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Observations of Hα, iron, and oxygen lines in B, Be, and shell stars
We carried out a spectroscopic survey of several B, Be, and shell starsin optical and near-infrared regions. Line profiles of the Hα lineand of selected Fe II and O I lines are presented.

Forty Years of Spectroscopic Stellar Astrophysics in Japan
The development of Japanese spectroscopic stellar astrophysics in therecent 40 years is reviewed from an observational point of view. In thisarticle, the research activities are provisionally divided into fourfields: hot stars, hot emission-line (Be) stars, cool stars, and otherstars. Historical developments of the observational facilities atOkayama Astrophysical Observatory (spectrographs and detectors) are alsosummarized in connection with the progress in scientific researchactivities.

On the evolutionary status of Be stars. I. Field Be stars near the Sun
A sample of 97 galactic field Be stars were studied by taking intoaccount the effects induced by the fast rotation on their fundamentalparameters. All program stars were observed in the BCDspectrophotometric system in order to minimize the perturbationsproduced by the circumstellar environment on the spectral photosphericsignatures. This is one of the first attempts at determining stellarmasses and ages by simultaneously using model atmospheres andevolutionary tracks, both calculated for rotating objects. The stellarages (τ) normalized to the respective inferred time that eachrotating star can spend in the main sequence phase (τ_MS) reveal amass-dependent trend. This trend shows that: a) there are Be starsspread over the whole interval 0  τ/τ_MS  1 of themain sequence evolutionary phase; b) the distribution of points in the(τ/τMS,M/Mȯ) diagram indicates thatin massive stars (M  12~Mȯ) the Be phenomenon ispresent at smaller τ/τ_MS age ratios than for less massive stars(M  12~Mȯ). This distribution can be due to: i)higher mass-loss rates in massive objets, which can act to reduce thesurface fast rotation; ii) circulation time scales to transport angularmomentum from the core to the surface, which are longer the lower thestellar mass.

Rotation, pulsations and outbursts in the Be star υ Cygni (HD 202904)
υ Cyg is a Be star that shows variations at all timescales. Wemonitored its spectrum for several years from 1998 to 2004 and, inparticular, during a spectroscopic multisite campaign in 2000. In thispaper we present and analyse the data. We observed several outburstsincluding an intense one in 2000. Moreover, we found several periods ofshort-term variations, including two frequencies at 2.95 and 2.6 cd-1, which are well reproduced by models of non radialpulsations with a retrograde mode with ℓ=3 and m=3 and a zonal modewith ℓ=3 or 4 and m=0, respectively. The stellar rotation isprobably also identified at f˜1.5 c d-1, which iscoherent with the rotation frequency deduced from our determination ofstellar parameters. The peak-to-peak amplitude of variations also seemsto vary in time, maybe due to a beating effect between closefrequencies, but the resolution in time of our data does not allow us toseparate such close frequencies. Finally, a longer timescale variationmay be present, with a period around 11 years, which could be associatedwith a binary companion.

Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S Database
We have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Kinematical Structure of the Local Interstellar Medium: The Galactic Anticenter Hemisphere
A survey of interstellar Na I D1 and D2 absorption features in thespectra of 104 early-type stars in the second and third Galacticquadrants reveals the large-scale kinematics of the interstellar gaswithin the Galactic anticenter hemisphere at distances from the Sunbetween ~70 and ~250 pc. Employing a technique that uses both the radialvelocities and column densities of the Na I absorptions produced by theintervening gas we have identified the velocity vectors and determinedthe spatial distribution of eight interstellar clouds in the volumeexplored. The average internal H I+H2 densities of the cloudsrange between 0.03 and 1.7 cm-3, and their masses between 80and 104 Msolar, although uncertainties in thesizes of the clouds, their possible extension beyond the regionexplored, and the presence of denser gas embedded in the larger cloudsimply that these will tend to be lower limits. We have clearlyidentified clumps of denser gas immersed in the low-density gas in oneof the clouds; these clumps show internal H I+H2 densities oforder 50 cm-3. Although we are not able to detect anyinterstellar Na I within 70 pc, the sizes of some of the clouds implythat their near edges are within that range of distances from the Sun.With respect to the local standard of rest the clouds move withvelocities between 19 and 54 km s-1. Their velocity vectorsdo not support the view of a local interstellar medium uniquelydominated by expansion from centers in the Scorpio-Centaurus OBassociation; our results suggest that this expansion is present in theGalactic center hemisphere but in the Galactic anticenter hemisphere isrestricted to the immediate neighborhood of the Sun.

3D mapping of the dense interstellar gas around the Local Bubble
We present intermediate results from a long-term program of mapping theneutral absorption characteristics of the local interstellar medium,motivated by the availability of accurate and consistent parallaxes fromthe Hipparcos satellite. Equivalent widths of the interstellar NaID-line doublet at 5890 Å are presented for the lines-of-sighttowards some 311 new target stars lying within ~ 350 pc of the Sun.Using these data, together with NaI absorption measurements towards afurther ~ 240 nearby targets published in the literature (for many ofthem, in the directions of molecular clouds), and the ~ 450lines-of-sight already presented by (Sfeir et al. \cite{sfeir99}), weshow 3D absorption maps of the local distribution of neutral gas towards1005 sight-lines with Hipparcos distances as viewed from a variety ofdifferent galactic projections.The data are synthesized by means of two complementary methods, (i) bymapping of iso-equivalent width contours, and (ii) by densitydistribution calculation from the inversion of column-densities, amethod devised by Vergely et al. (\cite{vergely01}). Our present dataconfirms the view that the local cavity is deficient in cold and neutralinterstellar gas. The closest dense and cold gas ``wall'', in the firstquadrant, is at ~ 55-60 pc. There are a few isolated clouds at closerdistance, if the detected absorption is not produced by circumstellarmaterial.The maps reveal narrow or wide ``interstellar tunnels'' which connectthe Local Bubble to surrounding cavities, as predicted by the model ofCox & Smith (1974). In particular, one of these tunnels, defined bystars at 300 to 600 pc from the Sun showing negligible sodiumabsorption, connects the well known CMa void (Gry et al. \cite{gry85}),which is part of the Local Bubble, with the supershell GSH 238+00+09(Heiles \cite{heiles98}). High latitude lines-of-sight with the smallestabsorption are found in two ``chimneys'', whose directions areperpendicular to the Gould belt plane. The maps show that the LocalBubble is ``squeezed'' by surrounding shells in a complicated patternand suggest that its pressure is smaller than in those expandingregions.We discuss the locations of several HI and molecular clouds. Usingcomparisons between NaI and HI or CO velocities, in some cases we areable to improve the constraints on their distances. According to thevelocity criteria, MBM 33-37, MBM 16-18, UT 3-7, and MBM 54-55 arecloser than ~ 100 pc, and MBM 40 is closer than 80 pc. Dense HI cloudsare seen at less than 90 pc and 85 pc in the directions of the MBM 12and MBM 41-43 clouds respectively, but the molecular clouds themselvesmay be far beyond. The above closest molecular clouds are located at theneutral boundary of the Bubble. Only one translucent cloud, G192-67, isclearly embedded within the LB and well isolated.These maps of the distribution of local neutral interstellar NaI gas arealso briefly compared with the distribution of both interstellar dustand neutral HI gas within 300 pc.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp:cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/447

Estimation of the mass loss, opening angle and mass of Be circumstellar disks from Brmathsf γ continuum emission and interferometric measurements
Using the SIMECA code developed by Stee & Araùjo(\cite{stee1}); Stee et al. (\cite{stee2}) for Be stars we obtain acorrelation between the mass loss rates {dot M} and the Brgammacontinuum luminosity as a function of the opening angle of the disk. Weshow that this correlation is similar to those obtained by Scuderi etal. (\cite{scuderi}) for O-B supergiants. We found that the wind densityat the base of the photosphere, from a sample of 8 Be stars, liesbetween 10-13 and 10-12 g cm-3. We alsopresent a relationship between the mass of the circumstellar disk andthe 2.16 mu m flux. Finally we emphasize how interferometricmeasurements can help to estimate the wind density and we present asample of 16 Be stars with predicted visibilities that can be observedwith the VLTI.

Multiperiodicity and NRP in STARS Stars
Not Available

Autocorrelation Analysis of Hipparcos Photometry of Short-Period Be Stars
We have used Hipparcos epoch photometry and a form of autocorrelationanalysis to investigate the amplitude and timescale of the short-periodvariability of 82 Be stars, including 46 Be stars that were analyzed byHubert & Floquet using Fourier and CLEAN analysis and 36 other Bestars that were suspected of short-period variability. Our method hasgiven useful information for about 84% of these stars; for the rest, thetime distribution of the Hipparcos epoch photometry limits thecapability of our technique.

Koordinierte Zusammenarbeit zwischen den VdS-FG 'BAV' und 'Spektroskopie' ?
Not Available

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

Non-radial pulsation, rotation and outburst in the Be star omega Orionis from the MuSiCoS 1998 campaign
omega Ori (HD 37490, HR1934) is a Be star known to have presented variations. Inorder to investigate the nature and origin of its short-term andmid-term variability, a study is performed of several spectral lines(Hα , Hdelta , ion {He}i 4471, 4713, 4921, 5876, 6678, ion {C}{ii}4267, 6578, 6583, ion {Mg}{ii} 4481, ion {Si}{iii} 4553 and ion {Si}{ii}6347), based on 249 high signal-to-noise high-resolution spectra takenwith 8 telescopes over 22 consecutive nights during the MuSiCoS (MultiSIte COntinuous Spectroscopy) campaign in November-December 1998. Thestellar parameters are revisited and the projected rotational velocity(vsin i = 179 km s-1) is redetermined using several methods.With the MuSiCoS 98 dataset, a time series analysis of line-profilevariations (LPVs) is performed using the Restricted Local Cleanest (RLC)algorithm and a least squares method. The behaviour of the velocity ofthe centroid of the lines, the equivalent widths and the apparent vsinifor several lines, as well as Violet and Red components of photosphericlines affected by emission (red ion {He}i lines, ion {Si}{ii} 6347, ion{C}{ii} 6578, 6583) are analyzed. The non-radial pulsation (NRP) modelis examined using phase diagrams and the Fourier-Doppler Imaging (FDI)method. The LPVs are consistent with a NRP mode with l = 2 or 3, |m| = 2with frequency 1.03 c d-1. It is shown that an emission lineoutburst occurred in the middle of the campaign. Two scenarios areproposed to explain the behaviour of a dense cloud, temporarily orbitingaround the star with a frequency 0.46 c d-1, in relation tothe outburst. Based on observations taken during the MuSiCoS 98 campaignat OHP (France), La Silla (ESO, Chile, ID 62.H-0270), Mount Stromlo(Australia), Xinglong Station (China), Kitt Peak (USA), MCT/LNA (Brazil)and INT (Isaac Newton Group, La Palma Island).

Photometric Monitoring of Bright Be Stars. IV. 1996-1999
We report long-term UBV observations of 15 bright, active Be stars,namely: X Persei, EW Canis Majoris, θ Coronae Borealis, 4 (V839)Herculis, 88 (V744) Herculis, 66 (V2048) Ophiuchi, NW Serpentis, CXDraconis, 12 (V395) Vulpeculae, 28 (V1624) Cygni, QR Vulpeculae, 59(V832) Cygni, EW Lacertae, ο Andromedae, and KX Andromedae. Theobservations were made in 1996-1999 through the Automatic PhotometricTelescope Service in Arizona and through the American Association ofVariable Star Observers (AAVSO) photoelectric photometry program andhave been added to a database extending back 20 years. We describe thestars' recent behavior and also comment on the long-term behavior ofsome of them. They vary photometrically on timescales ranging from abouta day to many years.

Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry of Variable Early-Type Be and B Stars Derived from High-Resolution IUE Data
High-dispersion IUE data encode significant information about aggregateline absorptions that cannot be conveniently extracted from individualstellar spectra. Here we apply a new technique in which fluxes from eachechelle order of a short-wavelength IUE spectrum are binned together toconstruct low-resolution spectra of a rapidly varying B or Be star. Thedivision of binned spectra obtained during a ``bright-star'' phase byspectra from a ``faint-star'' phase leads to a ratioed spectrum thatcontains information about the mechanism responsible for a star'svariability. The most likely candidate mechanisms are either theperiodic or episodic occultations of the star by ejected matter or achange in photospheric structure, e.g., from pulsation. We model thevariations caused by these mechanism by means of model atmosphere andabsorbing-slab codes. Line absorptions strength changes are rathersensitive to physical conditions in circumstellar shells and ``clouds''at temperatures of 8000-13,000 K, which is the regime expected forcircumstellar structures of early B stars. To demonstrate proofs of thisconcept, we construct spectral ratios for circumstellar structuresassociated with flux variability in various Be stars: (1) Vela X-1 has abow-shock wind trailing its neutron star companion; at successive phasesand hence in different sectors, the wind exhibits spectrophotometricsignatures of a 13,000 or 26,000 K medium; (2) 88 Her undergoes episodic``outbursts'' during which its UV flux fades, followed a year later by adimming at visible wavelengths as well; the ratioed spectrum indicatesthe ``phase lag'' is a result of a nearly gray opacity that dominatesall wavelengths as the shell expands from the star and cools, permittingthe absorptions in the visible to ``catch up'' to those in the UV; and(3) ζ Tau and 60 Cyg exhibit periodic spectrum and flux changes,which match model absorptions for occulting clouds but are actually mosteasily seen from selective variations of various resonance lines. Inaddition, ratioed UV spectra of radial and large-amplitude nonradialpulsating stars show unique spectrophotometric signatures, which can besimulated with model atmospheres. An analysis of ratioed spectraobtained for a representative sample of 18 classical Be stars known tohave rapid periodic flux variations indicates that 13 of them haveratioed spectra that are relatively featureless or have signatures ofpulsation. Ratioed spectra of three others in the sample exhibitsignatures that are consistent with the presence of corotating clouds.

A Search for High-Velocity Be Stars
We present an analysis of the kinematics of Be stars based uponHipparcos proper motions and published radial velocities. We findapproximately 23 of the 344 stars in our sample have peculiar spacemotions greater than 40 km s-1 and up to 102 kms-1. We argue that these high-velocity stars are the resultof either a supernova that disrupted a binary or ejection by closeencounters of binaries in young clusters. Be stars spun up by binarymass transfer will appear as high-velocity objects if there wassignificant mass loss during the supernova explosion of the initiallymore massive star, but the generally moderate peculiar velocities of BeX-ray binaries indicate that the progenitors lose most of their massprior to the supernova (in accordance with model predictions). Binaryformation models for Be stars predict that most systems bypass thesupernova stage (and do not receive runaway velocities) to createultimately Be+white dwarf binaries. The fraction of Be stars spun up bybinary mass transfer remains unknown, since the post-mass transfercompanions are difficult to detect.

High and intermediate-resolution spectroscopy of Be stars 4481 lines
We present an atlas of Hγ , He i lambda 4471 and Mg ii lambda 4481line profiles obtained in a 10 year observation period of 116 Be stars,which enabled many of them to be observed at quite different emissionepochs. From the best fit of the observed He i lambda 4471 line profileswith non-LTE, uniform (Teff,log g) and full limb-darkenedmodel line profiles, we determined the V sin i of the program stars. Toaccount, to some degree, for the line formation peculiarities related tothe rapid rotation-induced non-uniform distributions of temperature andgravity on the stellar surface, the fit was achieved by considering(Teff,log g) as free parameters. This method produced V sin iestimations that correlate with the rotational velocities determined bySlettebak (1982) within a dispersion sigma <= 30 km s-1and without any systematic deviation. They can be considered as given inthe new Slettebak's et al. (1975) system. Only 13 program stars havediscrepant V sin i values. In some objects, this discrepancy could beattributed to binary effects. Using the newly determined V sin iparameters, we found that the ratio of true rotational velocitiesV/Vc of the program Be stars has a very low dispersion aroundthe mean value. Assuming then that all the stars are rigid rotators withthe same ratio V(/lineω)/Vc, we looked for the value of/line ω that better represents the distribution of V sini/Vc for randomly oriented rotational axes. We obtained/lineω = 0.795. This value enabled us to determine the probableinclination angle of the stellar rotation axis of the program stars. Inthe observed line profiles of Hγ , He i lambda 4471, Mg ii lambda4481 and Fe ii lambda 4351 we measured several parameters related to theabsorption and/or emission components, such as: equivalent width,residual emission and/or absorption intensity, FWHM, emission peakseparations, etc. The parameters related to the Hγ line emissionprofiles were used to investigate the structure of the nearbyenvironment of the central star. From the characteristics of thecorrelations between these quantities and the inferred inclinationangle, we concluded that in most of cases the Hγ line emissionforming regions may not be strongly flattened. Using a simplerepresentation of the radiation flux emitted by the star+envelopesystem, we derived first order estimates of physical parameterscharacterizing the Hγ line emission formation region. Thus, weobtained that the total extent of the Hγ region is Rf=~ 2.5 +/- 1.0 R* and that the density distribution in theselayers can be mimicked with a power law rho ~ R-alpha , wherealpha =2.5+2.2-0.6. The same approach enabled usto estimate the optical depth of the Hγ line emission formationregion. From its dependence with the aspect angle, we concluded thatthese regions are caracterized by a modest flattening and that the rho(equator)/rho (pole) density contrast of the circumstellar envelope nearthe star should be two orders of magnitude lower than predicted bymodels based on a priori disc-shaped circumstellar envelopes. We foundthat the separation between the emission peaks, Deltap, andthe full width at half maximum, Delta 1/2, of the Hγline emission are not only sensitive to kinematic effects, but to lineoptical depth as well. This finding agrees with previous theoreticalpredictions and confirms that Huang's (1972) relation overestimates theextent of the Hγ line emission formation region. Data obtained atCASLEO operated under agreement between the CONICET and the NationalUniversities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina, at ESOLa Silla, Chile and at OHP, France.}\fnmsep\thanks{Tables 2 to 7 andFigs. 1 and 2 are only available in full in electronic form at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/378/861}} \subtitle{Anatlas of Hγ , He {\fontsize {10pt}{12pt}\selectfont I} 4471 and Mg{\fontsize {10pt}{12pt}\selectfont II

A representative sample of Be stars III: H band spectroscopy
We present H band (1.53 mu m-1.69 mu m) spectra of 57 isolated Be starsof spectral types O9-B9 and luminosity classes III, IV & V. The H iBrackett (n-4) series is seen in emission from Br-11-18, and Fe iiemission is also apparent for a subset of those stars with H i emission.No emission from species with a higher excitation temperature, such asHe ii or C iii is seen, and no forbidden line emission is present. Asubset of 12 stars show no evidence for emission from any species; thesestars appear indistinguishable from normal B stars of a comparablespectral type. In general the line ratios constructed from thetransitions in the range Br-11-18 do not fit case B recombination theoryparticularly well. Strong correlations between the line ratios withBr-gamma and spectral type are found. These results most likelyrepresent systematic variations in the temperature and ionization of thecircumstellar disc with spectral type. Weak correlations between theline widths and projected rotational velocity of the stars are observed;however no systematic trend for increasing line width through theBrackett series is observed.

A representative sample of Be stars. IV. Infrared photometry and the continuum excess
We present infra-red (JHK) photometry of 52 isolated Be\ stars ofspectral types O9-B9 and luminosity classes III-V. We describe a newmethod of reduction, enabling separation of interstellar reddening andcircumstellar excess. Using this technique we find that the discemission makes a maximum contribution to the optical (B-V) colour of afew tenths of a magnitude. We find strong correlations between a rangeof emission lines (Hα , Brgamma , Br11, and Br18) from the Bestars' discs, and the circumstellar continuum excesses. We also findthat stellar rotation and disc excess are correlated.

Statistical analysis of intrinsic polarization, IR excess and projected rotational velocity distributions of classical Be stars
We present the results of statistical analyses of a sample of 627 Bestars. The parameters of intrinsic polarization (p*),projected rotational velocity (v sin i), and near IR excesses have beeninvestigated. The values of p* have been estimated for a muchlarger and more representative sample of Be stars (~490 objects) thanpreviously. We have confirmed that most Be stars of early spectral typehave statistically larger values of polarization and IR excesses incomparison with the late spectral type stars. It is found that thedistributions of p* diverge considerably for the differentspectral subgroups. In contrast to late spectral types (B5-B9.5), thedistribution of p* for B0-B2 stars does not peak at the valuep*=0%. Statistically significant differences in the meanprojected rotational velocities (/line{vsin i}) are found for differentspectral subgroups of Be stars in the sense that late spectral typestars (V luminosity class) generally rotate faster than early types, inagreement with previously published results. This behaviour is, however,not obvious for the III-IV luminosity class stars. Nevertheless, thecalculated values of the ratio vt/vc of the truerotational velocity, vt, to the critical velocity forbreak-up, vc, is larger for late spectral type stars of allluminosity classes. Thus, late spectral type stars appear to rotatecloser to their break-up rotational velocity. The distribution of nearIR excesses for early spectral subgroups is bi-modal, the position ofthe second peak displaying a maximum value E(V-L)~ 1 . m 3for O-B1.5 stars, decreasing to E(V-L)~0. m8 for intermediatespectral types (B3-B5). It is shown that bi-modality disappears for latespectral types (B6-B9.5). No correlations were found betweenp* and near IR excesses and between E(V-L) and vsin i for thedifferent subgroups of Be stars. In contrast to near IR excesses, arelation between p* and far IR excesses at 12 mu m is clearlyseen. A clear relation between p* and vsin i (as well asbetween p* and /line{vsin i}/vc) is found by thefact that plots of these parameters are bounded by a ``triangular"distribution of p*: vsin i, with a decrease of p*towards very small and very large vsin i (and /line{vsini}/vc) values. The latter behaviour can be understood in thecontext of a larger oblateness of circumstellar disks for the stars witha rapid rotation. From the analysis of correlations between differentobservational parameters we conclude that circumstellar envelopes forthe majority of Be stars are optically thin disks with the range of thehalf-opening angle of 10degr

Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutions
The FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included).

On the Variability of O4-B5 Luminosity Class III-V Stars
We investigate the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of O4-B5 luminosityclass III-V stars. Some for which further study is desirable areidentified. These stars in general are more variable than cooler stars

Polarimetric observations of some stars with an infrared (emission) excess.
Not Available

Importance of Small Telescopes in the Understanding of Active Hot Stars Physics
Active hot stars (Be stars) have been observed and studied for more thantwo decades. They exhibit hydrogen emission lines in the visible domainand often some emission lines of singly ionized metals. These emissionsoriginate in a circumstellar envelope produced by a strong radiativestellar wind. Since the discovery of the prototype star of this class(γ Cas) by Father A. Secchi in 1866, the basic physical propertiesof these objects are still poorly known. These stars are also verybright (most of them can be found in the Bright Star Catalogue) whichmake them good targets for small telescopes studies. In the following Iwill focus on some studies that can be done using a 40 cm telescopeclass. Then I will explain how small telescopes can be combined in aninterferometric network in order to reach one milliarcsecond (mas)angular resolution even if each telescope's aperture can be smaller thanten centimeters. With this technics it becomes possible to measure verysmall and faint structures on the stellar surface of stars other thanour sun.

250 GHz observations of Be stars
New 250 GHz flux density measurements with the 30 m telescope at PicoVeleta are presented for 23 Be stars. We suggest that the radio spectralindex is typically close to 1.4 for these stars. We present in adiscusssion of own and literature data some evidence that in few casesslow variations with a time scale of about a year occur. Both evidenceis compatible with the idea that there is no stellar activity type radioemission of Be stars but a maybe slightly modulated quiescent radiationof the outer parts of selfsimilar circumstellar disks. An immediateimprovement of existing models is not possible.

Stellar and circumstellar activity in the Be star EW Lacertae from the 1993 multi-site campaign
A multi-site, multi-technique campaign on the Be star EW Lac was heldfor about 9 days in August-September 1993. We present results of theanalysis of visual, high S/N spectroscopic data (He I 6678 Å andHα ). Search for short-term variability was carried out on He I6678 (line profiles, radial velocity (RV), equivalent width (EW), fullwidth at half-maximum (FWHM) on the absorption part of the line profileand on violet (V) and red (R) emission peaks) and on Hα emissionline (line profiles, EW, V, R and V/R ratio). The presence ofmulti-periodicity is confirmed and we detected the frequencies found in1989 by Floquet et al. (1992) during a 8-day mono-site campaign.Possible non-radial pulsation solutions for the main frequenciesdetected are l ~ 2-3, | m | ~ 2-3. We found evidence on the He I 6678line of episodic matter outflows through the presence of relativelybroad, variable absorption line-profile variations. At least one sharpabsorption feature was also observed slowly crossing the stellar disc.It is attributed to a blob of matter temporarily orbiting the star. Abrief account is given of broad-band polarimetric observations,performed over 6 nights. A correlation is found between the variation inintrinsic polarization level in the B-band and He I 6678 Åstrength. Finally, we present a simple model that reproduces rather wellthe additional ``pseudo-photosphere" contribution in 1993 as opposed to1989.

Excitation and visibility of high-degree modes in stars
Observational evidence for excitation of non-radial modes in stars isconfronted with the results of linear stability surveys for stellarmodels. We consider various types of pulsators on the upper mainsequence as well as stars in the Cepheid strip. Our stability surveycovers the whole range of spherical harmonic degrees, l, whereinstability is found. There is fair agreement between the theoreticalinstability strip and the location of ζ Oph stars, but the observedand calculated periods do not agree in some stars. We suggest thateither pulsation is not responsible for the ζ Oph phenomenon orelse there are serious errors in mode identification in these cases. Wedo not find instability at long periods for early B-type stars,supporting the idea that pulsation is not responsible for the periodicvariations in Be stars. The agreement between the observed andcalculated periods of high-degree modes in δ Sct stars is not verysatisfactory. This is attributed to problems in mode identification. Wediscuss unstable modes of high degree in Cepheid models as a possiblemechanism for the low-amplitude radial velocities seen in some starswithin the instability strip. We find, however, that the observedperiods are at least a factor of 2 longer than the calculated periods.Finally, we discuss the possibility of observing modes of high degreephotometrically. We suggest that a large number of high-degree modes maybecome detectable by future space-borne photometric missions. Theconfusion arising from these modes may greatly reduce the value of suchobservations for asteroseismology. However, they will be very importantin studying the mechanism of mode selection.

Corotating photospheric clouds in the Be star eta CEN
From 819 echelle spectra of epsilon Cen on 13 nights we find strongevidence for corotating gas clouds. Grey-scale images of stackeddifference spectra of the combined He I lines at 4144, 4388, 4471, 4922and 5016 Å show diffuse features moving from blue to red withaccelerations consistent with the rotation of the star. These are alsoseen in the Si III 4553 line, but are not very evident in the Hβand Hγ lines. The same features can be recognized on differentnights, from which we infer a rotational period equal to the photometricperiod of 0.64 d. On many nights emission is present at velocitiescorresponding to the approaching or receding limb of the star. Althoughthe features are largely stable, clear changes can also be detected. Onone night there was a significant increase in emission from a certainregion, resulting in the appearance of transient migrating absorptionsubfeatures sometimes seen in the line profiles of other Be stars. Thesewould normally (incorrectly) be attributed to non-radial pulsation ofhigh degree. These observations are inconsistent with the usuallyaccepted pulsational model for periodic Be stars. We suggest thatperiodic Be stars can be understood in terms of a model of corotatinggas clouds.

Mid-Infrared Spectra of BE Stars
We present the first medium-resolution (R~600) mid-infrared (8-13.3μm) spectra of 11 Be stars. A large number of lines are observed andidentified in these spectra, including, as an example, 39 hydrogenrecombination lines in the spectrum of γ Cas. In the majority ofour spectra, all of the observed lines are attributable to hydrogenrecombination. Two of the sources, β Lyr and MWC 349, also showemission from other species. Both of these objects show evidence of [NeII] emission, and β Lyr also shows evidence of He I emission. Wetabulate the effective line strength and line widths for the observedlines and briefly discuss the physical implications of the observed lineseries. We also use a simple model of free-free emission to characterizethe disks around these sources.

A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 Stars
Ultraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:22h57m04.50s
Apparent magnitude:5.43
Distance:336.7 parsecs
Proper motion RA:9.9
Proper motion Dec:-6.4
B-T magnitude:5.203
V-T magnitude:5.323

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 217050
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 3626-1877-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1350-17598518
BSC 1991HR 8731
HIPHIP 113327

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