such transformations whencombined with detailed theoretical stellar evolutionary modelling,tailored to the chemical composition and age of the Hyades, over thelarge stellar mass range of the cluster probed by Hipparcos. Internal velocity dispersion in the Hyades as a test for Tycho-2 proper motionsThe Hyades stars have highly coherent motions in space which reflect inthe convergence of their astrometric proper motions in or about a commonconvergent point. The internal dispersion of the Hyades velocities is aslow as about 0.3 km s-1. This is comparable with the expecteduncertainty of the Tycho-2 proper motion at the distance of the Hyades.The classical approach of using the proper motion components normal tothe convergent point direction is employed for some 200 bona fidecluster members located in an area of some 2 000 deg2 andranging in V magnitude 3.4 to 12.1. It is demonstrated that with themost precise Tycho-2 proper motions for some 50 stars, the intrinsicdispersion is measurable at the level of 0.32 km s-1, inagreement with previous estimations obtained from the Hipparcos data andradial velocities. When only 30 stars out of the 50 are considered,which are not known to be spectroscopic binaries, the observed scattersuggests a dispersion of only 0.22 km s-1. The approach inuse is model independent, and sets an upper limit on the intrinsicdispersion of velocities. It is shown for some 180 stars in common, thatthe Tycho-2 proper motions have a very similar precision to that ofHipparcos, but reveal fewer extreme deviants from the common convergentpoint direction. Tycho-2 proper motions are based on long series ofobservations, up to a 100 years, and are therefore less subject to theorbital motion effects in binaries. The ratio of the external error tothe formal error of the Tycho-2 proper motions may be up to 1.3 forstars fainter than V_T=8.5 mag. An alternative explanation for the extrascatter in low-precision subsets is discussed, that less massive starsmay indeed have larger observed velocity dispersion due to the binarityeffect. Based on observations made with the ESA Hipparcos satellite. Empirical calibration of the lambda 4000 Å breakEmpirical fitting functions, describing the behaviour of the lambda 4000Ä break, D4000, in terms of effective temperature,metallicity and surface gravity, are presented. For this purpose, thebreak has been measured in 392 stars from the Lick/IDS Library. We havefollowed a very detailed error treatment in the reduction and fittingprocedures, allowing for a reliable estimation of the breakuncertainties. This calibration can be easily incorporated into stellarpopulation models to provide accurate predictions of the break amplitudefor, relatively old, composite systems. Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Testing convection theories using Balmer line profiles of A, F, and G starsWe consider the effects of convection on the Balmer line profiles({H_α} and {H_β}) of A, F, and G stars. The standardmixing-length theory (MLT) atlas9 models of Kurucz (1993), with andwithout overshooting, are compared to atlas9 models based on theturbulent convection theory proposed by Canuto & Mazzitelli (1991,1992) and implemented by Kupka (1996), and the improved version of thismodel proposed by Canuto et al. (1996) also implemented by Kupka. TheBalmer line profiles are a useful tool in investigating convectionbecause they are very sensitive to the parameters of convection used inthe stellar atmosphere codes. The {H_α} and {H_β} lines areformed at different depths in the atmosphere. The {H_α} line isformed just above the convection zone. The {H_β} line, however, ispartially formed inside the convection zone. We have calculated the{T_eff} of observed stars by fitting Balmer line profiles to syntheticspectra and compared this to: (i) the {T_eff} of the fundamental stars;(ii) the {T_eff} of stars determined by the Infra-Red Flux Method and(iii) the {T_eff} determined by Geneva photometry for the stars in theHyades cluster. We find that the results from the {H_α} and{H_β} lines are different, as expected, due to the differing levelsof formation. The tests are inconclusive between three of the fourmodels; MLT with no overshooting, CM and CGM models, which all giveresults in reasonable agreement with fundamental values. The resultsindicate that for the MLT theory with no overshooting it is necessary toset the mixing length parameter alpha equal to 0.5 for stars with {T_eff<= 6000} K or {T_eff >= 7000} K. However for stars with {6000}K{<= T_eff <= 7000} K the required value for the parameter is{alpha >= 1.25}. Models with overshooting are found to be clearlydiscrepant, consistent with the results with uvby photometry by Smalley& Kupka (1997). Based on observations made at the Observatorio delRoque de los Muchachos using the Richardson-Brealey Spectrograph on the1.0m Jacobs Kapteyn Telescope. Color indices of the Sun and Hyades stars in the WBVR systemUsing an original setup at high altitudes, we measured the color indicesof the Sun in the WBVR photometric system relative to standard stars: (W- B)_solar = -0.05, (B - V)_solar = +0.67, and (V - R)_solar = +0.53. Wepresent the WBVR photometry for the Hyades members selected by vanBueren by their space velocities. The solar position is shown intwo-color diagrams relative to Hyades stars and bright G2 V stars. Acomparison of our results with Kurucz's models reveals a discrepancybetween the metallicities of the models and the Hyades members. Chromospheric Activity in the Late A- and Early F-Type Stars of Open Clusters. I. Hyades, Praesepe, and ComaWe report observations of the He i lambda5876 (D3) line in the late A-and early F-type stars in the Hyades, Praesepe, and Coma star clustersused to determine chromospheric activity levels. The average activitylevel in the early F-type stars is statistically identical in the threeclusters and in field dwarfs, and the dispersion in activity levels ineach sample is similar. The earliest star detected in each clusterranges from B-V = 0.26 in the Hyades to B-V = 0.31 in Praesepe. However,four stars in the Hyades in the range 0.28-0.32 are not detected. Thedetection of Hyades star VB 84 at B-V = 0.26 represents the bluest starobserved to date with a statistically nonzero chromospheric D3equivalent width. In nine early F-type stars we compare D3 strengtheither during two different observing runs or in several individualintegrations. In two stars we find evidence for short-term variabilityof a factor of 2 on timescales of 1 day or less. The timescale of thevariability is consistent with rotational modulation. Finally, thesimilarity in chromospheric activity in the Hyades and Praesepe starscontrasts with the significant weakness of coronal X-ray emission ofearly F-type stars in Praesepe compared to Hyades. We have noexplanation for this difference; however, this result suggests that theobserved disappearance of D3 in the late A-type stars is not directlycaused by the weak coronal emission of these stars. Photometric Abundance Calibration of delta Scuti Stars Using HK PhotometryThe hk index has been used as a metallicity indicator for RR Lyraevariable stars. It is now being applied to the shorter period deltaScuti variables. Employing spectroscopic abundances of stars withpublished hk values and photometric indices calculated from stellaratmosphere models, a three-dimensional interpolation is used todetermine [Fe/H] from intrinsic b-y, c_1, and hk values. The resulting[Fe/H], log g, and T_eff values for 10 delta Scuti stars are presented. The Age Range of Hyades StarsOn the basis of canonical models, the age of Hyades supercluster stars,whether in the Hyades and Praesepe clusters or the noncluster field,ranges from (5-6) x 10^8 to 10^9 yr. The difference between the parallaxderived from the supercluster motion and that obtained from Hipparcosobservations has a dispersion only twice that of the mean dispersion ofthe individual Hipparcos values. The supercluster appears not to containred giants on the first ascent of the red giant branch, but onlyasymptotic giant branch (clump'') stars. The masses obtained forindividual components of binary stars in the supercluster show adispersion of less than 10% when compared with model predictions. The Multiplicity of the Hyades and Its Implications for Binary Star Formation and EvolutionA 2.2 μm speckle imaging survey of 167 bright (K < 8.5 mag) Hyadesmembers reveals a total of 33 binaries with separations spanning 0.044"to 1.34" and magnitude differences as large as 5.5 mag. Of thesebinaries, 9 are new detections and an additional 20 are now spatiallyresolved spectroscopic binaries, providing a sample from which dynamicalmasses and distances can be obtained. The closest three systems,marginally resolved at Palomar Observatory, were reobserved with the 10m Keck Telescope in order to determine accurate binary star parameters.Combining the results of this survey with previous radial velocity,optical speckle, and direct-imaging Hyades surveys, the detectedmultiplicity of the sample is 98 singles, 59 binaries, and 10 triples. Astatistical analysis of this sample investigates a variety of multiplestar formation and evolution theories. Over the binary separation range0.1"-1.07" (5-50 AU), the sensitivity to companion stars is relativelyuniform, with = 4 mag, equivalent to a mass ratio = 0.23. Accounting for the inability to detect high fluxratio binaries results in an implied companion star fraction (CSF) of0.30 +/- 0.06 in this separation range. The Hyades CSF is intermediatebetween the values derived from observations of T Tauri stars (CSF_TTS =0.40 +/- 0.08) and solar neighborhood G dwarfs (CSF_SN = 0.14 +/- 0.03).This result allows for an evolution of the CSF from an initially highvalue for the pre-main sequence to that found for main-sequence stars.Within the Hyades, the CSF and the mass ratio distribution provideobservational tests of binary formation mechanisms. The CSF isindependent of the radial distance from the cluster center and theprimary star mass. The distribution of mass ratios is best fitted by apower law q^-1.3+/-0.3 and shows no dependence on the primary mass,binary separation, or radial distance from the cluster center. Overall,the Hyades data are consistent with scale-free fragmentation, butinconsistent with capture and disk-assisted capture in small clusters.Without testable predictions, scale-dependent fragmentation and diskfragmentation cannot be assessed with the Hyades data. The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright main-sequence stars and subgiant starsWe present X-ray data for all main-sequence and subgiant stars ofspectral types A, F, G, and K and luminosity classes IV and V listed inthe Bright Star Catalogue that have been detected as X-ray sources inthe ROSAT all-sky survey; several stars without luminosity class arealso included. The catalogue contains 980 entries yielding an averagedetection rate of 32 percent. In addition to count rates, sourcedetection parameters, hardness ratios, and X-ray fluxes we also listX-ray luminosities derived from Hipparcos parallaxes. The catalogue isalso available in electronic form via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Pulsating and nonpulsating stars in Hyades observed by HIPPARCOS satelliteA study of the stars in the instability strip of Hyades cluster has beenperformed taking into account the new estimate of the stellarparallaxes. For taking advantage of the improved accuracy of thedistances and hence absolute magnitudes it is necessary to separate thephotometric effects of close companions, which appear quite common inHyades. The delta Scuti stars, differently from nonpulsating stars,appear to be located also above the main sequence, and this is dueprobably to their large rotational velocity. The comparison of therotational effects on the star position in the color-magnitude diagramwith theoretical model predictions tends to confirm the importance ofdifferential rotation. A brief discussion of theta (2) Tau and someremarks on the X-ray emission of other two delta Scuti stars are alsoreported. Based on data from Hipparcos astrometry satellite The Hyades: distance, structure, dynamics, and age{We use absolute trigonometric parallaxes from the Hipparcos Catalogueto determine individual distances to members of the Hyades cluster, fromwhich the 3-dimensional structure of the cluster can be derived.Inertially-referenced proper motions are used to rediscuss distancedeterminations based on convergent-point analyses. A combination ofparallaxes and proper motions from Hipparcos, and radial velocities fromground-based observations, are used to determine the position andvelocity components of candidate members with respect to the clustercentre, providing new information on cluster membership: 13 newcandidate members within 20 pc of the cluster centre have beenidentified. Farther from the cluster centre there is a gradual mergingbetween certain cluster members and field stars, both spatially andkinematically. Within the cluster, the kinematical structure is fullyconsistent with parallel space motion of the component stars with aninternal velocity dispersion of about 0.3 km s(-1) . The spatialstructure and mass segregation are consistent with N-body simulationresults, without the need to invoke expansion, contraction, rotation, orother significant perturbations of the cluster. The quality of theindividual distance determinations permits the cluster zero-age mainsequence to be accurately modelled. The helium abundance for the clusteris determined to be Y =3D 0.26+/-0.02 which, combined with isochronemodelling including convective overshooting, yields a cluster age of625+/-50 Myr. The distance to the observed centre of mass (a conceptmeaningful only in the restricted context of the cluster memberscontained in the Hipparcos Catalogue) is 46.34+/-0.27 pc, correspondingto a distance modulus m-M=3D3.33+/-0.01 mag for the objects within 10 pcof the cluster centre (roughly corresponding to the tidal radius). Thisdistance modulus is close to, but significantly better determined than,that derived from recent high-precision radial velocity studies,somewhat larger than that indicated by recent ground-based trigonometricparallax determinations, and smaller than those found from recentstudies of the cluster convergent point. These discrepancies areinvestigated and explained. } Based on observations made with the ESAHipparcos astrometry satellite. Table~2 is also available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circleThe sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30. The Angular Momentum of Main Sequence Stars and Its Relation to Stellar ActivityRotational velocities are reported for intermediate-mass main sequencestars it the field. The measurements are based on new, high S/N CCDspectra from the Coudé Feed Telescope of the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. We analyze these rotation rates for a dependence on bothmass and age. We compare the average rotation speeds of the field starswith mean velocities for young stars in Orion, the Alpha Persei cluster,the Pleiades, and the Hyades. The average rotation speeds of stars moremassive than $\sim1.6$ \msun\experience little or no change during theevolutionary lifetimes of these stars on the zero age main sequence orwithin the main sequence band. Less massive stars in the range betwee n1.6\msun\ and 1.3\msun\ also show little decline in mean rotation ratewhile they are on the main sequence, and at most a factor of 2 decreasein velocity as they evolve off the main sequence. The {\it e}-foldingtime for the loss of angular momentum b y the latter group of stars isat least 1--2 billion years. This inferred characteristic time scale forspindown is far longer than the established rotational braking time forsolar-type stars with masses below $\sim1.3$ \msun. We conclude from acomparison of the trends in rotation with trends in chromospheric andcoronal activity that the overall decline in mean rotation speed alongthe main sequence, from $\sim2$ \msun\ down to $\sim1.3$ \msun, isimposed during the pre-main sequence phase of evolution, and that thispattern changes little thereafter while the star resides on the mainsequence. The magnetic activity implicated in the rotational spindown ofthe Sun and of similar stars during their main sequence lifetimes mus ttherefore play only a minor role in determining the rotation rates ofthe intermediate mass stars, either because a solar-like dynamo is weakor absent, or else the geometry of the magnetic field is appreciablyless effective in removing angular momentu m from these stars. (SECTION:Stars) A New and Comprehensive Determination of the Distance to Member Stars of the HyadesThis paper critiques the methods used in the past for estimating thedistances to the stars that make up the Hyades moving cluster, anddevelops one which is new and comprehensive. We develop a formalism forthe application of stochastic restrictions to the adjustment parameters(velocity components and distances) and test it on constructed clustermodels. We perform model calculations with fictitious model starclusters in which the `true' values of the input parameters (ie.positions, distances and velocity components) are therefore known. Thecomparison of the distances recovered by different methods with the trueinput distances shows our approach to be very superior to thetraditional ones that estimate distances by the method of streamparallaxes without restricting the adjustment parameters. Applying ouralgorithm to the Hyades, we assume a dispersion of 0.25 kps in eachcoordinate about a common value for the velocity components of thecluster members and a dispersion of 5pc about the distance to thecluster's centre for the distances to the stars in the cluster. Underthese stochastic restrictions, we analyse the known estimates (ie.measurements) of trigonometric parallaxes, sets of high-precision propermotion pairs and high-precision radial velocities subject to theabove-stated stochastic constraints, and as a result estimate thecluster's centre to be at a distance of 45.8+/-1.25 (standard error) pc. H gamma and H delta Absorption Features in Stars and Stellar PopulationsThe H gamma and H delta absorption features are measured in a sample of455 (out of an original 460) Lick/IDS stars with pseudo--equivalentwidth indices. For each Balmer feature, two definitions, involving anarrow (~20 Angstroms) and a wide (~40 Angstroms) central bandpass, aremeasured. These four new Balmer indices augment 21 indices previouslydetermined by Worthey et al., and polynomial fitting functions that giveindex strengths as a function of stellar temperature, gravity, and[Fe/H] are provided. The new indices are folded into models for theintegrated light of stellar populations, and predictions are given forsingle-burst stellar populations of a variety of ages and metallicities.Contrary to our initial hopes, the indices cannot break a degeneracybetween burst age and burst strength in post-starburst objects, but theyare successful mean-age indicators when used with sensitive metallicityindicators. An appendix gives data, advice, and examples of how totransform new spectra to the 25-index Lick/IDS system. Spectrophotometry of 237 Stars in 7 Open ClustersSpectrophotometry is presented for 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters:Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, andM39. The observations were taken by Lee McDonald and David Bursteinusing the Wampler single-channel scanner on the Crossley 0.9m telescopeat Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. Sixteenbandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstromswere observed for each star, with bandwidths 32Angstroms, 48 Angstromsor 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes-Latham system tomutual accuracy of 0.016 mag per passband. The accuracy of thespectrophotometry is assessed in three ways on a star-by-star basis.First, comparisons are made with previously published spectrophotometryfor 19 stars observed in common. Second, (B-V) colors and uvby colorsare compared for 236 stars and 221 stars, respectively. Finally,comparsions are made for 200 main sequence stars to the spectralsynthesis models of Kurucz, fixing log g = 4.0 and [Fe/H] = 0.0, andonly varying effective temperature. The accuracy of tests using uvbycolors and the Kurucz models are shown to track each other closely,yielding an accuracy estimate (1 sigma ) of 0.01 mag for the 13 colorsformed from bandpasses longward of the Balmer jump, and 0.02 mag for the3 colors formed from the three bandpasses below the Balmer jump. Incontrast, larger scatter is found relative to the previously publishedspectrophotometry of Bohm-Vitense & Johnson (16 stars in common) andGunn & Stryker (3 stars). We also show that the scatter in the fitsof the spectrophotometric colors and the uvby filter colors is areasonable way to identify the observations of which specific stars areaccurate to 1 sigma , 2 sigma , .... As such, the residuals from boththe filter color fits and the Kurucz model fits are tabulated for eachstar where it was possible to make a comparison, so users of these datacan choose stars according to the accuracy of the data that isappropriate to their needs. The very good agreement between the modelsand these data verifies the accuracy of these data, and also verifiesthe usefulness of the Kurucz models to define spectrophotometry forstars in this temperature range (>5000 K). These data define accuratespectrophotometry of bright, open cluster stars that can be used as asecondary flux calibration for CCD-based spectrophotometric surveys. The role of convection on the UVBY colours of A, F, and G starsWe discuss the effects of convection on the theoretical uvby colours ofA, F, and G stars. The standard mixing-length theory atlas9 models ofKurucz (1993), with and without approximate overshooting, are comparedto models using the turbulent convection theory proposed by Canuto &Mazzitelli (1991, 1992) and implemented by Kupka (1996a). Comparisonwith fundamental T_eff and log g stars reveals that the Canuto &Mazzitelli models give results that are generally superior to standardmixing-length theory (MLT) without convective overshooting. MLT modelswith overshooting are found to be clearly discrepant. This is supportedby comparisons of non-fundamental stars, with T_eff obtained from theInfrared Flux Method and log g from stellar evolutionary models for opencluster stars. The Canuto & Mazzitelli theory gives values of(b-y)_0 and c_0 that are in best overall agreement with observations.Investigations of the m_0 index reveal that all of the treatments ofconvection presented here give values that are significantly discrepantfor models with T_eff < 6000 K. It is unclear as to whether this isdue to problems with the treatment of convection, missing opacity, orsome other reason. None of the models give totally satisfactory m_0indices for hotter stars, but the Canuto & Mazzitelli models are inclosest overall agreement above 7000 K. Grids of uvby colours, based onthe CM treatment of convection, are presented. These grids represent animprovement over the colours obtained from models using themixing-length theory. The agreement with fundamental stars enables thecolours to be used directly without the need for semi-empiricaladjustments that were necessary with the earlier colour grids. Table~5is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html A Search for Gamma-Doradus Type Variable Stars in the HyadesAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995MNRAS.277.1404K&db_key=AST The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST ROSAT All-Sky Survey Observations of the Hyades ClusterAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...448..683S&db_key=AST Ca II H and K Filter Photometry on the UVBY System. II. The Catalog of ObservationsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....109.2828T&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. Radio continuum emission from stars: a catalogue update.An updated version of my catalogue of radio stars is presented. Somestatistics and availability are discussed. Photometric elements, absolute dimensions and evolutionary status of the eclipsing binary HU Tauri (HR 1471).The photometric elements of HU Tauri are derived from an analysis of itsblue and visual light curves using the Wilson & Devinney (1971)light curve synthesis method. The photometric elements suggest that HUTauri is a semidetached system and the primary minimum in its lightcurve is due to an occultation eclipse. Combining the photometricelements and spectroscopic orbital elements the absolute dimensions ofthe system are derived. The masses and radii of the B8 V primary andF8-G2 III-IV type secondary are found to be 4.68Msun_,2.9Rsun_ and 1.26Msun_, 3.34Rsun_respectively. The cool and less massive secondary has filled its Rochelobe and it is over luminous for its mass.
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