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 Precise radial velocities of giant stars. I. Stable starsContext: .Future astrometric missions such as SIM PlanetQuest need verystable reference stars. K giants have large luminosities, which placethem at large distances and thus the jitter of their photocenters bycompanions is relatively small. Therefore K giants would be best suitedas references. To confirm this observationally a radial velocity surveyis performed to quantify the level of intrinsic variability in Kgiants. Aims: .From this radial velocity survey we present 34 Kgiants with an observed standard deviation of the radial velocity ofless than 20 m/s. These stars are considered "stable" and can be used asradial velocity standards. Methods: .The radial velocity surveycontains 179 K giants. All K giants have a declination between -30°and +65° and visual magnitude of 3{-}6 mag. The CoudéAuxiliary Telescope (CAT) at UCO/Lick Observatory is used to obtainradial velocities with an accuracy of 5{-}8 m/s. The number of epochsfor the 34 stable stars ranges from 11 to 28 with a total timespan ofthe observations between 1800 and a little over 2200 days. Results: .The observational results of the 34 "stable" stars are showntogether with a discussion about their position in the MV vs.B-V diagram and some conclusions concerning the radial velocityvariability of K giants. These results are in agreement with thetheoretical predictions. K giants in a certain range of theMV vs. B-V diagram are suitable reference stars. Chromospheric Ca II Emission in Nearby F, G, K, and M StarsWe present chromospheric Ca II H and K activity measurements, rotationperiods, and ages for ~1200 F, G, K, and M type main-sequence stars from~18,000 archival spectra taken at Keck and Lick Observatories as a partof the California and Carnegie Planet Search Project. We have calibratedour chromospheric S-values against the Mount Wilson chromosphericactivity data. From these measurements we have calculated medianactivity levels and derived R'HK, stellar ages,and rotation periods from general parameterizations for 1228 stars,~1000 of which have no previously published S-values. We also presentprecise time series of activity measurements for these stars.Based on observations obtained at Lick Observatory, which is operated bythe University of California, and on observations obtained at the W. M.Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University ofCalifornia and the California Institute of Technology. The KeckObservatory was made possible by the generous financial support of theW. M. Keck Foundation. On the link between rotation, chromospheric activity and Li abundance in subgiant starsThe connection rotation-CaII emission flux-lithium abundance is analyzedfor a sample of bona fide subgiant stars, with evolutionary statusdetermined from HIPPARCOS trigonometric parallax measurements and fromthe Toulouse-Geneva code. The distribution of rotation and CaII emissionflux as a function of effective temperature shows a discontinuitylocated around the same spectral type, F8IV. Blueward of this spectraltype, subgiants have a large spread of values of rotation and CaII flux,whereas stars redward of F8IV show essentially low rotation and low CaIIflux. The strength of these declines depends on stellar mass. Theabundance of lithium also shows a sudden decrease. For subgiants withmass lower than about 1.2 Msun the decrease is located laterthan that in rotation and CaII flux, whereas for masses higher than 1.2Msun the decrease in lithium abundance is located around thespectral type F8IV. The discrepancy between the location of thediscontinuities of rotation and CaII emission flux and log n(Li) forstars with masses lower than 1.2 Msun seems to reflect thesensitivity of these phenomena to the mass of the convective envelope.The drop in rotation, which results mostly from a magnetic braking,requires an increase in the mass of the convective envelope less thanthat required for the decrease in log n(Li). The location of thediscontinuity in log n(Li) for stars with masses higher than 1.2Msun, in the same region of the discontinuities in rotationand CaII emission flux, may also be explained by the behavior of thedeepening of the convective envelope. The more massive the star is, theearlier is the increase of the convective envelope. In contrast to therelationship between rotation and CaII flux, which is fairly linear, therelationship between lithium abundance and rotation shows no cleartendency toward linear behavior. Similarly, no clear linear trend isobserved in the relationship between lithium abundance and CaII flux. Inspite of these facts, subgiants with high lithium content also have highrotation and high CaII emission flux. Radial Velocities for 889 Late-Type StarsWe report radial velocities for 844 FGKM-type main-sequence and subgiantstars and 45 K giants, most of which had either low-precision velocitymeasurements or none at all. These velocities differ from the standardstars of Udry et al. by 0.035 km s-1 (rms) for the 26 FGKstandard stars in common. The zero point of our velocities differs fromthat of Udry et al.: =+0.053km s-1. Thus, these new velocities agree with the best knownstandard stars both in precision and zero point, to well within 0.1 kms-1. Nonetheless, both these velocities and the standardssuffer from three sources of systematic error, namely, convectiveblueshift, gravitational redshift, and spectral type mismatch of thereference spectrum. These systematic errors are here forced to be zerofor G2 V stars by using the Sun as reference, with Vesta and day sky asproxies. But for spectral types departing from solar, the systematicerrors reach 0.3 km s-1 in the F and K stars and 0.4 kms-1 in M dwarfs. Multiple spectra were obtained for all 889stars during 4 years, and 782 of them exhibit velocity scatter less than0.1 km s-1. These stars may serve as radial velocitystandards if they remain constant in velocity. We found 11 newspectroscopic binaries and report orbital parameters for them. Based onobservations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operatedjointly by the University of California and the California Institute ofTechnology, and on observations obtained at the Lick Observatory, whichis operated by the University of California. Post-T Tauri Stars in the Nearest OB AssociationWe present results of a spectroscopic survey of X-ray- andproper-motion-selected samples of late-type stars in the LowerCentaurus-Crux (LCC) and Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL) subgroups of thenearest OB association: Scorpius-Centaurus. The primary goals of thesurvey are to determine the star formation history of the OB subgroupsand to assess the frequency of accreting stars in a sample dominated bypost-T Tauri'' pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. We investigate twosamples: (1) proper-motion candidates from the ACT Catalog and TychoReference Catalog (TRC) with X-ray counterparts in the ROSAT All-SkySurvey (RASS) Bright Source Catalog and (2) G- and K-type stars in theHipparcos catalog found to be candidate members by de Zeeuw et al. Weobtained optical spectra of 130 candidates with the Siding Spring 2.3 mdual-beam spectrograph. PMS stars were identified by (1) strong Liλ6707 absorption, (2) subgiant surface gravities, (3) propermotions consistent with Sco-Cen membership, and (4) H-R diagrampositions consistent with being PMS. We find 93% of the RASS-ACT/TRCstars to be probable PMS members, compared with 73% of the Hipparcoscandidates. We demonstrate that measuring the gravity-sensitive bandratio of Sr II λ4077 to Fe I λ4071 is a valuable means ofdiscriminating PMS and zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) stars. Usingsecular parallaxes and Hipparcos, Tycho-2, and Two Micron All Sky Surveyphotometry, we construct an H-R diagram. Depending on the choice ofpublished evolutionary tracks, we find the mean ages of the PMSpopulations to range between 17 and 23 Myr for LCC and 15 and 22 Myr forUCL. Taking into account observational errors, it appears that 95% ofthe low-mass star formation in each subgroup must have occurred in lessthan 8 Myr (LCC) and 12 Myr (UCL). Using the Bertelli et al. tracks, wefind main-sequence turnoff ages for Hipparcos B-type members to be16+/-1 Myr for LCC and 17+/-1 Myr for UCL. Contrary to previousfindings, it appears that LCC is coeval with, or slightly older than,UCL. The secular parallaxes of the Sco-Cen PMS stars yield distances of85-215 pc, with 12 of the LCC members lying within 100 pc of the Sun.Only one out of 110 (0.9+2.1-0.8%; 1 σ) PMSsolar-type stars in the sample with ages of 13+/-1 (s.e.)+/-6 (1σ) Myr and masses of 1.3+/-0.2 (1 σ) Msolar showsboth enhanced Hα emission and a K-band excess indicative ofaccretion from a truncated circumstellar disk: the nearby (d~=86 pc)classical T Tauri star PDS 66. A Strategy for Identifying the Grid Stars for the Space Interferometry MissionWe present a strategy to identify several thousand stars that areastrometrically stable at the microarcsecond level for use in the SpaceInterferometry Mission (SIM) astrometric grid. The requirements on thegrid stars make this a rather challenging task. Taking a variety ofconsiderations into account, we argue for K giants as the best type ofstars for the grid, mainly because they can be located at much largerdistances than any other type of star owing to their intrinsicbrightness. We show that it is possible to identify suitable candidategrid K giants from existing astrometric catalogs. However, double starshave to be eliminated from these candidate grid samples, since theygenerally produce much larger astrometric jitter than tolerable for thegrid. The most efficient way to achieve this is probably by means of aradial velocity survey. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach,we repeatedly measured the radial velocities for a preselected sample of86 nearby Hipparcos K giants with precisions of 5-8 m s-1.The distribution of the intrinsic radial velocity variations for thebona fide single K giants shows a maximum around 20 m s-1,which is small enough not to severely affect the identification ofstellar companions around other K giants. We use the results of ourobservations as input parameters for Monte Carlo simulations on thepossible design of a radial velocity survey of all grid stars. Ourfavored scenario would result in a grid which consists to 68% of truesingle stars and to 32% of double or multiple stars with periods mostlylarger than 200 years, but only 3.6% of all grid stars would displayastrometric jitter larger than 1 μas. This contamination level isprobably tolerable. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Lithium in population I subgiantsWe present a lithium survey for a sample of 91 Pop. I stars. JHKLphotometry was also obtained for 61 stars in the sample. Besides Liabundances, [Fe/H] values were derived. Thanks to Hipparcos parallaxes,we could infer absolute V magnitudes for our sample stars and were ableto place them on the color-magnitude diagram, which allowed us toconstrain their evolutionary status. Masses and ages were derived formost of the stars by comparison with evolutionary tracks. The sample wasoriginally selected so to include class IV stars later thanspectral-type F0, but, based on the location on the color-magnitudediagram, we found a posteriori that a fraction of the stars (about 20%)are either main sequence stars or evolved giants. As it is the case fordwarfs and giants, a large spread in lithium abundance is present amongthe subgiants in our sample. As expected, the average lithium decreasesas the stars evolve along the subgiant branch; however, there is not aone-to-one relationship between the position on the color-magnitudediagram and lithium abundance, and the observed dispersion is onlypartially explainable as due to a dispersion in mass, metallicity, andage. In particular, a dispersion in lithium is seen among slightlyevolved subgiants with masses close to solar but in the sameevolutionary stage as the G2 IV star beta Hyi. The comparison of thebeta Hyi-like sample with a sample of non evolved solar-like starsindeed suggests that beta Hyi has most likely evolved from a mainsequence Li-rich star, rather than from a Li-poor star (like the Sun)that has dredged-up previously stored lithium. Our sample includesseveral stars that have completed the first-dredge up lithium dilution,but that have not yet evolved to the evolutionary point whereextra-mixing in the giant phase is thought to occur. A large number ofthem have Li abundances considerably below the theoretical predictionsof first dredge-up dilution. We confirm that this is due to the factthat the progenitors of these stars are most likely stars that havedepleted lithium while on the main sequence; the fraction of post-dredgeup Li rich/poor stars, in fact, is consistent with the observeddistribution of Li abundances among stars that have just left the mainsequence. The signature of the second mixing (or RGB extra-mixing)episode is evident in the log n(Li) vs. B-V and log n(Li) vs. M_boldistributions of the stars in the sample; it seems however that theextra-mixing occurs at luminosities lower than predicted by the modelsof Charbonnel (1994). Finally, a few evolved giants are found thatshould have passed the second mixing episode, but that do not show signsof it. At least half of them are spectroscopic binaries. Based onobservations carried out at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile Ca II H and K Filter Photometry on the UVBY System. II. The Catalog of ObservationsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....109.2828T&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. Optical Polarization of 1000 Stars Within 50-PARSECS from the SunAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993A&AS..101..551L&db_key=AST Ca II H and K filter photometry on the UVBY system. I - The standard systemA fifth filter (fwhm = 90 A) centered on Ca II H and K has beendeveloped for use with the standard uvby system. The filter, called Ca,is designed primarily for applications to metal-poor dwarfs and redgiants, regions where the uvby metallicity index, m(l), loses somesensitivity. An index, hk, is defined by replacing v in m(l) by Ca. Theeffects of interstellar extinction on the index are modeled anddemonstrated to be modest and relatively insensitive to spectral type.Observations of V, (b-y), and hk for 163 primary standards are detailedand transformed to the standard V and (b-y) system. A qualitativeanalysis using only the primary standards indicates that hk is moresensitive than m(l) over the regions of interest by about a factor of 3. Photoelectric photometry of G-M stars in the Vilnius systemNot Available A list of MK standard starsNot Available The Perkins catalog of revised MK types for the cooler starsA catalog is presented listing the spectral types of the G, K, M, and Sstars that have been classified at the Perkins Observatory in therevised MK system. Extensive comparisons have been made to ensureconsistency between the MK spectral types of stars in the Northern andSouthern Hemispheres. Different classification spectrograms have beengradually improved in spite of some inherent limitations. In thecatalog, the full subclasses used are the following: G0, G5, G8, K0, K1,K2, K3, K4, K5, M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M7, and M8. Theirregularities are the price paid for keeping the general scheme of theoriginal Henry Draper classification. 1988 Revised MK Spectral Standards for Stars GO and LaterNot Available 1985 revised MK spectral standards : stars GO and laterNot Available Revised MK Spectral Standard Stars Later than G0Not Available Stellar chromospheres - H-alpha and CA II K profilesA set of medium to high-resolution observations of H-alpha and Ca II Klines in a sample of Population I stars is presented in order to examinethe systematics of H-alpha absorption profiles and to determineempirically the extent to which velocity fields observed therein arereflected in the chromospheric component of the Ca II line. Formain-sequence stars, bright Ca II K emission profiles accompany shallowH-alpha lines with sharp central cores, unlike the apparently U-shapedH-alpha cores of stars displaying relatively weak Ca II K emission. Forgiants and supergiants, the H-alpha line is generally wider than acomputed LTE photospheric profile, with significant K(3) absorptionpresent in the Ca II K(2) reversal profile. The excess widths appear tocorrelate with the strength of the K(3) absorption. Estimates of thestrength of Ca II K(3) indicate severe modifications of Ca II K(2)widths and intensities, strongly affecting the cooling role of Ca II Kin the upper chromospheres. Magnetic structure in cool stars. VI - CA II H and K fluxes from evolved starsQuantitative measurements of the Ca II H and K flux of 335 evolved starsare presented and discussed. The results show that there is a largespread in the fluxes from stars with (B-V) less than 0.95 while the CaII H and K flux of single stars with (B-V) greater than 0.95 correlateswith color with little spread. Short-period binaries show a relativelyhigh Ca II H and K flux indicating that high fluxes result from rapidrotation independent of spectral type. The data are consistent with thehypothesis that the emission depends on dynamo action in the convectiveenvelope, the dynamo efficiency decreasing with decreasing rotationrate. The evolution of the emission is discussed as a function ofstellar mass. It is shown that stars which leave the main sequence withrelatively low or high rotational velocities show relatively low or highemission values, respectively. The flux lasts up to higher (B-V) valuesfor progressively higher masses. Catalogue of stars with CaII H and K emissionsNot Available Absolute magnitudes of stars from widths of chromospheric CaII emission lines.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976ApJ...205..823W&db_key=AST Strong-Cyanogen Stars: Photometry and KinematicsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971ApJ...165..561J&db_key=AST Narrow-Band and Broad-Band Photometry of Red Stars. III. Southern GiantsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1970ApJ...161..199E&db_key=AST Stellar radial velocities derived from microphotometer measurements.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1969AJ.....74...91L&db_key=AST The Effect of Metal Abundance on K-Line Absolute MagnitudesAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1968PASP...80..717Y&db_key=AST Stellar groups, V. Luminosities, motions and masses of the late-type sub-giantsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1960MNRAS.120..430E&db_key=AST H and K Emission in Late-Type Stars: Dependence of Line Width on Luminosity and Related Topics.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1957ApJ...125..661W&db_key=AST
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