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Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear Motion
Useful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr).

Oxygen-rich AGB stars with optically thin dust envelopes
The dust composition and dynamics of the circumstellar envelopes ofoxygen-rich AGB stars with low mass-loss rates (5 ×10-8-10-5 Mȯ yr-1) havebeen investigated. We have analyzed the ISO-SWS spectra of twenty-eightoxygen-rich AGB stars with optically thin shells, and modelled theobservations with the radiative transfer code DUSTY using the opticalconstants from laboratory dust analogues. This has allowed us todetermine the composition of the dust and the physical conditions at theinner edge of the shell. Moreover, by comparing with CO observationsavailable in the literature, we have determined the gas-to-dust massratios and the mass-loss rates of these sources, and analyzed thewind-driving mechanism. The results show that the small amounts of dustpresent in these envelopes, characterized by visual optical depths inthe 0.03-0.6 range, are enough to drive the wind by radiation pressureon the grains. In some sources there are indications of circumstellardust that does not contribute to the wind-driving, and that maydistributed in a disk or clumps. Other sources show signs of variablemass-loss rates. A grain mixture in the shell consisting of aluminiumoxide, melilite, olivine, spinel and Mg{0.1}Fe{0.9}O fit the observedspectra well. From these species, only melilite is required to have afractional abundance greater than 25% in all cases. Although spinelreproduces the 13 μm feature, the absence of the 16.8 μm peak inour SWS spectra casts doubts on this identification. The outcome of themodelling reveals that the olivine content in these CSEs increases withpressure and temperature at the inner edge. Moreover, the aluminiumoxide percentage in the dust of the envelopes shows a positivecorrelation with the gas-to-dust mass ratio. These results, togetherwith the derived dust compositions, are consistent with thethermodynamic dust condensation sequence scenario and its freezing-outdue to kinetics. However, the temperatures at the inner edge of theshell are substantially lower than those predicted by theory.

Period-luminosity relation for M-type semiregular variables from Hipparcos parallaxes
We have studied the period-luminosity (P-L) relationships of oxygen-richsemiregular (SR) variables in several wavelength bands using Hipparcosparallaxes with an accuracy of better than 10 per cent. We have shownthat there is a clear dependence on period of absolute magnitude in theU,B,V,R,IC,J,H,K,L,M,N, [12], [25], [60] and [100] bands, andthat the slope of the linear Mλ- logP relation is asmooth function of wavelength. We point out that this relation can inprinciple be used to derive absolute bolometric magnitude as a functionof period.The behaviour of the second periods of SR variables in the P-L relationin the V and K bands is also discussed.

Guilt by Association: The 13 Micron Dust Emission Feature and Its Correlation to Other Gas and Dust Features
A study of all full-scan spectra of optically thin oxygen-richcircumstellar dust shells in the database produced by the ShortWavelength Spectrometer on ISO reveals that the strength of severalinfrared spectral features correlates with the strength of the 13 μmdust feature. These correlated features include dust features at 19.8and 28.1 μm and the bands produced by warm carbon dioxide molecules(the strongest of which are at 13.9, 15.0, and 16.2 μm). The databasedoes not provide any evidence for a correlation of the 13 μm featurewith a dust feature at 32 μm, and it is more likely that a weakemission feature at 16.8 μm arises from carbon dioxide gas ratherthan dust. The correlated dust features at 13, 20, and 28 μm tend tobe stronger with respect to the total dust emission in semiregular andirregular variables associated with the asymptotic giant branch than inMira variables or supergiants. This family of dust features also tendsto be stronger in systems with lower infrared excesses and thus lowermass-loss rates. We hypothesize that the dust features arise fromcrystalline forms of alumina (13 μm) and silicates (20 and 28 μm).Based on observations with the ISO, a European Space Agency (ESA)project with instruments funded by ESA member states (especially thePrincipal Investigator countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, andthe United Kingdom) and with the participation of the Institute of Spaceand Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration (NASA).

Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE Data
For a complete 12 μm flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources(F12>=150 Jy, |b|>=5deg), the majority ofwhich are AGB stars (~87%), we have extracted light curves in seveninfrared bands between 1.25 and 60 μm using the database of theDiffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument on the CosmicBackground Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using previous infrared surveys,we filtered these light curves to remove data points affected by nearbycompanions and obtained time-averaged flux densities and infraredcolors, as well as estimates of their variability at each wavelength. Inthe time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation ofsemiregulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giantswithout circumstellar dust (i.e., V-[12]<5) and with little or novisual variation (ΔV<0.1 mag). The DIRBE 1.25-25 μm colorsbecome progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE databaseincreases along the oxygen-rich sequence nondusty slightly varying redgiants-->SRb/Lb-->SRa-->Mira-->OH/IR and the carbon-richSRb/Lb-->Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that theseare evolutionary sequences involving the continued production andejection of dust. The carbon stars are redder than their oxygen-richcounterparts for the same variability type, except in theF12/F25 ratio, where they are bluer. Of the 28sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearlyvariable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 mag at4.9 μm and ~0.6 mag at 12 μm, consistent with them being verydusty Mira-like variables. We also present individual DIRBE light curvesof a few selected stars. The DIRBE light curves of the semiregularvariable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm occur 10-20 days before those at 4.9 and 12μm, and, at 4.9 and 12 μm, another maximum is seen between the twonear-infrared maxima.

``Thermal'' SiO radio line emission towards M-type AGB stars: A probe of circumstellar dust formation and dynamics
An extensive radiative transfer analysis of circumstellar SiO``thermal'' radio line emission from a large sample of M-type AGB starshas been performed. The sample contains 18 irregulars of type Lb (IRV),7 and 34 semiregulars of type SRa and SRb (SRV), respectively, and 12Miras. New observational data, which contain spectra of several groundvibrational state SiO rotational lines, are presented. The detectionrate was about 60% (44% for the IRVs, and 68% for the SRVs). SiOfractional abundances have been determined through radiative transfermodelling. The abundance distribution of the IRV/SRV sample has a medianvalue of 6*E-6, and a minimum of 2*E-6 and amaximum of 5*E-5. The high mass-loss rate Miras have a muchlower median abundance, la 10-6. The derived SiO abundancesare in all cases well below the abundance expected from stellaratmosphere equilibrium chemistry, on average by a factor of ten. Inaddition, there is a trend of decreasing SiO abundance with increasingmass-loss rate. This is interpreted in terms of depletion of SiOmolecules by the formation of silicate grains in the circumstellarenvelopes, with an efficiency which is high already at low mass-lossrates and which increases with the mass-loss rate. The high mass-lossrate Miras appear to have a bimodal SiO abundance distribution, a lowabundance group (on average 4*E-7) and a high abundance group(on average 5*E-6). The estimated SiO envelope sizes agreewell with the estimated SiO photodissociation radii using an unshieldedphotodissociation rate of 2.5*E-10 s-1. The SiOand CO radio line profiles differ in shape. In general, the SiO lineprofiles are narrower than the CO line profiles, but they havelow-intensity wings which cover the full velocity range of the CO lineprofile. This is interpreted as partly an effect of selfabsorption inthe SiO lines, and partly (as has been done also by others) as due tothe influence of gas acceleration in the region which produces asignificant fraction of the SiO line emission. Finally, a number ofsources which have peculiar CO line profiles are discussed from thepoint of view of their SiO line properties.Based on observations using the SEST at La Silla, Chile, the 20 mtelescope at Onsala Space Observatory, Sweden, the JCMT on Hawaii, andthe IRAM 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain.

Reprocessing the Hipparcos data of evolved stars. III. Revised Hipparcos period-luminosity relationship for galactic long-period variable stars
We analyze the K band luminosities of a sample of galactic long-periodvariables using parallaxes measured by the Hipparcos mission. Theparallaxes are in most cases re-computed from the Hipparcos IntermediateAstrometric Data using improved astrometric fits and chromaticitycorrections. The K band magnitudes are taken from the literature andfrom measurements by COBE, and are corrected for interstellar andcircumstellar extinction. The sample contains stars of several spectraltypes: M, S and C, and of several variability classes: Mira, semiregularSRa, and SRb. We find that the distribution of stars in theperiod-luminosity plane is independent of circumstellar chemistry, butthat the different variability types have different P-L distributions.Both the Mira variables and the SRb variables have reasonablywell-defined period-luminosity relationships, but with very differentslopes. The SRa variables are distributed between the two classes,suggesting that they are a mixture of Miras and SRb, rather than aseparate class of stars. New period-luminosity relationships are derivedbased on our revised Hipparcos parallaxes. The Miras show a similarperiod-luminosity relationship to that found for Large Magellanic CloudMiras by Feast et al. (\cite{Feast-1989:a}). The maximum absolute Kmagnitude of the sample is about -8.2 for both Miras and semi-regularstars, only slightly fainter than the expected AGB limit. We show thatthe stars with the longest periods (P>400 d) have high mass lossrates and are almost all Mira variables.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA \cite{Hipparcos}).Table \ref{Tab:data1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/993

How many Hipparcos Variability-Induced Movers are genuine binaries?
Hipparcos observations of some variable stars, and especially oflong-period (e.g. Mira) variables, reveal a motion of the photocentercorrelated with the brightness variation (variability-induced mover -VIM), suggesting the presence of a binary companion. A re-analysis ofthe Hipparcos photometric and astrometric data does not confirm the VIMsolution for 62 among the 288 VIM objects (21%) in the Hipparcoscatalogue. Most of these 288 VIMs are long-period (e.g. Mira) variables(LPV). The effect of a revised chromaticity correction, which accountsfor the color variations along the light cycle, was then investigated.It is based on ``instantaneous'' V-I color indices derived fromHipparcos and Tycho-2 epoch photometry. Among the 188 LPVs flagged asVIM in the Hipparcos catalogue, 89 (47%) are not confirmed as VIM afterthis improved chromaticity correction is applied. This dramatic decreasein the number of VIM solutions is not surprising, since the chromaticitycorrection applied by the Hipparcos reduction consortia was based on afixed V-I color. Astrophysical considerations lead us to adopt a morestringent criterion for accepting a VIM solution (first-kind risk of0.27% instead of 10% as in the Hipparcos catalogue). With this moresevere criterion, only 27 LPV stars remain VIM, thus rejecting 161 ofthe 188 (86%) of the LPVs defined as VIMs in the Hipparcos catalogue.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).Table 1 is also available in electronic form at the CDS, via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/399/1167

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.

On the origin of the 19.5 μ m feature. Identifying circumstellar Mg-Fe-oxides
We report the detection of a broad, prominent 19.5 mu m dust emissionfeature in ISO-SWS spectra. It is especially conspicuous in the spectraof low mass-loss AGB stars belonging to the variability classes SRb andLb with relatively high photospheric temperatures. The feature carrieris proposed to be Mg0.1Fe0.9O, a solid solution ofMgO (periclase) and FeO (wustite). This dust species has cubic crystalsymmetry like spinel, the carrier of the 13, 16.8 and 31.8 mu m spectralfeatures, together with which the 19.5 mu m feature is being observed. Abroad emission plateau between 11 and 15 mu m, which is attributable toamorphous Al2O3, is also detected together withthe 19.5 mu m and the spinel features. As a consequence of ourdiscovery, we postulate the existence of a distinct class ofcircumstellar shells, dominated by oxide and not by silicate dust. Basedon observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

Mass loss rates of a sample of irregular and semiregular M-type AGB-variables
We have determined mass loss rates and gas expansion velocities for asample of 69 M-type irregular (IRV 22 objects) and semiregular (SRV; 47objects) AGB-variables using a radiative transfer code to model theircircumstellar CO radio line emission. We believe that this sample isrepresentative for the mass losing stars of this type. The (molecularhydrogen) mass loss rate distribution has a median value of 2.0 x10-7 Msun yr-1, and a minimum of 2.0 x10-8 Msun yr-1 and a maximum of 8 x10-7 Msun yr-1. M-type IRVs and SRVswith a mass loss rate in excess of 5 x 10-7 Msunyr-1 must be very rare, and among these mass losing stars thenumber of sources with mass loss rates below a few 10-8Msun yr-1 must be small. We find no significantdifference between the IRVs and the SRVs in terms of their mass losscharacteristics. Among the SRVs the mass loss rate shows no dependenceon the period. Likewise the mass loss rate shows no correlation with thestellar temperature. The gas expansion velocity distribution has amedian of 7.0 km s-1, and a minimum of 2.2 km s-1and a maximum of 14.4 km s-1. No doubt, these objects samplethe low gas expansion velocity end of AGB winds. The fraction of objectswith low gas expansion velocities is very high, about 30% havevelocities lower than 5 km s-1, and there are objects withvelocities lower than 3 km s-1: V584 Aql,T Ari, BI Car, RXLac, and L2 Pup. The mass loss rate and thegas expansion velocity correlate well, a result in line with theoreticalpredictions for an optically thin, dust-driven wind. In general, themodel produces line profiles which acceptably fit the observed ones. Anexceptional case is R Dor, where the high-quality,observed line profiles are essentially flat-topped, while the model onesare sharply double-peaked. The sample contains four sources withdistinctly double-component CO line profiles, i.e., a narrow featurecentered on a broader feature: EP Aqr, RVBoo, X Her, and SV Psc.We have modelled the two components separately for each star and derivemass loss rates and gas expansion velocities. We have compared theresults of this M-star sample with a similar C-star sample analysed inthe same way. The mass loss rate characteristics are very similar forthe two samples. On the contrary, the gas expansion velocitydistributions are clearly different. In particular, the number oflow-velocity sources is much higher in the M-star sample. We found noexample of the sharply double-peaked CO line profile, which is evidenceof a large, detached CO-shell, among the M-stars. About 10% of theC-stars show this phenomenon.

Stars with the Largest Hipparcos Photometric Amplitudes
A list of the 2027 stars that have the largest photometric amplitudes inHipparcos Photometry shows that most variable stars are all Miras. Thepercentage of variable types change as a function of amplitude. Thiscompilation should also be of value to photometrists looking forrelatively unstudied, but large amplitude stars.

Polarimetry of 167 Cool Variable Stars: Data
Multicolor photoelectric polarimetry is presented for 167 stars, most ofwhich are variable stars. The observations constitute a data set thatfor some stars covers a time span of 35 yr. Complex variations are foundover time and wavelength and in both the amount of polarization and itsposition angle, providing constraints for understanding the polarizingenvironments in and around these cool stars.

On the Wilson-Bappu relationship in the Mg II k line
An investigation is carried out on the Wilson-Bappu effect in the Mg Iik line at 2796.34 Å. The work is based on a selection of 230 starsobserved by both the IUE and HIPPARCOS satellites, covering a wide rangeof spectral types (F to M) and absolute visual magnitudes (-5.4<=MV <=9.0). A semi-automatic procedure is used to measurethe line widths, which applies also in the presence of strong centralabsorption reversal. The Wilson-Bappu relationship here provided isconsidered to represent an improvement over previous recent results forthe considerably larger data sample used, as well as for a properconsideration of the measurement errors. No evidence has been found fora possible dependence of the WB effect on stellar metallicity andeffective temperature.

Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrations
In this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr).

Infrared optical properties of spinels. A study of the carrier of the 13, 17 and 32 mu m emission features observed in ISO-SWS spectra of oxygen-rich AGB stars
In a previous paper, we have proposed magnesium aluminium spinel to bethe carrier of the 13 and 17 mu m band features observed in the ISOspectra of some red giants. The IR optical properties of spinel stronglydepend on its chemistry and its internal structure. To study thedependence of spinel's IR-spectra on its aluminium content, we havesynthesized a number of crystals with different Al/Mg-ratios.Additionally, we performed an annealing experiment to investigate thephase transition between ordered and partially disordered spinel takingplace at about 1200 K. We derived sets of optical constants of ournatural, annealed and synthetic spinels in order to calculate theabsorption efficiencies of small (sub-mu m-sized) spherical particles.Thereby, it turned out that natural as well as near-stoichiometricsynthetic spinel can indeed be considered as a suitable candidate forthe carrier of the 13 mu m feature observed in the spectra of someoxygen rich circumstellar shells. To illustrate this, we reinvestigatedthe mean profile of the residual dust emission in the 12-18 mu mwavelength range (i.e., in the so-called trough region between the twosilicate bands). The reality of the emission feature at 16.8 mu m isconfirmed by our new investigation. We demonstrated that it is not aninstrumental artifact since it is not present in ISO spectra of K-stars.In the course of our laboratory work, we found a third prominentemissivity maximum of spinel at 32 mu m. This feature could also bedetected in the spectra of the brightest 13 mu m band emission sources;we derived its mean band profile, too. The new sets of optical constantshere presented have been made available for public access in theelectronic database http://www.astro.uni-jena.de. Based on observationswith ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States(especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and theUK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222

Magnitudes absolues des étoiles standards MK des types G à M à partir des parallaxes Hipparcos. The absolute magnitudes of the G to M type MK standards from the Hipparcos parallaxes
We analyse a sample of about 500 MK standards of cool spectral types (Gto M) for to compare the visual absolute magnitudes obtained from bothHipparcos data and Schmidt-Kaler calibrations. Our purpose is tovalidate our spectroscopic work \cite[(Ginestet et al. 1997, 1999)]{G97}on stars with composite spectra with the help of Hipparcos data.Contrary to what is claimed in other papers, the absolute magnitudedomain devoted to the giant stars does not overlap the domain of dwarfs.We find that the discrepancies between absolute magnitudes fromHipparcos data and absolute magnitudes deduced from Schmidt-Kalercalibrations increase with the relative error sigma (pi )/pi on theparallaxes. So, for sigma (pi )/pi <= 0.05 only 3% of the starspresent a discrepancy of one luminosity class, while this percentagereaches 54% for 0.25 < sigma (pi )/pi <= 0.50. Curiously, theluminosity of the giants seems to increase with the distance of thestars, whereas the supergiants of the sample appear underluminous atleast for d < 600 pc! We point out a list of 14 MK standards whoseluminosity classes may be erroneous and need a new spectralclassification, in the near infrared. The case of composite-spectrumbinaries is also discussed. Most of these are too distant for accurateparallaxes even with Hipparcos: only sixteen stars have sigma (pi )/pi<= 0.10; for these, we give new spectral classifications in agreementwith both our classifications in the near infrared of the coolcomponents and Hipparcos data. Finally, for stars having high-precisionparallaxes (sigma (pi )/pi <= 5%) there is no serious problem forSchmidt-Kaler calibrations whith respect to Hipparcos data. The datacorresponding to parallaxes of lower precisions should be used withcaution and only for statistical analyses.

Hipparcos Versus GCVS Amplitudes of Non-Mira M-Type Giants
A recent paper by Dumm and Schild deals with the determination of radiiand masses for Hipparcos stars with non-Mira giant M-type spectra. Theirlist contains 350 stars, of which 205 are either verified or suspectedvariables, including 53 SR (semiregular) and 51 Lb (irregular)variables. The authors determined that the masses and radii of thenon-variable stars show a clear correlation, whereas thevariable starsdeviate from this relation roughly according to their amplitudes. Incomparing the Hipparcos amplitudes with the amplitudes in the GCVS andNSV I found numerous conspicuous discordances, ranging well over a wholemagnitude. I therefore hoped that the older amplitudes, based in generalupon data more specifically obtained for period determination, mightimprove the scatter in the Dumm and Schold diagram, but this is not thecase. In the course of the investigation, numerous stars wereencountered that merit further observations. Two were found of especialinterest: V370 And, discovered by Hipparcos, and () Dra,with a reputed period of 1100 days.

Circumstellar shells of the mass-losing asymptotic giant branch stars: limits for the dust-driven winds.
Not Available

Period-Luminosity-Colour distribution and classification of Galactic oxygen-rich LPVs. I. Luminosity calibrations
The absolute K magnitudes and kinematic parameters of about 350oxygen-rich Long-Period Variable stars are calibrated, by means of anup-to-date maximum-likelihood method, using Hipparcos parallaxes andproper motions together with radial velocities and, as additional data,periods and V-K colour indices. Four groups, differing by theirkinematics and mean magnitudes, are found. For each of them, we alsoobtain the distributions of magnitude, period and de-reddened colour ofthe base population, as well as de-biased period-luminosity-colourrelations and their two-dimensional projections. The SRa semiregulars donot seem to constitute a separate class of LPVs. The SRb appear tobelong to two populations of different ages. In a PL diagram, theyconstitute two evolutionary sequences towards the Mira stage. The Mirasof the disk appear to pulsate on a lower-order mode. The slopes of theirde-biased PL and PC relations are found to be very different from theones of the Oxygen Miras of the LMC. This suggests that a significantnumber of so-called Miras of the LMC are misclassified. This alsosuggests that the Miras of the LMC do not constitute a homogeneousgroup, but include a significant proportion of metal-deficient stars,suggesting a relatively smooth star formation history. As a consequence,one may not trivially transpose the LMC period-luminosity relation fromone galaxy to the other Based on data from the Hipparcos astrometrysatellite. Appendix B is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Oxygen-rich semiregular and irregular variables. A catalogue of circumstellar CO observations
Using the SEST, the Onsala 20 m telescope, the JCMT, and the IRAM 30 mtelescope we have carried out a survey of circumstellar CO(J=1-0, 2-1,3-2, and 4-3) emission on a large sample of oxygen-rich semiregular (SRaand SRb) and irregular variables (Lb). A total of 109 stars wereobserved in at least one CO line: 66 were shown to have circumstellar COline emission (7 SRa, 36 SRb, and 23 Lb variables), ~ 60% of thesemiregulars and all but one of the irregulars were detected for thefirst time. Most stars were observed in at least two transitions. Thereis a total of 138 detected CO lines. For twelve stars stronginterference from interstellar CO emission precluded detection. Wepresent here a catalogue of all observational data and the spectra ofall detections, as well as brief discussions on detection statistics(including its dependence on variability type, period, IRAS-colour, IRASLRS-class, and M-subclass), line profiles (including line shapeasymmetry, multi-component line shapes, and line intensity ratios), gasexpansion velocity distributions, and correlations between CO line andIR continuum fluxes (including implications for the mass-lossmechanism). Based on observations collected using at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, the Onsala Space Observatory,Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Sweden, the James Clerk MaxwellTelescope, Hawaii and the IRAM 30~m telescope, Pico Veleta, Spain.

A search for Technetium in semiregular variables
We searched for the lines of Tc in the spectra of Semiregular variables(SRVs) in the wavelength region from 4180 to 4300 Å using highresolution spectroscopy. Tc as an s-process element is produced on thethermally pulsing AGB and is therefore a good indicator for theevolutionary status of Semiregular variables. Combining our results withprevious investigations we get a database large enough for a statisticalstudy. Tc is not found in SRVs with periods below 100 days, spectraltypes earlier than M5 and photospheric IRAS colours. These objects are`blue' SRVs in the classification system of Kerschbaum & Hron(\cite{KH94}). Among the `red' SRVs (periods longer than 100 days) thefraction of stars showing Tc in their spectra is about 15 % with aprobably lower fraction among the stars with periods above 150 days.This is significantly lower than for the typical Miras. Taking intoaccount the probable conditions for the occurence of the third dredge-upand the expected behavior of the Tc abundance along an evolutionarytrack on the AGB, our results support an evolutionary scenario from`blue' SRVs (early AGB) to `red' SRVs (early TP-AGB) and on to longperiod Miras. Only the most massive (masses above 2M_ȯ) stars showTc during the SRV stage. The luminosities of the Tc-rich SRVs and Mirasare compatible with theoretical estimates of the minimum core massrequired for the third dredge-up. Based on observations collected at theEuropean Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO No.54.E-0350), theGerman Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, operated by theMax-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, jointly with the SpanishNational Commission for Astronomy, and Kitt Peak National Observatory,USA.

Probing the {Na} BT I D and {K} BT I lambda 7699 resonance lines sensitivity to background opacity in late-type stars
We have measured the equivalent width WK of the K i resonanceline at 7699 Angstroms for a large sample of low activity late-typestars observed with high spectral resolution and we have verified thatthe relation WK vs. Teff is monotonicallydecreasing, for both dwarf and giant stars. This behaviour is differentfrom that of the Na I D lines for stars of the same type, which showedthat the relation WNa vs. Teff has a maximum forTeff ~ 4000 K, which is better defined for giants than fordwarfs (Tripicchio et al. 1997). The fit of the observed K I equivalentwidths by means of a NLTE spectral line synthesis using conventionalbackground opacity shows that, for dwarf stars, the adopted modelsoverestimate the observed WK for temperatures <~ 4000 K.This result is similar to that discussed for the Na I D lines in ourprevious paper. On the other hand, for giant stars with Teff<~ 3800 K these models in general underestimate WK. Thediscrepancies between observed and computed WK andWNa for cool stars are much stronger than the variations dueto uncertainties in either atmospheric model or line parameters, likeeffective temperature and surface gravity, or Van der Waals broadening.For M dwarf stars, the most convincing explanation for the disagreementis the lack of atomic and molecular line opacity in the adopted models.In fact, a NLTE spectral synthesis including an additional backgroundopacity reproduces with a good level of accuracy the equivalent widths,as well as the general shape of the profiles for both the Na I D and K Ilines, in a subsample of early-M dwarfs. Based on observations collectedat the European Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile, and at theMcDonald Observatory, Mt. Locke, Texas, USA

Stellar radii of M giants
We determine the stellar radii of the M giant stars in the Hipparcoscatalogue that have a parallax measured to better than 20% accuracy.This is done with the help of a relation between a visual surfacebrightness parameter and the Cousins (V - I) colour index, which wecalibrate with M giants with published angular diameters.The radii of(non-Mira) M giants increase from a median value of 50 R_Sun at spectraltype M0 III to 170 R_Sun at M7/8 III. Typical intermediate giant radiiare 65 R_Sun for M1/M2, 90 R_Sun for M3, 100 R_Sun for M4, 120 R_Sun forM5 and 150 R_Sun for M6. There is a large intrinsic spread for a givenspectral type. This variance in stellar radius increases with latertypes but in relative terms, it remains constant.We determineluminosities and, from evolutionary tracks, stellar masses for oursample stars. The M giants in the solar neighbourhood have masses in therange 0.8-4 M_Sun. For a given spectral type, there is a close relationbetween stellar radius and stellar mass. We also find a linear relationbetween the mass and radius of non-variable M giants. With increasingamplitude of variability we have larger stellar radii for a given mass.

The Infrared Spectral Classification of Oxygen-rich Dust Shells
This paper presents infrared spectral classifications for a flux-limitedsample of 635 optically identified oxygen-rich variables includingsupergiants and sources on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Severalclasses of spectra from oxygen-rich dust exist, and these can bearranged in a smoothly varying sequence of spectral shapes known as thesilicate dust sequence. Classification based on this sequence revealsseveral dependencies of the dust emission on the properties of thecentral star. Nearly all S stars show broad emission features fromalumina dust, while most of the supergiants exhibit classic featuresfrom amorphous silicate dust. Mira variables with symmetric light curvesgenerally show broad alumina emission, while those with more asymmetriclight curves show classic silicate emission. These differences may arisefrom differences in the photospheric C/O ratio.

HIPPARCOS Astrometry of Infrared-Selected Sources and the Connection Between Optical and Infrared Reference Frames
Astrometric data from the Hipparcos satellite are reported for theoptical counterparts of 87 bright infrared sources. These sources may beuseful in defining a reference frame for infrared observations. The dataare also useful in studying the locations of circumstellar SiO masers.(SECTION: Stars)

Quantitative spectral classification of galactic disc K-M stars from spectrophotometric measurements
New spectral observations for 47 southern galactic red supergiantsobtained with the new RUBIKON spectrophotometer (developed at theAstronomisches Institut der Ruhr-Universitat Bochum) at the Bochum 61-cmtelescope on La Silla are presented. The spectra range from 4800 to 7700A and their resolution is 10 A. The mean error of absolute fluxes is0.028 mag and that of relative fluxes 0.021 mag. The spectra will beavailable at the Strasbourg Stellar Database (CDS). Together with datataken from recently published spectral catalogues, the new observationshave been used to define spectral indices as measures of the strengthsof the following features: Fe i+TiOalpha_1, Mgb+TiOalpha_0,NaD+TiOgamma'_1, TiOgamma'_0 and TiOgamma_1 systems. The indices havebeen checked against errors introduced by reductions, interstellarreddening and different resolutions of different spectral catalogues,and have been found to be very insensitive to all these effects.Therefore, different catalogues may be combined without any loss ofaccuracy and homogeneity. The mean error of a single index has beenfound to be 0.011 mag. For stars from K4 to M7, a strong temperaturedependence is found for all indices. For the Fe i+TiO and especially theMgb+TiO features, a strong dependence on luminosity has also beenobserved. These indices therefore have been combined to form aluminosity index, while the others together form a spectral index. Thecombined indices have been calibrated in terms of MK data using thestepwise linear regression technique, and may be used for quantitativetwo- dimensional spectral classification of late K- and M-type stars.The mean error of the classification is 0.6 of spectral subtype and 0.8of luminosity class, which is much higher than would be expected fromthe uncertainty of the indices alone (which, e.g., for an M4 giantcorrespond to an uncertainty of 0.1 of spectral subtype and 0.3 ofluminosity class). This may be explained by the uncertainty of theoriginal MK classifications and the variability of some programme stars.

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:14h05m19.80s
Apparent magnitude:5.5
Distance:100.705 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-87.7
Proper motion Dec:-35
B-T magnitude:7.252
V-T magnitude:5.791

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesTheta Apodis
Bayerθ Aps
HD 1989HD 122250
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 9427-2476-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0075-04051375
BSC 1991HR 5261
HIPHIP 68815

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