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Evolution of interacting binaries with a B type primary at birth
We revisited the analytical expression for the mass ratio distributionfor non-evolved binaries with a B type primary. Selection effectsgoverning the observations were taken into account in order to comparetheory with observations. Theory was optimized so as to fit best withthe observed q-distribution of SB1s and SB2s. The accuracy of thistheoretical mass ratio distribution function is severely hindered by theuncertainties on the observations. We present a library of evolutionarycomputations for binaries with a B type primary at birth. Some liberalcomputations including loss of mass and angular momentum during binaryevolution are added to an extensive grid of conservative calculations.Our computations are compared statistically to the observeddistributions of orbital periods and mass ratios of Algols. ConservativeRoche Lobe Over Flow (RLOF) reproduces the observed distribution oforbital periods but fails to explain the observed mass ratios in therange q in [0.4-1]. In order to obtain a better fit the binaries have tolose a significant amount of matter, without losing much angularmomentum.

Analysis of the Dynamical Instability of Several Multiple Stars with Weak Hierarchy
The dynamical stability of 16 multiple stars is analyzed using MonteCarlo simulations with allowance for the errors in the observationaldata. The analysis was carried out by varying the uncertainties in theinitial observational data. Six different stability criteria wereconsidered, and the dynamical evolution was studied using numericalsimulations. Eleven of the systems are probably stable, whereas fivesystems (HD 40887, HD 136176, HD 150680, HD 217675, and HD 222326) areprobably unstable (the probability that they are unstable is 0.94 ormore accordingt o the results of forward and backward simulations overintervals of 106 yr). The results of the simulations were mostconsistent with the criteria of Mardling-Aarseth (the correlationcoefficient between the probabilities of disruption inferred from thestability criterion and numerical integration was r = 0.998),Valtonen-Karttunen (r = 0.998), and Eggleton-Kiseleva (r = 0.997). Inabout 92 93% of all cases, these criteria yield results that areconsistent with the numerical simulations. These criteria also yieldhigh disruption probabilities for the unstable systems. Scenarios forthe formation of such systems are discussed: temporary capture of afield star by a close binary, perturbation of a stable multiple systemby a massive field object, and disruption of small stellar groups orclusters. The probabilities that these scenarios are realized areanalyzed.

Analysis of the Dynamic Stability of Selected Multiple Stars with Weak Hierarchy
The stability of multiple systems with known orbital elements and withsubsystems occupying adjacent hierarchy levels is analyzed using sixstability criteria and numerical simulations of their dynamicalevolution. All the stability criteria considered are in qualitativeagreement with the numerical computations. Of the 16 systems studied, 11are confirmed to be stable and five (HD 40887, HD 136176, HD 150680, HD217675, and HD 222326) may be unstable on time scales of ˜106 yr orless. The small dynamical ages of the unstable systems may indicate thatthey have captured components during encounters between close binariesand field or moving cluster stars. The instability could also resultfrom the perturbation of a stable system when it approaches a massiveobject (star, black hole, or molecular cloud). It is possible that someof the unstable systems are remnants of small clusters or stellargroups.

Observed Orbital Eccentricities
For 391 spectroscopic and visual binaries with known orbital elementsand having B0-F0 IV or V primaries, we collected the derivedeccentricities. As has been found by others, those binaries with periodsof a few days have been circularized. However, those with periods up toabout 1000 or more days show reduced eccentricities that asymptoticallyapproach a mean value of 0.5 for the longest periods. For those binarieswith periods greater than 1000 days their distribution of eccentricitiesis flat from 0 to nearly 1, indicating that in the formation of binariesthere is no preferential eccentricity. The binaries with intermediateperiods (10-100 days) lack highly eccentric orbits.

Tidal Effects in Binaries of Various Periods
We found in the published literature the rotational velocities for 162B0-B9.5, 152 A0-A5, and 86 A6-F0 stars, all of luminosity classes V orIV, that are in spectroscopic or visual binaries with known orbitalelements. The data show that stars in binaries with periods of less thanabout 4 days have synchronized rotational and orbital motions. Stars inbinaries with periods of more than about 500 days have the samerotational velocities as single stars. However, the primaries inbinaries with periods of between 4 and 500 days have substantiallysmaller rotational velocities than single stars, implying that they havelost one-third to two-thirds of their angular momentum, presumablybecause of tidal interactions. The angular momentum losses increase withdecreasing binary separations or periods and increase with increasingage or decreasing mass.

Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. IV. Differential Photometry
Five hundred seventy-six magnitude difference measures are presented for260 binary stars. These measures are derived from CCD-based speckleobservations taken at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak NationalObservatory during the period 1997-2000. Separations of the systemsrange from over 1" down to near the diffraction limit of the telescope.A study of multiple measures of the same targets indicates that themeasures have a typical uncertainty of better than 0.13 mag per 2 minuteobservation, and that multiple observations can be averaged to arrive atsmaller uncertainties. Results presented here are also compared, insofaras it is possible, with measures in the Hipparcos Catalogue and toprevious studies using adaptive optics. No major systematic errors wereidentified.The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University ofWisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the NationalOptical Astronomy Observatory.

Kinematics of Hipparcos Visual Binaries. II. Stars with Ground-Based Orbital Solutions
This paper continues kinematical investigations of the Hipparcos visualbinaries with known orbits. A sample, consisting of 804 binary systemswith orbital elements determined from ground-based observations, isselected. The mean relative error of their parallaxes is about 12% andthe mean relative error of proper motions is about 4%. However, even 41%of the sample stars lack radial velocity measurements. The computedGalactic velocity components and other kinematical parameters are usedto divide the stars with known radial velocities into kinematical agegroups. The majority (92%) of binaries from the sample are thin diskstars, 7.6% have thick disk kinematics and only two binaries have halokinematics. Among them, the long-period variable Mira Ceti has a verydiscordant {Hipparcos} and ground-based parallax values. From the wholesample, 60 stars are ascribed to the thick disk and halo population.There is an urgent need to increase the number of the identified halobinaries with known orbits and substantially improve the situation withradial velocity data for stars with known orbits.

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

Speckle Interferometry at the US Naval Observatory. VIII.
The results of 2044 speckle interferometric observations of doublestars, made with the 26 inch (66 cm) refractor of the US NavalObservatory, are presented. Each speckle interferometric observation ofa system represents a combination of over a thousand short-exposureimages. These observations are averaged into 1399 mean positions andrange in separation from 0.16" to 14.97", with a mean separation of2.51". This is the eighth in a series of papers presenting measuresobtained with this system and covers the period 2001 March 18 through2001 December 30.

Speckle interferometry of nearby multiple stars
We present the results of diffraction-limited optical speckleinterferometry and infrared bispectrum speckle interferometry of 111double and 10 triple systems performed in 1998-1999 with the 6-mtelescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Zelenchuk. Theobservations concentrated on nearby close binaries discovered during theHipparcos mission. Many nearby fast-orbiting low-mass binaries knownbefore Hipparcos were also included in the program. New companions werefirst resolved in 4 systems: HIP 5245, ADS 3179, Kui 99, and ADS 16138.In addition to accurate relative positions, magnitude differences weremeasured for most of the pairs. We combined our results with theHipparcos parallaxes to derive absolute magnitudes and spectral typesfor 63 binaries and 4 triples. Preliminary orbital elements and themass-sum are derived for HIP 689, and improved orbits are presented forHIP 16602 (CHR 117) and HIP 21280 (CHR 17). Based on data collected atthe Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russia Table 1 is only, and Table2 also, available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymons ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/385/87

Astrophysics in 2000
It was a year in which some topics selected themselves as importantthrough the sheer numbers of papers published. These include theconnection(s) between galaxies with active central engines and galaxieswith starbursts, the transition from asymptotic giant branch stars towhite dwarfs, gamma-ray bursters, solar data from three major satellitemissions, and the cosmological parameters, including dark matter andvery large scale structure. Several sections are oriented aroundprocesses-accretion, collimation, mergers, and disruptions-shared by anumber of kinds of stars and galaxies. And, of course, there are theusual frivolities of errors, omissions, exceptions, and inventories.

Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem Hipparcos Binaries. II. Observations Obtained in 1998-1999 from McDonald Observatory
The Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 9734 known doublestars, 3406 new double stars, and 11,687 unresolved but possible doublestars. The high angular resolution afforded by speckle interferometrymakes it an efficient means to confirm these systems from the ground,which were first discovered from space. Because of its coverage of adifferent region of angular separation-magnitude difference(ρ-Δm) space, speckle interferometry also holds promise toascertain the duplicity of the unresolved Hipparcos ``problem'' stars.Presented are observations of 116 new Hipparcos double stars and 469Hipparcos ``problem stars,'' as well as 238 measures of other doublestars and 246 other high-quality nondetections. Included in these areobservations of double stars listed in the Tycho-2 Catalogue andpossible grid stars for the Space Interferometry Mission.

Binary star speckle measurements at Calar Alto. I.
We present the first results of our speckle interferometric measurementsof binary stars made with the ICCD speckle camera using the 1.52-mtelescope of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional at Calar Alto (Spain)in September, 1999. The data contain 123 observations of 83 systems. Themeasured angular separations range from 0farcs153 to 6farcs727 . We haveused there new speckle measurements to improve the orbital elements forthe binaries COU 247 and BU 524 AB.

The Normal Energy Distributions in Stellar Spectra: Giants and Supergiants
We have derived the normal spectral energy distributions for thoseearly-type subgiants, giants, and supergiants that were not investigatedin our earlier studies, which were in most cases also not included inthe studies of Sviderskiene. Color indices computed using our normalenergy distributions are in good agreement with normal colors derivedfrom observations in the Vilnius photometric system. The reliability ofour distribution curves is also demonstrated by comparisons of observedand computed (W-B)-(B-V) two-color diagrams in the WBVR system. Normalcolor indices for the photometric WBVR system are derived.

ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XXIII. Measurements during 1982-1997 from Six Telescopes, with 14 New Orbits
We present 2017 observations of 1286 binary stars, observed by means ofspeckle interferometry using six telescopes over a 15 year period from1982 April to 1997 June. These measurements constitute the 23dinstallment in CHARA's speckle program at 2 to 4 m class telescopes andinclude the second major collection of measurements from the MountWilson 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker Telescope. Orbital elements are alsopresented for 14 systems, seven of which have had no previouslypublished orbital analyses.

Parameters of four multiple systems from speckle interferometry
New or refined visual orbital elements are presented for four doublestars (HR 266 AP, 88 Tau AP = CHARA 18, eta Ori AB = McA18, ADS 16904 AP= CHARA 149) that are members of multiple systems. Relative photometryand positional speckle measurements with the 6-m telescope and publishedradial-velocity data for the stars are used. Photometric data andparallaxes from the Hipparcos catalogs are also taken into account. Newphysical models are proposed for multiple systems.

On the Evolution of Close Triple Stars That Produce Type IA Supernovae
Current observational estimates suggest that ~30% of all binary starsare in triple systems. In ~70% of these, the enclosed binary is closeenough that the primary in the binary can evolve to fill its Roche lobe.In ~10%-20%, the third, more distant component can evolve to fill itsRoche lobe, leading to configurations inaccessible to isolated binarystars. Triple stars are unstable if the ratio of the orbital period ofthe enclosed binary to the period of the third component exceeds acritical value. Hence, an increase in the orbital period of the binarydue to conservative mass transfer between components or to wind massloss from the binary can destabilize an initially stable triple system,causing it to decompose into a rapidly moving single star and an evolvedbinary recoiling in the opposite direction with a velocity largecompared with velocities typical of primordial binaries. To highlightthe different possibilities inherent in triple-star evolution, wediscuss qualitatively several possible scenarios whereby triple starswith component masses in the range 1-10 M_solar can evolve into Type Iasupernovae, which we assume to be explosions of merging carbon-oxygen oroxygen-neon white dwarfs of total mass larger than 1.4 M_solar. Beforequantitative predictions of the likelihood of these scenarios can bemade, it is necessary to determine the initial distribution of youngtriple stars over their masses and orbital separations and to calculatethe reaction of the enclosed binary to matter transferred to it by thethird component when it fills its Roche lobe or supports a strong wind.

Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. I. Measures During 1997
Two hundred seventy-seven position angle and separation measures of 154double stars are presented. Three of the systems were previously unknownto be double, and 16 other systems were discovered earlier this decadeby the Hipparcos satellite. Measures are derived from speckleobservations taken with the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5 mtelescope located at Kitt Peak, Arizona. Speckle images were obtainedusing two different imaging detectors, namely, a multianode microchannelarray (MAMA) detector and a fast-readout CCD. A measurement precisionstudy was performed on a sample of binaries with extremely well knownorbits by comparing the measures obtained here to the ephemerispredictions. For the CCD, the root mean square (rms) deviation ofresiduals was found to be 3.5 milliarcseconds (mas) in separation and1.2d in position angle, while the residuals of the MAMA data varieddepending on the magnification used and seeing conditions but can becomparable or superior to the CCD values. In addition, the two cameraswere compared in terms of the detection limit in total magnitude andmagnitude difference of the systems under study. The MAMA system has theability to detect some systems with magnitude differences larger than3.5, although reliable astrometry could not be obtained on theseobjects. Reliable astrometry was obtained on a system of magnitudedifference of 5.3 with the CCD system.

Binary star speckle measurements during 1992-1997 from the SAO 6-m and 1-m telescopes in Zelenchuk
We present the results of speckle interferometric measurements of binarystars made with the television photon-counting camera at the 6-m BigAzimuthal Telescope (BTA) and 1-m telescope of the Special AstrophysicalObservatory (SAO) between August 1992 and May 1997. The data contain 89observations of 62 star systems on the large telescope and 21 on thesmaller one. For the 6-m aperture 18 systems remained unresolved. Themeasured angular separation ranged from 39 mas, two times above the BTAdiffraction limit, to 1593 mas.

Observations of BN and AN stars: New Be stars
From a survey of spectra of Bn/An stars, we have detected seven new Bestars: HR 1056 (A0Vn), 1544 (A1Vn), 2191 (A0Vnn), 2300 (B8Vn), 3134(B9.5 Vn), 3878 (B0.5 IIIn) and 4552 (B9IIIpSi). H_alpha profiles ofthese stars are presented. Measured values of equivalent widths, fullwidths at half intensity maximum, and the peak-separations of theH_alpha emission profiles are also tabulated in this paper. We have alsocomputed the radii of emission disks of the newly detected Be stars.

Diffraction-limited speckle masking interferometry of binary stars with the SAO 6-m telescope.
Not Available

Measurements of double stars 1993.67 - 1998.13
624 Micrometer Measurements of 224 pairs with a 32.5 cm Cassegrain, 719Measurements of 310 double stars with a 360 mm Newtonian are given.Tables 1 to 4 are available in electronic form only at the CDS130.79.128.5 or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XVII. Measurements During 1993-1995 From the Mount Wilson 2.5-M Telescope.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1639H&db_key=AST

ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XVI. Measurements During 1982-1989 from the Perkins 1.8-M Telescope.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1623F&db_key=AST

MSC - a catalogue of physical multiple stars
The MSC catalogue contains data on 612 physical multiple stars ofmultiplicity 3 to 7 which are hierarchical with few exceptions. Orbitalperiods, angular separations and mass ratios are estimated for eachsub-system. Orbital elements are given when available. The catalogue canbe accessed through CDS (Strasbourg). Half of the systems are within 100pc from the Sun. The comparison of the periods of close and widesub-systems reveals that there is no preferred period ratio and allpossible combinations of periods are found. The distribution of thelogarithms of short periods is bimodal, probably due to observationalselection. In 82\% of triple stars the close sub-system is related tothe primary of a wide pair. However, the analysis of mass ratiodistribution gives some support to the idea that component masses areindependently selected from the Salpeter mass function. Orbits of wideand close sub-systems are not always coplanar, although thecorresponding orbital angular momentum vectors do show a weak tendencyof alignment. Some observational programs based on the MSC aresuggested. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Twenty Years of Seeing Double
Not Available

Anniversaries and Anticipations: CHARA at Age 20 and Beyond
This talk presents an informal history of speckle interferometry at theCenter for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) at Georgia StateUniversity.

Binary Star Orbits From Speckle Interferometry. VIII. Orbits of 37 Close Visual System
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....111..370H&db_key=AST

The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:00h56m47.10s
Apparent magnitude:5.55
Distance:188.324 parsecs

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 5408
BSC 1991HR 266

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