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 Astrometric orbits of SB^9 starsHipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) have been used to deriveastrometric orbital elements for spectroscopic binaries from the newlyreleased Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits(SB^9). This endeavour is justified by the fact that (i) theastrometric orbital motion is often difficult to detect without theprior knowledge of the spectroscopic orbital elements, and (ii) suchknowledge was not available at the time of the construction of theHipparcos Catalogue for the spectroscopic binaries which were recentlyadded to the SB^9 catalogue. Among the 1374 binaries fromSB^9 which have an HIP entry (excluding binaries with visualcompanions, or DMSA/C in the Double and Multiple Stars Annex), 282 havedetectable orbital astrometric motion (at the 5% significance level).Among those, only 70 have astrometric orbital elements that are reliablydetermined (according to specific statistical tests), and for the firsttime for 20 systems. This represents a 8.5% increase of the number ofastrometric systems with known orbital elements (The Double and MultipleSystems Annex contains 235 of those DMSA/O systems). The detection ofthe astrometric orbital motion when the Hipparcos IAD are supplementedby the spectroscopic orbital elements is close to 100% for binaries withonly one visible component, provided that the period is in the 50-1000 drange and the parallax is >5 mas. This result is an interestingtestbed to guide the choice of algorithms and statistical tests to beused in the search for astrometric binaries during the forthcoming ESAGaia mission. Finally, orbital inclinations provided by the presentanalysis have been used to derive several astrophysical quantities. Forinstance, 29 among the 70 systems with reliable astrometric orbitalelements involve main sequence stars for which the companion mass couldbe derived. Some interesting conclusions may be drawn from this new setof stellar masses, like the enigmatic nature of the companion to theHyades F dwarf HIP 20935. This system has a mass ratio of 0.98 but thecompanion remains elusive. CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 Contributions to the Nearby Stars (NStars) Project: Spectroscopy of Stars Earlier than M0 within 40 Parsecs: The Northern Sample. I.We have embarked on a project, under the aegis of the Nearby Stars(NStars)/Space Interferometry Mission Preparatory Science Program, toobtain spectra, spectral types, and, where feasible, basic physicalparameters for the 3600 dwarf and giant stars earlier than M0 within 40pc of the Sun. In this paper, we report on the results of this projectfor the first 664 stars in the northern hemisphere. These resultsinclude precise, homogeneous spectral types, basic physical parameters(including the effective temperature, surface gravity, and overallmetallicity [M/H]), and measures of the chromospheric activity of ourprogram stars. Observed and derived data presented in this paper arealso available on the project's Web site. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom. Optical InterferometryThe field of optical and infrared (IR) interferometry has seen rapidtechnical and scientific progress over the past few years. A number ofinstruments capable of precise visibility measurements have been built,and closure-phase imaging with multitelescope arrays has beendemonstrated. Astronomical results from these instruments includemeasurements of stellar diameters and their wavelength dependence, limbdarkening, stellar surface structure, and distances of Cepheids and ofNova Cygni 1992. Precise stellar masses have been obtained frominterferometric observations of spectroscopic binaries, andcircumstellar disks and shells have been resolved. Searches forsubstellar companions and extrasolar planets with interferometricastrometry will begin soon. Nulling interferometry will enable studiesof exozodiacal disks from the ground and the detection andcharacterization of terrestrial extrasolar planets from space. Thesedevelopments are reviewed, as well as progress in some key technologicalareas. Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem Hipparcos Binaries. II. Observations Obtained in 1998-1999 from McDonald ObservatoryThe Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 9734 known doublestars, 3406 new double stars, and 11,687 unresolved but possible doublestars. The high angular resolution afforded by speckle interferometrymakes it an efficient means to confirm these systems from the ground,which were first discovered from space. Because of its coverage of adifferent region of angular separation-magnitude difference(ρ-Δm) space, speckle interferometry also holds promise toascertain the duplicity of the unresolved Hipparcos problem'' stars.Presented are observations of 116 new Hipparcos double stars and 469Hipparcos problem stars,'' as well as 238 measures of other doublestars and 246 other high-quality nondetections. Included in these areobservations of double stars listed in the Tycho-2 Catalogue andpossible grid stars for the Space Interferometry Mission. The Physical Basis of Luminosity Classification in the Late A-, F-, and Early G-Type Stars. II. Basic Parameters of Program Stars and the Role of MicroturbulencePaper I of this series presented precise MK spectral types for 372 lateA-, F-, and early G-type stars with the aim of understanding the natureof luminosity classification on the MK spectral classification systemfor this range of spectral types. In this paper, a multidimensionaldownhill simplex technique is introduced to determine the basicparameters of the program stars from fits of synthetic spectra andfluxes with observed spectra and fluxes from Strömgren uvbyphotometry. This exercise yields useful calibrations of the MK spectralclassification system but, most importantly, gives insight into thephysical nature of luminosity classification on the MK spectralclassification system. In particular, we find that in this range ofspectral types, microturbulence appears to be at least as important asgravity in determining the MK luminosity type. The Physical Basis of Luminosity Classification in the Late A-, F-, and Early G-Type Stars. I. Precise Spectral Types for 372 StarsThis is the first in a series of two papers that address the problem ofthe physical nature of luminosity classification in the late A-, F-, andearly G-type stars. In this paper, we present precise spectralclassifications of 372 stars on the MK system. For those stars in theset with Strömgren uvbyβ photometry, we derive reddenings andpresent a calibration of MK temperature types in terms of the intrinsicStrömgren (b-y)0 index. We also examine the relationshipbetween the luminosity class and the Strömgren c1 index,which measures the Balmer jump. The second paper will address thederivation of the physical parameters of these stars, and therelationships between these physical parameters and the luminosityclass. Stars classified in this paper include one new λ Bootisstar and 10 of the F- and G-type dwarfs with recently discoveredplanets. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Research Note Hipparcos photometry: The least variable starsThe data known as the Hipparcos Photometry obtained with the Hipparcossatellite have been investigated to find those stars which are leastvariable. Such stars are excellent candidates to serve as standards forphotometric systems. Their spectral types suggest in which parts of theHR diagrams stars are most constant. In some cases these values stronglyindicate that previous ground based studies claiming photometricvariability are incorrect or that the level of stellar activity haschanged. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/367/297 The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222 The Normal Energy Distributions in Stellar Spectra: Giants and SupergiantsWe have derived the normal spectral energy distributions for thoseearly-type subgiants, giants, and supergiants that were not investigatedin our earlier studies, which were in most cases also not included inthe studies of Sviderskiene. Color indices computed using our normalenergy distributions are in good agreement with normal colors derivedfrom observations in the Vilnius photometric system. The reliability ofour distribution curves is also demonstrated by comparisons of observedand computed (W-B)-(B-V) two-color diagrams in the WBVR system. Normalcolor indices for the photometric WBVR system are derived. Resolved double-lined spectroscopic binaries: A neglected source of hypothesis-free parallaxes and stellar massesDouble-lined spectroscopic binaries, once visually resolved (VB-SB2),provide hypothesis-free orbital parallaxes and masses of bothcomponents. Unlike eclipsing-spectroscopic binaries for which manyaccurate masses are already known (Andersen 1991; Andersen 1997), thenumber of VB-SB2 remains rather small. This paper presents 40 suchsystems for which published visual observations and radial velocitiesallow a simultaneous adjustment of both data sets. The precision of theindividual masses as well as the evolution of that precision withrespect to the published precision is investigated. CCD spectra of MK standards and a preliminary extension of the MK classification to the yellow-red region.Not Available Evolution of the efficiency'' when different data sets are combined into a unified adjustmentUsing a sample of binaries which were observed visually (VB) as well asspectroscopically for both components (SB2), we show that the efficiencyalmost always increases when a combined VB-SB2 solution replaces onebased only on VB. The absolute magnitude of the early type MK standards from HIPPARCOS parallaxesWe analyse the standards of the MK system with the help of Hipparcosparallaxes, using only stars for which the error of the absolutemagnitude is <= 0.3 mag. We find that the main sequence is a wideband and that, although in general giants and dwarfs have differentabsolute magnitudes, the separation between luminosity classes V and IIIis not clear. Furthermore, there are a number of exceptions to thestrict relation between luminosity class and absolute magnitude. Weanalyse similarly the system of standards defined by Garrison & Gray(1994) separating low and high rotational velocity standards. We findsimilar effects as in the original MK system. We propose a revision ofthe MK standards, to eliminate the most deviant cases. Based on datafrom the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circleThe sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30. The Angular Momentum of Main Sequence Stars and Its Relation to Stellar ActivityRotational velocities are reported for intermediate-mass main sequencestars it the field. The measurements are based on new, high S/N CCDspectra from the Coudé Feed Telescope of the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. We analyze these rotation rates for a dependence on bothmass and age. We compare the average rotation speeds of the field starswith mean velocities for young stars in Orion, the Alpha Persei cluster,the Pleiades, and the Hyades. The average rotation speeds of stars moremassive than $\sim1.6$ \msun\experience little or no change during theevolutionary lifetimes of these stars on the zero age main sequence orwithin the main sequence band. Less massive stars in the range betwee n1.6\msun\ and 1.3\msun\ also show little decline in mean rotation ratewhile they are on the main sequence, and at most a factor of 2 decreasein velocity as they evolve off the main sequence. The {\it e}-foldingtime for the loss of angular momentum b y the latter group of stars isat least 1--2 billion years. This inferred characteristic time scale forspindown is far longer than the established rotational braking time forsolar-type stars with masses below $\sim1.3$ \msun. We conclude from acomparison of the trends in rotation with trends in chromospheric andcoronal activity that the overall decline in mean rotation speed alongthe main sequence, from $\sim2$ \msun\ down to $\sim1.3$ \msun, isimposed during the pre-main sequence phase of evolution, and that thispattern changes little thereafter while the star resides on the mainsequence. The magnetic activity implicated in the rotational spindown ofthe Sun and of similar stars during their main sequence lifetimes mus ttherefore play only a minor role in determining the rotation rates ofthe intermediate mass stars, either because a solar-like dynamo is weakor absent, or else the geometry of the magnetic field is appreciablyless effective in removing angular momentu m from these stars. (SECTION:Stars) Spectral energy distributions and physical parameters of the atmospheres of main-sequence A stars with infrared excesses: Comparison with normal starsFor eight stars with infrared excesses greater than 0.5m in the IRASbands, we obtained the energy distribution over the range 3200-7600Angstroms and measured their infrared JHKLM magnitudes. Similarobservations were performed for 21 stars of various subclasses of thespectral type A with excesses no greater than 0.3m. Based on the energydistribution derived from the response curves of the photometric UBV andWBVR systems, we computed the synthetic B-V color indices, which are ingood agreement with the photometric observations. A comparison of thenormalized energy distribution in the spectra of A stars with infraredexcesses greater than 0.5m in the IRAS bands and the mean energydistribution for stars of the corresponding subclasses shows that themaximum difference does not exceed 10% both in the ultraviolet(3200-4000 Angstroms) and in the near infrared (up to 7600 Angstroms) Inall of the stars studied, we detected no excesses in the JHKLM bandsthat were greater than the accuracy of our measurements. Using themethod of infrared fluxes and comparing the observed energy distributionwith theoretical models of Kurucz, we determined the effectivetemperatures and angular diameters of the stars. For three stars, weestimated the parameters of their dust shells. Accurate Two-dimensional Classification of Stellar Spectra with Artificial Neural NetworksWe present a solution to the long-standing problem of automaticallyclassifying stellar spectra of all temperature and luminosity classeswith the accuracy shown by expert human classifiers. We use the 15Angstroms resolution near-infrared spectral classification systemdescribed by Torres-Dodgen & Weaver in 1993. Using the spectrum withno manual intervention except wavelength registration, artificial neuralnetworks (ANNs) can classify these spectra with Morgan-Keenan types withan accuracy comparable to that obtained by human experts using 2Angstroms resolution blue spectra, which is about 0.5 types (subclasses)in temperature and about 0.25 classes in luminosity. Accuratetemperature classification requires a hierarchy of ANNs, whileluminosity classification is most successful with a single ANN. Wepropose an architecture for a fully automatic classification system. Spectroscopic survey of delta Scuti stars. I. Rotation velocities and effective temperaturesProjected rotational velocities and effective temperatures for 68 deltaSct stars as well as 41 non-variable stars of similar spectral type andluminosity are presented here. The rotational velocities have beencalculated following the method developed in \cite[Gray (1992)]{ref38}and effective temperatures have been derived using the Balmer lineprofiles. The temperatures obtained from this method are shown to be inreasonable agreement with those calculated using the Infrared FluxMethod (IRFM) or spectrophotometric methods. This result has allowed usto use our temperatures to compare different uvby beta photometriccalibrations. We find that the calibration given by \cite[Moon \&Dworetsky (1985)]{ref72} is the most consistent. In the second part ofthis paper we have studied the relation between the pulsationalproperties (periods and amplitudes) and the physical parameters (v sin iand Teff). Where pulsation modes have been determined, thelow amplitude $\delta$ Scutis tend to be multimode (radial andnon-radial) pulsators, consistent with the theory that non-linearcoupling between modes acts to limit the amplitude in these stars. Wehave compared the distribution of v sin i for low amplitude $\delta$Scutis and non-variable stars. This shows the $\delta$ Scutis have abroader distribution in v sin i suggesting that a high rotation velocitymay favour pulsation. We find that the large amplitude delta Scuti starstend to have longer periods, cooler temperatures and lower rotationvelocities. Given that the large amplitude stars are also relativelyrare all the above are consistent with the hypothesis that these starsare more evolved (sub-giants) than the low amplitude delta Scutis (mainsequence or early post-main sequence). The Stellar Content of Star Stream IAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....111.1615E&db_key=AST Polarisation in A-type stars with circumstellar shells.We present the results of optical linear polarisation measurements ofabout 30 A-type stars that are known to be either Ae/A shell stars orhave shown anomalous emission in the infrared. Compared with the generalpopulation of A-type stars, stars of this group are found to havepolarisation that is also anomalous and is suggested to be circumstellarin origin. The X-Ray Emission of A-Type StarsFrom X-ray images in the ROSAT public archives, we determine soft X-rayfluxes, or flux upper limits, for 74 A-type stars, which have beenobserved during deep integrations with the PSPC. Nine supposedly single,late A stars (0.20 < B-V < 0.35) are found to coincide with X-raysources. The X-ray luminosities we infer for these stars range fromlevels comparable to the Active Sun, at log L_x ~27.6, to much brighteremission levels similar to those observed for active late-type binarysystems, near log L_x ~30.1. Another 10 sources are identified withearly A stars (0.0 < B-V < 0.2). Five of these are confirmeddouble stars, the rest are ostensibly single. The maximum luminosity wedetect in the early A stars, log L_x = 30.1, is 3.5 orders of magnitudebrighter than the X-ray upper limits for the nondetected stars.Additional study, including radial velocity monitoring and/or opticalinterferometry, will be needed to determine whether the putativelysingle X-ray emitting stars are in fact single, or whether theiremission is produced entirely or in part by unknown or unresolved binarycompanions. The level of X-ray emission associated with chemicallynormal, single A stars thus far appears to be uncorrelated with anyobvious stellar property, including the rotation rate, which is known togreatly influence the dynamo activity and the X-ray emission levels oflower mass stars. (SECTION: Stars) Abundance anomalies in the atmospheres of rapidly-rotating AM starsBased on new CCD spectroscopic observations and using synthetic spectra,we have determined the abundances of four elements (Si, Ca, Fe, and Ba)in the atmospheres of five metal-line stars with projected rotationalvelocities V sin i ranging from 30 to 90 km/s and the normal A star betaTri (V sin i - 75 km/s). With the exception of beta Tri, which has anearly solar chemical composition, the five stars studied were found toshow abundance anomalies typical of metal-line stars. This inference isconsistent with theoretical calculations suggesting that chemicalseparation by diffusion may also occur in the atmospheres of Am and Fmstars with significant rotational velocities (up to 100 km/s). Of thefour chemical elements considered, a correlation is likely to existbetween abundance anomalies and stellar rotational velocities forbarium-stars with lower values of V sin i show a higher bariumabundance. A comparison with the results of evolutionary calculationsyielded masses, radii, luminosities, and ages of the stars under study. The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST Luminosity Class III Stars with Excess Far-Infrared EmissionAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...446L..79Z&db_key=AST Neural Network Classification of the Near-Infrared Spectra of A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...446..300W&db_key=AST Orbits of Small Angular Scale Binaries Resolved with the Mark III InterferometerAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110..376H&db_key=AST
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