|Observed Orbital Eccentricities|
For 391 spectroscopic and visual binaries with known orbital elementsand having B0-F0 IV or V primaries, we collected the derivedeccentricities. As has been found by others, those binaries with periodsof a few days have been circularized. However, those with periods up toabout 1000 or more days show reduced eccentricities that asymptoticallyapproach a mean value of 0.5 for the longest periods. For those binarieswith periods greater than 1000 days their distribution of eccentricitiesis flat from 0 to nearly 1, indicating that in the formation of binariesthere is no preferential eccentricity. The binaries with intermediateperiods (10-100 days) lack highly eccentric orbits.
|Tidal Effects in Binaries of Various Periods|
We found in the published literature the rotational velocities for 162B0-B9.5, 152 A0-A5, and 86 A6-F0 stars, all of luminosity classes V orIV, that are in spectroscopic or visual binaries with known orbitalelements. The data show that stars in binaries with periods of less thanabout 4 days have synchronized rotational and orbital motions. Stars inbinaries with periods of more than about 500 days have the samerotational velocities as single stars. However, the primaries inbinaries with periods of between 4 and 500 days have substantiallysmaller rotational velocities than single stars, implying that they havelost one-third to two-thirds of their angular momentum, presumablybecause of tidal interactions. The angular momentum losses increase withdecreasing binary separations or periods and increase with increasingage or decreasing mass.
|Two-colour photometry for 9473 components of close Hipparcos double and multiple stars|
Using observations obtained with the Tycho instrument of the ESAHipparcos satellite, a two-colour photometry is produced for componentsof more than 7 000 Hipparcos double and multiple stars with angularseparations 0.1 to 2.5 arcsec. We publish 9473 components of 5173systems with separations above 0.3 arcsec. The majority of them did nothave Tycho photometry in the Hipparcos catalogue. The magnitudes arederived in the Tycho B_T and V_T passbands, similar to the Johnsonpassbands. Photometrically resolved components of the binaries withstatistically significant trigonometric parallaxes can be put on an HRdiagram, the majority of them for the first time. Based on observationsmade with the ESA Hipparcos satellite.
|On the HIPPARCOS photometry of chemically peculiar B, A, and F stars|
The Hipparcos photometry of the Chemically Peculiar main sequence B, A,and F stars is examined for variability. Some non-magnetic CP stars,Mercury-Manganese and metallic-line stars, which according to canonicalwisdom should not be variable, may be variable and are identified forfurther study. Some potentially important magnetic CP stars are noted.Tables 1, 2, and 3 are available only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|MSC - a catalogue of physical multiple stars|
The MSC catalogue contains data on 612 physical multiple stars ofmultiplicity 3 to 7 which are hierarchical with few exceptions. Orbitalperiods, angular separations and mass ratios are estimated for eachsub-system. Orbital elements are given when available. The catalogue canbe accessed through CDS (Strasbourg). Half of the systems are within 100pc from the Sun. The comparison of the periods of close and widesub-systems reveals that there is no preferred period ratio and allpossible combinations of periods are found. The distribution of thelogarithms of short periods is bimodal, probably due to observationalselection. In 82\% of triple stars the close sub-system is related tothe primary of a wide pair. However, the analysis of mass ratiodistribution gives some support to the idea that component masses areindependently selected from the Salpeter mass function. Orbits of wideand close sub-systems are not always coplanar, although thecorresponding orbital angular momentum vectors do show a weak tendencyof alignment. Some observational programs based on the MSC aresuggested. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|On the nature of the AM phenomenon or on a stabilization and the tidal mixing in binaries. II. Metallicity and pseudo-synchronization.|
We reveal sufficient evidences that for Am binaries the metallicitymight depend on their orbital periods, P_orb_, rather than on vsini. Inparticular, δm_1_ index seems to decrease with increasing orbitalperiod up to at least P_orb_=~50d, probably even up to P_orb_=~200d.This gives further support to our "tidal mixing + stabilization"hypothesis formulated in Part I. Moreover, while the most metallic Amstars seem to have rather large periods the slowest rotators are foundto exhibit substantially shorter P_orb_. A questioning eye is thus caston the generally adopted view that Am peculiarity is caused by asuppressed rotationally induced mixing in slowly rotating `single'stars. The observed anticorrelation between rotation and metallicity mayhave also other than the `textbook' explanation, namely being the resultof the correlation between metallicity and orbital period, as themajority of Am binaries are possibly synchronized. We further argue thatthere is a tendency in Am binaries towards pseudo-synchronization up toP_orb_=~35d. This has, however, no serious impact on our conclusionsfrom Part I; on the contrary, they still hold even if this effect istaken into account.
|On the nature of the AM phenomenon or on a stabilization and the tidal mixing in binaries. I. Orbital periods and rotation.|
The paper casts a questioning eye on the unique role of the diffusiveparticle transport mechanism in explaining the Am phenomenon and arguesthat the so-called tidal effects might be of great importance incontrolling diffusion processes. A short period cutoff at =~1.2d as wellas a 180-800d gap were found in the orbital period distribution (OPD) ofAm binaries. The existence of the former can be ascribed to the state ofthe primaries with the almost-filled Roche lobes. The latter couldresult from the combined effects of the diffusion, tidal mixing andstabilization processes. Because the tidal mixing might surpassdiffusion in the binaries with the orbital periods P_orb_ less thanseveral hundred days and might thus sustain the He convection zone,which would otherwise disappear, no Am stars should lie below thisboundary. The fact that they are nevertheless seen there implies theexistence of some stabilization mechanism (as, e.g., that recentlyproposed by Tassoul & Tassoul 1992) for the binaries with orbitalperiods less than 180d. Further evidence is given to the fact that theOPD for the Am and the normal binaries with an A4-F1 primary arecomplementary to each other, from which it stems that Am stars are closeto the main sequence. There are, however, indications that they haveslightly larger radii (2.1-3 Rsun_) than expected for theirspectral type. The generally accepted rotational velocity cutoff at=~100km/s is shown to be of little value when applied on Am binaries ashere it is not a single quantity but, in fact, a function of P_orb_whose shape is strikingly similar to that of the curves of constantmetallicity as ascertained from observations. This also leads to thewell known overlap in rotational velocities of the normal and Am starsfor 402.5d.We have exploited this empirical cutoff function to calibrate thecorresponding turbulent diffusion coefficient associated with tidalmixing, having found out that the computed form of the lines of constantturbulence fits qualitatively the empirical shape of the curves ofconstant metallicity. As for larger orbital periods(20d55km/s found by Burkhart(1979) would then be nothing but a manifestation of insufficientlypopulated corresponding area of larger P_orb_.
|The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type Stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|Spectroscopic binaries - 15th complementary catalog|
Published observational data on the orbital characteristics of 436spectroscopic binaries, covering the period 1982-1986, are compiled intables. The data sources and the organization of the catalog are brieflydiscussed, and notes are provided for each item.
|On the (B-V) colors of the bright stars|
The possible causes of the dispersion of (B-V) colors of nearby stars inthe Bright Star Catalog are investigated. The distribution of (B-V)colors is presented for the entire range of spectral classes.Explanations for the dispersion in terms of a nonuniform distribution ofinterstellar absorbing material and a variability of metallicity areaddressed. A new statistical model for reddening by interstellar dustclouds is developed. It is concluded that extinction by nonuniforminterstellar matter is an important contribution to the reddening ofnearby stars, and that a part of the dispersion of (B-V) colors of Kand, possibly, M giants may be due to some unidentified variableproperty of those stars.
|Improved study of metallic-line binaries|
For the sake of completeness, a new study has been made of the frequencyof binaries among classical metallic-line (Am) stars and of thecharacteristics of these systems. For an initial sample of 60 Am stars,about 20 coude spectra and radial velocities were obtained each. Whencombined with excellent published orbital elements for some systems, thenew material yields 16 SB2s, 20 SB1s, and 20 visual and occultationcompanions not already counted as spectroscopic companions. Extensivedetails are given about the observations, radial velocities, and binaryorbits. Evolutionary expansion during their main sequence lifetime isseen as an additional mechanism (besides tidal braking) acting in closebinaries to lower rotational velocities below 100 km/s.
|Lists of photometric AM candidates|
The Geneva photometric m parameter (Nicolet and Cramer, 1982) is used inorder to select Am photometric candidates from the Rufener (1981)catalogue. Two lists are given, the first containing field stars and thesecond cluster stars. According to the photometric criteria thediffusion process probably responsible for the Am phenomenon takes placerather quickly as Am candidates are present in young clusters. It isconfirmed that the phenomenon is enhanced by low rotational velocity andhigh metallicity. The age seems to slightly affect the Am phenomenon.
|The absolute magnitude of the AM stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1981A&A....93..155G&db_key=AST
|Properties of AM stars in the Geneva photometric system|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1980A&A....92..289H&db_key=AST
|Metallicism and pulsation - The marginal metallic line stars|
Evidence is presented that HR 4594 and HR 8210 are pulsating marginal Amstars. It is suggested that (1) classical Am stars do not pulsate, (2)evolved Am stars may pulsate, and (3) marginal Am stars may pulsate. Itis further suggested that, within the Am domain, temperature, age,rotation, and pulsation are sufficient to determine whether a star willbe Am, marginal Am, or spectrally normal.
|Bright metallic-line and pulsating A stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976PASP...88..402E&db_key=AST
|Full list of variable or suspected light variable Am-stars.|
|Multicolor photometry of metallic-line stars. III. A photometric catalogue|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1974RMxAA...1..175M&db_key=AST
|Photoelectric measures of the hydrogen lines in early-type stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1974MNRAS.169..171F&db_key=AST
|Rotation and shell spectra among A-type dwarfs.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973ApJ...182..809A&db_key=AST
|Catalogue of AM stars with known spectral types|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973A&AS...10..385H&db_key=AST
|Catalog of Indidual Radial Velocities, 0h-12h, Measured by Astronomers of the Mount Wilson Observatory|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1970ApJS...19..387A&db_key=AST
|Observations spectrographiques d'etoiles A a spectre particulier et a raies metalliques.|
|Catalogue et bibliographie des étoiles A à spectre particulier - Deuxième supplément|
|Introduction des cumulants pour la recherche des distributions stellaires|
|Micrometer Measures of Double Stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1961ApJS....6....1K&db_key=AST
|Formule corrective nouvelle pour déterminer à partir des estimations visuelles, la différence de magnitude des composantes d'étoiles doubles|