Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

ε Per (Adid Australis)


Contents

Images

Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images


Related articles

The Homogeneity of Interstellar Elemental Abundances in the Galactic Disk
We present interstellar elemental abundance measurements derived fromSpace Telescope Imaging Spectrograph echelle observations of 47 sightlines extending up to 6.5 kpc through the Galactic disk. These pathsprobe a variety of interstellar environments, covering ranges of nearly4 orders of magnitude in molecular hydrogen fraction f(H2)and more than 2 in mean hydrogen sight-line density. Coupling the current data with Goddard HighResolution Spectrograph data from 17 additional sight lines and thecorresponding Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Copernicusobservations of H2 absorption features, we explore magnesium,phosphorus, manganese, nickel, copper, and germanium gas-phase abundancevariations as a function of : density-dependentdepletion is noted for each element, consistent with a smooth transitionbetween two abundance plateaus identified with warm and cold neutralinterstellar medium depletion levels. The observed scatter with respectto an analytic description of these transitions implies that totalelemental abundances are homogeneous on length scales of hundreds ofparsecs, to the limits of abundance measurement uncertainty. Theprobable upper limit we determine for intrinsic variability at any is 0.04 dex, aside from an apparent 0.10 dexdeficit in copper (and oxygen) abundances within 800 pc of the Sun.Magnesium dust abundances are shown to scale with the amount of siliconin dust, and in combination with a similar relationship between iron andsilicon, these data appear to favor the young F and G star values ofSofia & Meyer as an elemental abundance standard for the Galaxy.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA.

The Remarkable Be Star HD 110432 (BZ Crucis)
HD 110432 (B1e) has gained considerable recent attention because it is ahard, variable X-ray source with local absorption and also because itsoptical spectrum is affected by an extensive Be disk. From time-serialechelle data obtained over 2 weeks during 2005 January and February, wehave discovered several remarkable characteristics in the star's opticalspectrum. The line profiles show rapid variations on some nights, whichcan most likely be attributed to irregularly occurring and short-livedmigrating subfeatures. Such features have been found in spectra ofγ Cas and AB Dor, two stars for which it is believed magneticfields force circumstellar clouds to corotate over the star's surface.The star's optical spectrum also exhibits a number of mainly Fe II andHe I emission features with double-lobed profiles typical of anoptically thin circumstellar disk viewed nearly edge-on. Using spectralsynthesis techniques for the January data, we find that its temperatureand column density are close to 9800 K and roughly3×1022 cm-2, respectively. Its projecteddisk size covers remarkably large 100 stellar areas, and the emittingvolume resides at a surprisingly large distance of 1 AU from the star.Surprisingly, we also find that the absorption wings of the strongestoptical and UV lines in the spectrum extend to at least +/-1000 kms-1, even though the rotational velocity is 300-400 kms-1. We are unable to find a satisfactory explanation forthese extreme line broadenings. Otherwise, HD 110432 and γ Casshare similarly peculiar X-ray and optical characteristics. Theseinclude a high X-ray temperature, erratic X-ray variability ontimescales of a few hours, optical metallic emission lines, andsubmigrating features in optical line profiles. Because of thesesimilarities, we suggest that HD 110432 is a member of a select newclass of ``γ Cas analogs.''

A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars
We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B typenear-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed atotal of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA),William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope(ESO). Our sample contains 75% of all O9.5-B2.5 III-V non-emission-linestars brighter than 5.5 mag. We obtained high signal-to-noise,high-resolution spectra of the SiIII λ4560 triplet - for 125stars of our sample we obtained more than one spectrum - and examinedthese for pulsational-like line-profile variations and/or structure. Weconclude that about half of our sample stars show evidence forline-profile variations (LPV). We find evidence for LPV in about 65% ofour sample stars brighter than V=5.5. For stars with rotationalbroadening V sin i ˜100 km s-1, we find evidence for LPVin about 75% of the cases. We argue that it is likely that these LPV areof pulsational origin, and that hence more than half of thesolar-neighbourhood O9.5-B2.5 III-V stars is pulsating in modes that canbe detected with high-resolution spectroscopy. We detected LPV in 64stars previously unknown to be pulsators, and label these stars as newβ Cep candidates. We conclude that there is no obvious differencein incidence of (pulsational) LPV for early-B type near-main-sequencestars in binaries or in OB associations, with respect to single fieldstars.

Observations of Hα, iron, and oxygen lines in B, Be, and shell stars
We carried out a spectroscopic survey of several B, Be, and shell starsin optical and near-infrared regions. Line profiles of the Hα lineand of selected Fe II and O I lines are presented.

Evolution of interacting binaries with a B type primary at birth
We revisited the analytical expression for the mass ratio distributionfor non-evolved binaries with a B type primary. Selection effectsgoverning the observations were taken into account in order to comparetheory with observations. Theory was optimized so as to fit best withthe observed q-distribution of SB1s and SB2s. The accuracy of thistheoretical mass ratio distribution function is severely hindered by theuncertainties on the observations. We present a library of evolutionarycomputations for binaries with a B type primary at birth. Some liberalcomputations including loss of mass and angular momentum during binaryevolution are added to an extensive grid of conservative calculations.Our computations are compared statistically to the observeddistributions of orbital periods and mass ratios of Algols. ConservativeRoche Lobe Over Flow (RLOF) reproduces the observed distribution oforbital periods but fails to explain the observed mass ratios in therange q in [0.4-1]. In order to obtain a better fit the binaries have tolose a significant amount of matter, without losing much angularmomentum.

The new orbital elements and properties of ε Persei
A detailed analysis of a large collection of electronic spectra fromthree observatories, together with radial velocities published earlier,were used to derive a new ephemeris and improved orbital elements forthe ε Per binary. Observations covering a time interval of about 37000 days (101.3 years) can be reconciled with a constant orbital periodof 14.06916 ° ± 0.00004°. The high orbital eccentricityof 0.555 ± 0.009 was also confirmed. New spectral observationsconfirm that there is a periodic variation of the systemic velocity.Together with new evidence from astrometric observations (also analyzedhere), they confirm the existence of a third body in the system with anorbital period of about 9600 days (26.3 years), rather than 4156 days,as reported earlier. Application of the disentangling technique to theHα spectra with good S/N ratios did not allow detection ofspectral lines of either the secondary or tertiary components. Forplausible inclinations between 30° and 90°, the observed massfunction implies a mass of the secondary M_2=0.85-1.77Mȯ, if a primary mass is adopted of 13.5 ± 2.0Mȯ. Attempts to detect the third body viainterferometric observations should continue in spite of this firstnegative result.

Atlas and Catalog of Dark Clouds Based on Digitized Sky Survey I
We present a quantitative atlas and catalog of dark clouds derived byusing the optical database ``Digitized Sky Survey I''. Applying atraditional star-count technique to 1043 plates contained in thedatabase, we produced an AV map covering the entire region inthe galactic latitude range |b| ≤ 40°. The map was drawn at twodifferent angular resolutions of 6' and 18', and is shown in detail in aseries of figures in this paper. Based on the AV map, weidentified 2448 dark clouds and 2841 clumps located inside them. Somephysical parameters, such as the position, extent, and opticalextinction, were measured for each of the clouds and clumps. We alsosearched for counterparts among already known dark clouds in theliterature. The catalog of dark clouds presented in this paper lists thecloud parameters as well as the counterparts.

Catalog of Galactic β Cephei Stars
We present an extensive and up-to-date catalog of Galactic β Cepheistars. This catalog is intended to give a comprehensive overview ofobservational characteristics of all known β Cephei stars, coveringinformation until 2004 June. Ninety-three stars could be confirmed to beβ Cephei stars. We use data from more than 250 papers publishedover the last nearly 100 years, and we provide over 45 notes onindividual stars. For some stars we reanalyzed published data orconducted our own analyses. Sixty-one stars were rejected from the finalβ Cephei list, and 77 stars are suspected to be β Cepheistars. A list of critically selected pulsation frequencies for confirmedβ Cephei stars is also presented.We analyze the β Cephei stars as a group, such as the distributionsof their spectral types, projected rotational velocities, radialvelocities, pulsation periods, and Galactic coordinates. We confirm thatthe majority of the β Cephei stars are multiperiodic pulsators. Weshow that, besides two exceptions, the β Cephei stars with highpulsation amplitudes are slow rotators. Those higher amplitude starshave angular rotational velocities in the same range as thehigh-amplitude δ Scuti stars (Prot>~3 days).We construct a theoretical HR diagram that suggests that almost all 93β Cephei stars are main-sequence objects. We discuss theobservational boundaries of β Cephei pulsation and the physicalparameters of the stars. We corroborate that the excited pulsation modesare near to the radial fundamental mode in frequency and we show thatthe mass distribution of the stars peaks at 12 Msolar. Wepoint out that the theoretical instability strip of the β Cepheistars is filled neither at the cool nor at the hot end and attempt toexplain this observation.

Line profile variability from tidal interactions in binary systems
We present the results of ab initio calculations of the photosphericline-profile variability produced by the tidal deformations in binarysystems. We use the one-layer approximation to compute the effectsproduced on a primary star's equatorial region by its companion in thegeneral case of arbitrary rotational velocity (V_eq), eccentricity andviscosity, ν. For an eccentric binary such as ɛ Per, thecomputed absorption lines display bumps that are superposed on therotationally broadened profile and that travel from the blue side of theline towards the red, qualitatively similar to the observations. Thestrength and multiplicity of the bumps depend on orbital phase. In thecase of binaries with circular orbits, non-synchronous rotation leads tostrong profile variability which can be described in terms of inverted"S"-shape patterns in grey-scale representations of the variability. Theradial velocity curves obtained by measuring the centroid of the varyingline-profiles are distorted with respect to the true radial velocitycurves. This effect may introduce significant uncertainties in the massdetermination of unseen companions. The line-profile variability isproduced almost entirely by the azimuthal component of the velocityperturbations, Δ V\varphi'. We put forth the hypothesisthat the differentially-rotating external layers that develop innon-synchronous binary systems may lead to the generation of magneticactivity near the stellar surface. The possibility of constraining thevalues of ν near the stellar surface through the use of line-profilevariability is also suggested.

Disentangling component spectra of κ Scorpii, a spectroscopic binary with a pulsating primary. II. Interpretation of the line-profile variability
We analyse the complex short-term SiIII line-profile variability of the spectroscopic binary β Cep star κ Scorpii after orbit subtraction, before and after spectral disentangling. We refine the known oscillation frequency of the star: f1=4.99922 c d-1 and detect2f1. Variability is also found at frequencies nearf2≃ 4.85 c d-1 and f3≃ 5.69c d-1 or their aliases. These frequencies are not significantif we consider the spectra alone, but they survive our selection afterthe consideration that they were derived previously from independentground-based and space photometry by different teams. Moreover, we finddominant variability in the equivalent width with a frequency in theinterval [0.22,0.30] c d-1 which we interpret as therotational frequency frot of the star. The complex windowfunction does not allow us to determine definite values forf2, f3, frot. The variability withf1 is interpreted as a prograde non-radial oscillation modewith spherical wavenumbers (ℓ,m)=(2,-1) or (1,-1). The additionalfrequencies are explained in terms of rotational modulation superposedto the main oscillation. We also point out that we cannot disprove thevariability in κ Scorpii to originate from co-rotating structures. KOREL disentangling preserves the large-amplitude line-profile variability but its performance for complex low-amplitude variability remains to bestudied in detail.Based on observations obtained with the Coudé ÉchelleSpectrograph on the ESO CAT telescope and with the CORALIEéchelle spectrograph on the 1.2-m Euler Swiss telescope, bothsituated at La Silla, Chile.

Deuterated molecular hydrogen in the Galactic ISM. New observations along seven translucent sightlines
We present column density measurements of the HD molecule in theinterstellar gas toward 17 Galactic stars. The values for the seven mostheavily reddened sightlines, with E(B-V) = 0.38-0.72, are derived fromobservations with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Theother ten values are from a reanalysis of spectra obtained withCopernicus. In all cases, high-resolution ground-based observations of KI and/or the CH molecule were used to constrain the gas velocitystructure and to correct for saturation effects. Comparisons of thecolumn densities HD, CH, CN, and K I in these 17 sightlines indicatethat HD is most tightly correlated with CH. Stringent lower limits tothe interstellar D/H ratio, derived from the HD/2H2 ratio,range from 3.7 × 10-7 to 4.3 × 10-6.Our results also suggest that the HD/H2 ratio increases withthe molecular fraction f(H2) and that the interstellar D/Hratio might be obtained from HD by probing clouds with f(H2)˜ 1. Finally, we note an apparent relationship between the molecularfractions of hydrogen and deuterium.

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

The Homogeneity of Interstellar Oxygen in the Galactic Disk
We present an analysis of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST)Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of O Iλ1356 and H I Lyα absorption in 36 sight lines that probe avariety of Galactic disk environments and include paths that range overnearly 4 orders of magnitude in f(H2), over 2 orders ofmagnitude in , and that extend up to 6.5 kpc inlength. Since the majority of these sight lines have also been observedby the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), we have undertakenthe study of gas-phase O/H abundance ratio homogeneity using the currentsample and previously published Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph(GHRS) results. Two distinct trends are identified in the 56 sight linesample: an apparent decrease in gas-phase oxygen abundance withincreasing mean sight-line density () and a gapbetween the mean O/H ratio for sight lines shorter and longer than about800 pc. The first effect is a smooth transition between two depletionlevels associated with large mean density intervals; it is centered near=1.5cm-3 and is similar to trendsevident in gas-phase abundances of other elements. Paths less dense thanthe central value exhibit a mean O/H ratio of log10(O/H)=-3.41+/-0.01 (or 390+/-10ppm), which is consistent with averages determined for several longlow-density paths observed by STIS (André et al. 2003) and shortlow-density paths observed by FUSE (Moos et al. 2002). Sight lines ofhigher mean density exhibit an average O/H value of log10(O/H)=-3.55+/-0.02 (284+/-12ppm). The data points for low- paths are scatteredmore widely than those for denser sight lines, because O/H ratios forsuch paths shorter than 800 pc are generally about 0.10 dex lower thanthe values for longer ones. Scenarios that would be consistent withthese results include a recent infall of metal-poor gas onto the localGalactic disk and an interstellar environment toward Orion that isconducive to reducing the apparent gas-phase oxygen abundance.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) andthe NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). HSTspectra were obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555 FUSE is operated for NASA by theJohns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

Reanalysis of Copernicus Measurements of Interstellar Carbon Monoxide
We used archival data acquired with Copernicus to reexamine CO columndensities, as self-consistent oscillator strengths are now available.Our focus is on lines of sight containing modest amounts of molecularspecies. Our resulting column densities are small enough thatself-shielding from photodissociation does not occur in the cloudsprobed by the observations. While our sample shows that the columndensities of CO and H2 are related, no correspondence withthe CH column density is evident. The case for the CH+ columndensity is less clear. Recent chemical models for these sight linessuggest that CH is mainly a by-product of CH+ synthesis inlow-density gas. The models are most successful in reproducing theamounts of CO in the densest sight lines. Thus, much of the COabsorption must arise from denser clumps along the line of sight toaccount for the trend with H2.

The Origins and Evolutionary Status of B Stars Found Far from the Galactic Plane. I. Composition and Spectral Features
The existence of faint blue stars far above the Galactic plane that havespectra that are similar to nearby Population I B stars presents severalinteresting questions. Among them are the following: Can a Population IB star travel from the disk to a position many kiloparsecs above theplane in a relatively short main-sequence lifetime? Is it possible thatsingle massive star formation is occurring far from the Galactic plane?Are these objects something else masquerading as main-sequence B stars?This paper (the first of two) analyzes the abundances of a sample ofthese stars and reveals several that are chemically similar to nearbyPopulation I B stars, whereas others clearly have abundance patternsmore like those expected in blue horizontal-branch (BHB) orpost-asymptotic giant branch stars. Several of those with old evolvedstar abundances also have interesting features of note in their spectra.We also consider why this sample does not have any classical Be starsand identify at least two nearby solar-metallicity BHB stars.Based on observations made at the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope ofMcDonald Observatory operated by the University of Texas at Austin.

β Cep stars from a spectroscopic point of view
In this review we present the current status of line-profile-variationstudies of β Cep stars. Such studies have been performed for 26bright members of this class of pulsating stars in the past 25 years. Wedescribe all these currently available data and summarize theinterpretations based on them in terms of the excited pulsation modes.We emphasize that line-profile variations offer a much more detailedpicture of the pulsational behaviour of pulsating stars compared toground-based photometric data. The latter, however, remain necessary tounravel the often complex frequency pattern and to achieve unambiguousmode identification for multiperiodic β Cep stars and also toderive the pulsational properties of the faint members of the class. Wehighlight the statistical properties of the sample of 26 stars for whichaccurate spectroscopic studies are available and point out some futureprospects.

Toward an adequate method to isolate spectroscopic families of diffuse interstellar bands
We divide some of the observed diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) intofamilies that appear to have the spectral structure of single species.Three different methods are applied to separate such families, exploringthe best approach for future investigations of this type. Starting witha statistical treatment of the data, we found that statistical methodsby themselves give insufficient results. Two other methods of dataanalysis (`averaging equivalent widths' and `investigating the figureswith arranged spectrograms') were found to be more useful as tools forfinding the spectroscopic families of DIBs. On the basis of thesemethods, we suggest some candidates as `relatives' of 5780- and5797-Å bands.

The Homogeneity of Interstellar Krypton in the Galactic Disk
We present an analysis of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope SpaceTelescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of Kr I λ1236absorption in seven sight lines that probe a variety of interstellarenvironments. In combination with krypton and hydrogen column densitiesderived from current and archival STIS and Far-Ultraviolet SpectroscopicExplorer data, the number of sight lines with reliable Kr/H ISMabundance ratios has been increased by 50% to 26-including paths thatsample a range of nearly 5 orders of magnitude in f(H2) andover 2 orders of magnitude in , and extend up to4.8 kpc in length. For sight lines contained entirely within the localspiral arm (the Orion spur), the spread of Kr/H ratios about the mean oflog10[N(Kr)/N(H)]ISM=-9.02+/-0.02is remarkably tight (0.06 dex), less than the typical data-pointuncertainty. Intriguingly, the only two sight lines that extend throughneighboring structures, in particular gas associated with theCarina/Sagittarius arm, exhibit relatively large, near-solar kryptonabundances (log10[N(Kr)/N(H)]combined=-8.75+0.09-0.11).Although these deviations are only measured at the 2 σ level, theysuggest the possibility that krypton abundances beyond the Orion spurmay differ from the local value.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) andthe NASA-CNES-CSA Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). HSTspectra were obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555 FUSE is operated for NASA by theJohns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS-32985.

Nonthermal Chemistry in Diffuse Clouds with Low Molecular Abundances
High-quality archival spectra of interstellar absorption from C I towardnine stars, taken with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on theHubble Space Telescope, were analyzed. Our sample was supplemented bytwo sight lines, 23 Ori and β1 Sco, for which the C Imeasurements of Federman, Welty, & Cardelli were used. Directionswith known CH+ absorption, but only upper limits onabsorption from C2 and CN, were considered for our study.This restriction allows us to focus on regions where CH+chemistry dominates the production of carbon-bearing molecules. Profilesynthesis of several multiplets yielded column densities and Dopplerparameters for the C I fine-structure levels. Equilibrium excitationanalyses, using the measured column densities as well as the temperaturefrom H2 excitation, led to values for gas density. Thesedensities, in conjunction with measurements of CH, CH+,C2, and CN column densities, provided estimates for theamount of CH associated with CH+ production, which in turnset up constraints on the present theories for CH+ formationin this environment. We found for our sample of interstellar clouds thaton average 30%-40% of the CH originates from CH+ chemistry,and in some cases it can be as high as 90%. A simple chemical model forgas containing nonequilibrium production of CH+ was developedfor the purpose of predicting column densities for CH, CO,HCO+, CH+2, andCH+3 generated from large abundances ofCH+. Again, our results suggest that nonthermal chemistry isnecessary to account for the observed abundance of CH and probably thatof CO in these clouds.Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescopethrough the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

Non-radially pulsating Be stars
Based on more than 3000 high-resolution echelle spectra of 27 early-typeBe stars, taken over six years, it is shown that the short-term periodicline profile variability of these objects is due to non-radialpulsation. The appearance of the line profile variability depends mostlyon the projected rotational velocity v sin i and thus, since all Bestars rotate rapidly, on the inclination i. The observed variability ofthe investigated stars is described, and for some of them line profilevariability periods are given for the first time. For two of theinvestigated stars the line profile variability was successfully modeledas non-radial pulsation with l=m=+2 already in previous works. Since Bestars with similarly low v sin i share the same variability properties,these are in general explainable under the same model assumptions. Theline profile variability of stars with higher v sin i is different fromthe one observed in low v sin i stars, but can be reproduced by thesame model, if only the model inclination is modified to more equatorialvalues. Only for a few stars with periodic line profile variability thel=m=2 non-radial pulsation mode is not able to provide a satisfyingexplanation. These objects might pulsate in different modes (e.g.tesseral ones, l != |m|). Almost all stars in the sample show traces ofoutburst-like variability, pointing to an ephemeral nature of themass-loss phenomenon responsible for the formation of the circumstellardisk of early-type Be stars, rather than a steady star-to-disk masstransfer. In addition to the variability due to non-radial pulsationpresent in most stars, several objects were found to show other periodsresiding in the immediate circumstellar environment. The presence ofthese secondary periods is enhanced in the outburst phases. Short-livedaperiodic phenomena were clearly seen in two stars. But, given theunfavourable sampling of our database to follow rapid variability oftransient nature, they might be more common. Only in two out of 27 starsshort-term spectroscopic variability was not detected at all.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory atLa Silla, Chile, 55.D-0502, 56.D-0381, 58.D-0697, 62.H-0319, 63.H-0080,64.H-0548, and 267.D-5702, the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, CalarAlto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg,jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy, and onobservations with the Wendelstein 80-cm and the Ondřejov 2-mtelescopes, both equipped with the HEROS spectrograph provided by theLandessternwarte Heidelberg.

Grey extinction in the solar neighbourhood?
Some of the close O and B dwarfs appear to be fainter than indicated bytheir Hipparcos distances, intrinsic absolute magnitudes attributed totheir spectral types, and estimated selective interstellar extinction.This discrepancy is explained in the paper by the grey (neutral)interstellar extinction in the visual range of spectrum. The measure ofsuch an effect is related to discrete features of the interstellarmatter.

Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars
This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Quantitative Stellar Spectral Classification. II. Early Type Stars
The method developed by Stock & Stock (1999) for stars of spectraltypes A to K to derive absolute magnitudes and intrinsic colors from theequivalent widths of absorption lines in stellar spectra is extended toB-type stars. Spectra of this type of stars for which the Hipparcoscatalogue gives parallaxes with an error of less than 20% were observedwith the CIDA one-meter reflector equipped with a Richardsonspectrograph with a Thompson 576×384 CCD detector. The dispersionis 1.753 Å/pixel using a 600 lines/mm grating in the first order.In order to cover the spectral range 3850 Å to 5750 Å thegrating had to be used in two different positions, with an overlap inthe region from 4800 Å to 4900 Å . A total of 116 stars wasobserved, but not all with both grating positions. A total of 12measurable absorption lines were identified in the spectra and theirequivalent widths were measured. These were related to the absolutemagnitudes derived from the Hipparcos catalogue and to the intrinsiccolors (deduced from the MK spectral types) using linear and secondorder polynomials and two or three lines as independent variables. Thebest solutions were obtained with polynomials of three lines,reproducing the absolute magnitudes with an average residual of about0.40 magnitudes and the intrinsic colors with an average residual of0.016 magnitudes.

New Challenges for Wind Shock Models: The Chandra Spectrum of the Hot Star δ Orionis
The Chandra spectrum of δ Ori A shows emission lines fromhydrogen- and helium-like states of Si, Mg, Ne, and O, along with N VIILyα and lines from ions in the range Fe XVII-Fe XXI. In contrastto the broad lines seen in ζ Pup and ζ Ori (850+/-40 and1000+/-240 km s-1 half-width at half-maximum [HWHM],respectively), these lines are broadened to only 430+/-60 kms-1 HWHM. This is much lower than the measured wind terminalvelocity of 2000 km s-1. The forbidden, intercombination, andresonance (fir) lines from He-like ions indicate that the majority ofthe X-ray line emission does not originate at the base of the wind, inagreement with the standard wind shock models for these objects.However, in that model the X-ray emission is distributed throughout anexpanding, X-ray-absorbing wind, and it is therefore surprising that theemission lines appear relatively narrow, unshifted, and symmetric. Wecompare the observed line profiles to recent detailed models for X-rayline profile generation in hot stars, but none of them offers a fullysatisfactory explanation for the observed line profiles.

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

Tomographic Separation of Composite Spectra. VIII. The Physical Properties of the Massive Compact Binary in the Triple Star System HD 36486 (δ Orionis A)
We present the first double-lined spectroscopic orbital elements for thecentral binary in the massive triple δ Orionis A. The solutionsare based on fits of cross-correlation functions of IUE high-dispersionUV spectra and He I λ6678 profiles. The orbital elements for theprimary agree well with previous results, and in particular, we confirmthe apsidal advance with a period of 224.5+/-4.5 yr. We also presenttomographic reconstructions of the primary and secondary stars' spectrathat confirm the O9.5 II classification of the primary and indicate aB0.5 III type for the secondary. The relative line strengths between thereconstructed spectra suggest magnitude differences ofΔm=-2.5log(Fs/Fp)=2.6+/-0.2 in the UV andΔm=2.5+/-0.3 at 6678 Å. The widths of the UVcross-correlation functions are used to estimate the projectedrotational velocities, Vsini=157+/-6 and 138+/-16 km s-1 forthe primary and secondary, respectively (which implies that both theprimary and the secondary rotate faster than the orbital motion). Weused the spectroscopic results to make a constrained fit of theHipparcos light curve of this eclipsing binary, and the model fits limitthe inclination to the range i=67deg-77deg. Thelower limit corresponds to a near Roche-filling configuration that hasan absolute magnitude that is consistent with the photometricallydetermined distance to Ori OB1b, the Orion Belt cluster in which δOri resides. The i=67deg solution results in masses ofMp=11.2 and Ms=5.6 Msolar, both ofwhich are substantially below the expected masses for stars of theirluminosity. The binary may have experienced a mass ratio reversal causedby case A Roche lobe overflow or the system may have suffered extensivemass loss through a binary interaction (perhaps during a common envelopephase) in which most of the primary's mass was lost from the systemrather than transferred to the secondary. We also made three-componentreconstructions to search for the presumed stationary spectrum of theclose visual companion δ Ori Ab (Hei 42 Ab). There is noindication of the spectral lines of this tertiary in the UV spectrum,but a broad and shallow feature is apparent in the reconstruction of HeI λ6678 indicative of an early B-type star. The tertiary may be arapid rotator (Vsini~300 km s-1) or a spectroscopic binary.

Magnetic survey of bright northern main sequence stars
The first results of a systematic search for magnetic fields in thebrightest upper main sequence (MS) stars are presented. The main goal isto survey the stars with about the same detection limit and to improveexisting statistics of their magnetism. The target list contains 57upper MS stars and represents well B0.5-F9 stars. High-resolution Zeemanspectra were obtained for 30 stars of the list. The accuracy of themagnetic field measurements ranges from 20 to 300 G depending mainly onspectral class. In the majority of studied stars we did not detectmagnetic fields. In some stars we suspect the presence of a weakmagnetic field. These are the best candidates for more extensivestudies. A particular case is the star chi Dra where we probablydetected the global magnetic field. The longitudinal field strength isB_l= -54+/-12 G. Further observations of this star are needed to confirmthe detection and to ascertain if the magnetic field is variable withthe period of rotation. Based on observations collected at the 1 mtelescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Nizhnij Arkhyz,Russia).

An upper limit to the interstellar C5 abundance in translucent clouds
We have analyzed high resolution spectra of several slightly tomoderately reddened stars collected at two observatories: ESO (La Silla)and Terskol (Northern Caucasia), to estimate the abundance of theC5 molecule in the interstellar medium. We confirm thepresence of a feature near 4975 Å which appears to be a weak DIBrather than the predicted C5 band since the origin band near5109 Å remains invisible even in spectra of high signal-to-noiseratio ( ~ 2500) and spectral resolution (R ~ 220 000). This confirmsthat the C5 abundance in translucent interstellar clouds isvery low. We estimate its limit as low as 1011cm-2 in the scale E(B-V)=0.35 for ``zeta" type objects thatis two times lower than that of Maier et al. (2002). Based on datacollected at the ESO 3.6 m telescope operated on La Silla Observatory,Chile and 2-m telescope of the Terskol Observatory, Russia.

A highly sensitive search for magnetic fields in B, A and F stars
Circular spectropolarimetric observations of 74 stars were obtained inan attempt to detect magnetic fields via the longitudinal Zeeman effectin their spectral lines. The sample observed includes 22 normal B, A andF stars, four emission-line B and A stars, 25 Am stars, 10 HgMn stars,two lambda Boo stars and 11 magnetic Ap stars. Using the Least-SquaresDeconvolution multi-line analysis approach (Donati et al.\cite{donati97etal}), high precision Stokes I and V mean signatures wereextracted from each spectrum. We find absolutely no evidence formagnetic fields in the normal, Am and HgMn stars, with upper limits onlongitudinal field measurements usually considerably smaller than anypreviously obtained for these objects. We conclude that if any magneticfields exist in the photospheres of these stars, these fields are notordered as in the magnetic Ap stars, nor do they resemble the fields ofactive late-type stars. We also detect for the first time a field in theA2pSr star HD 108945 and make new precise measurements of longitudinalfields in five previously known magnetic Ap stars, but do not detectfields in five other stars classified as Ap SrCrEu. We also report newresults for several binary systems, including a new vsin i for therapidly rotating secondary of the Am-delta Del SB2 HD 110951. Based onobservations obtained using the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter on theBernard Lyot telescope, l'Observatoire du Pic du Midi, France.

The accretion/diffusion theory for lambda Bootis stars in the light of spectroscopic data
Most of the current theories suggest the lambda Bootis phenomenon tooriginate from an interaction between the stellar surface and its localenvironment. In this paper, we compare the abundance pattern of thelambda Bootis stars to that of the interstellar medium and find largerdeficiencies for Mg, Si, Mn and Zn than in the interstellar medium. Acomparison with metal poor post-AGB stars showing evidence forcircumstellar material indicates a similar physical process possiblybeing at work for some of the lambda Bootis stars, but not for all ofthem. Despite the fact that the number of spectroscopically analysedlambda Bootis stars has considerably increased in the past, a test ofpredicted effects with observations shows current abundance andtemperature data to be still controversial.

Submit a new article


Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link


Member of following groups:


Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Perseus
Right ascension:03h57m51.20s
Declination:+40°00'37.0"
Apparent magnitude:2.89
Distance:165.017 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0
Proper motion Dec:0
B-T magnitude:2.66
V-T magnitude:2.854

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesAdid Australis
  (Edit)
Bayerε Per
Flamsteed45 Per
HD 1989HD 24760
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 2868-1623-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1275-02823998
BSC 1991HR 1220
HIPHIP 18532

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR