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 Evolution of magnetic fields in stars across the upper main sequence: I. Catalogue of magnetic field measurements with FORS 1 at the VLTTo properly understand the physics of Ap and Bp stars it is particularlyimportant to identify the origin of their magnetic fields. For that, anaccurate knowledge of the evolutionary state of stars that have ameasured magnetic field is an important diagnostic. Previous resultsbased on a small and possibly biased sample suggest that thedistribution of magnetic stars with mass below 3 M_ȯ in the H-Rdiagram differs from that of normal stars in the same mass range (Hubriget al. 2000). In contrast, higher mass magnetic Bp stars may well occupythe whole main-sequence width (Hubrig, Schöller & North 2005b).In order to rediscuss the evolutionary state of upper main sequencemagnetic stars, we define a larger and bias-free sample of Ap and Bpstars with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes and reliably determinedlongitudinal magnetic fields. We used FORS 1 at the VLT in itsspectropolarimetric mode to measure the magnetic field in chemicallypeculiar stars where it was unknown or poorly known as yet. In thisfirst paper we present our results of the mean longitudinal magneticfield measurements in 136 stars. Our sample consists of 105 Ap and Bpstars, two PGa stars, 17 HgMn stars, three normal stars, and nine SPBstars. A magnetic field was for the first time detected in 57 Ap and Bpstars, in four HgMn stars, one PGa star, one normal B-type star and fourSPB stars. Formation scenarios for the young stellar associations between galactic longitudes l = 280degr - 360degrWe investigate the spatial distribution, the space velocities and agedistribution of the pre-main sequence (PMS) stars belonging toOphiuchus, Lupus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions (SFRs), and of theyoung early-type star members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association.These young stellar associations extend over the galactic longituderange from 280degr to 360degr , and are at a distance interval ofaround 100 and 200 pc. This study is based on a compilation ofdistances, proper motions and radial velocities from the literature forthe kinematic properties, and of basic stellar data for the constructionof Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams. Although there was no well-known OBassociation in Chamaeleon, the distances and the proper motions of agroup of 21 B- and A-type stars, taken from the Hipparcos Catalogue,lead us to propose that they form a young association. We show that theyoung early-type stars of the OB associations and the PMS stars of theSFRs follow a similar spatial distribution, i.e., there is no separationbetween the low and the high-mass young stars. We find no difference inthe kinematics nor in the ages of these two populations studied.Considering not only the stars selected by kinematic criteria but thewhole sample of young early-type stars, the scattering of their propermotions is similar to that of the PMS stars and all the young starsexhibit a common direction of motion. The space velocities of theHipparcos PMS stars of each SFR are compatible with the mean values ofthe OB associations. The PMS stars in each SFR span a wide range of ages(from 1 to 20 Myr). The ages of the OB subgroups are 8-10 Myr for UpperScorpius (US), and 16-20 Myr for Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL) and forLower Centaurus Crux (LCC). Thus, our results do not confirm that UCL isolder than the LCC association. Based on these results and theuncertainties associated with the age determination, we cannot say thatthere is indeed a difference in the age of the two populations. Weanalyze the different scenarios for the triggering of large-scalestar-formation that have been proposed up to now, and argue that mostprobably we are observing a spiral arm that passes close to the Sun. Thealignment of young stars and molecular clouds and the average velocityof the stars in the opposite direction to the Galactic rotation agreewith the expected behavior of star formation in nearby spiral arms.Tables 1 to 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/404/913 On the elemental abundance and isotopic mixture of mercury in HgMn starsOptical region spectra of 31 HgMn stars have been studied for theabundance and isotope mixture of mercury. In the course of theinvestigation the lines Hg I lambda 4358 and Hg Ii lambda lambda3984,6149 have been studied, with abundances established for all threelines in several HgMn stars. The mercury isotope mixture has beendetermined from high resolution spectra of the lambda 3984 line.Possible signs of an ionization anomaly have been detected by thecomparison of the abundance derived from the Hg I line and the Hg Iilines in seven of the observed HgMn stars. A possible correlation of themercury abundance with Teff has been detected. Possible signsof a weak anticorrelation of the manganese and mercury abundance in HgMnstars have been found, which could be interpreted as a sign ofinhomogeneous surface distribution of these elements. For a number ofthe HgMn stars in this study the mercury abundance and isotope mixtureare reported for the first time. Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associationsRadial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.125.8) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446 Are Stellar Rotational Axes Distributed Randomly?Stellar line widths yield values of Vsini, but the equatorial rotationalvelocities, V, cannot be determined for individual stars withoutknowledge of their inclinations, i, relative to the lines of sight. Forlarge numbers of stars we usually assume random orientations ofrotational axes to derive mean values of V, but we wonder whether thatassumption is valid. Individual inclinations can be derived only inspecial cases, such as for eclipsing binaries where they are close to90° or for chromospherically active late-type dwarfs or spotted(e.g., Ap) stars where we have independent information about therotational periods. We consider recent data on 102 Ap stars for whichCatalano & Renson compiled rotational periods from the literatureand Abt & Morrell (primarily) obtained measures of Vsini. We findthat the rotational axes are oriented randomly within the measuringerrors. We searched for possible dependence of the inclinations onGalactic latitude or longitude, and found no dependence. Research Note Hipparcos photometry: The least variable starsThe data known as the Hipparcos Photometry obtained with the Hipparcossatellite have been investigated to find those stars which are leastvariable. Such stars are excellent candidates to serve as standards forphotometric systems. Their spectral types suggest in which parts of theHR diagrams stars are most constant. In some cases these values stronglyindicate that previous ground based studies claiming photometricvariability are incorrect or that the level of stellar activity haschanged. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/367/297 Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included). OB association members in the ACT and TRC cataloguesThe Hipparcos Catalogue contains members of nearby OB associationsbrighter than 12th magnitude in V. However, membership lists arecomplete only to magnitude V=7.3. In this paper we discuss whetherproper motions listed in the Astrographic Catalogue+Tycho' referencecatalogue (ACT) and the Tycho Reference Catalogue (TRC), which arecomplete to V~10.5mag, can be used to find additional associationmembers. Proper motions in the ACT/TRC have an average accuracy of~3masyr-1. We search for ACT/TRC stars which have propermotions consistent with the spatial velocity of the Hipparcos members ofthe nearby OB associations already identified by de Zeeuw et al. Thesestars are first selected using a convergent-point method, and thensubjected to further constraints on the proper-motion distribution,magnitude and colour to narrow down the final number of candidatemembers. Monte Carlo simulations show that the proper-motiondistribution, magnitude, and colour constraints remove ~97per cent ofthe field stars, while at the same time retain more than 90per cent ofthe cluster stars. The procedure has been applied to five nearbyassociations: the three subgroups of Sco OB2, plus Per OB3 and Cep OB6.In all cases except Cep OB6, we find evidence for new associationmembers fainter than the completeness limit of the Hipparcos Catalogue.However, narrow-band photometry and/or radial velocities are needed topinpoint the cluster members, and to study their physicalcharacteristics. On the Variability of Late B III-V StarsWe investigate the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of luminosity classIII-V B6-B9 stars. Most are relatively non-variable. Candidates forwhich further study is desirable are identified. A HIPPARCOS Census of the Nearby OB AssociationsA comprehensive census of the stellar content of the OB associationswithin 1 kpc from the Sun is presented, based on Hipparcos positions,proper motions, and parallaxes. It is a key part of a long-term projectto study the formation, structure, and evolution of nearby young stellargroups and related star-forming regions. OB associations are unboundmoving groups,'' which can be detected kinematically because of theirsmall internal velocity dispersion. The nearby associations have a largeextent on the sky, which traditionally has limited astrometricmembership determination to bright stars (V<~6 mag), with spectraltypes earlier than ~B5. The Hipparcos measurements allow a majorimprovement in this situation. Moving groups are identified in theHipparcos Catalog by combining de Bruijne's refurbished convergent pointmethod with the `Spaghetti method'' of Hoogerwerf & Aguilar.Astrometric members are listed for 12 young stellar groups, out to adistance of ~650 pc. These are the three subgroups Upper Scorpius, UpperCentaurus Lupus, and Lower Centaurus Crux of Sco OB2, as well as VelOB2, Tr 10, Col 121, Per OB2, alpha Persei (Per OB3), Cas-Tau, Lac OB1,Cep OB2, and a new group in Cepheus, designated as Cep OB6. Theselection procedure corrects the list of previously known astrometricand photometric B- and A-type members in these groups and identifiesmany new members, including a significant number of F stars, as well asevolved stars, e.g., the Wolf-Rayet stars gamma^2 Vel (WR 11) in Vel OB2and EZ CMa (WR 6) in Col 121, and the classical Cepheid delta Cep in CepOB6. Membership probabilities are given for all selected stars. MonteCarlo simulations are used to estimate the expected number of interloperfield stars. In the nearest associations, notably in Sco OB2, thelater-type members include T Tauri objects and other stars in the finalpre-main-sequence phase. This provides a firm link between the classicalhigh-mass stellar content and ongoing low-mass star formation. Detailedstudies of these 12 groups, and their relation to the surroundinginterstellar medium, will be presented elsewhere. Astrometric evidencefor moving groups in the fields of R CrA, CMa OB1, Mon OB1, Ori OB1, CamOB1, Cep OB3, Cep OB4, Cyg OB4, Cyg OB7, and Sct OB2, is inconclusive.OB associations do exist in many of these regions, but they are eitherat distances beyond ~500 pc where the Hipparcos parallaxes are oflimited use, or they have unfavorable kinematics, so that the groupproper motion does not distinguish it from the field stars in theGalactic disk. The mean distances of the well-established groups aresystematically smaller than the pre-Hipparcos photometric estimates.While part of this may be caused by the improved membership lists, arecalibration of the upper main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram may be called for. The mean motions display a systematicpattern, which is discussed in relation to the Gould Belt. Six of the 12detected moving groups do not appear in the classical list of nearby OBassociations. This is sometimes caused by the absence of O stars, but inother cases a previously known open cluster turns out to be (part of) anextended OB association. The number of unbound young stellar groups inthe solar neighborhood may be significantly larger than thoughtpreviously. Fractionated stellar wind and the H/He abundance anomalies in BP starsRadiatively driven winds occur in all main sequence stars (Babel\cite{Bab1}, \cite{Bab2}). However, due to the weak coupling between thephoton absorbing metals and the inert elements H and He, the wind in thelow temperature domain is fractionated: He decouples from the wind atT_eff < 25 000 K, and below 17 000 K even H. The decoupled elementsfall back to the surface of the star thus creating overabundances andabundance stratifications. These anomalies, however, become manifestonly if atmospheric turbulence is suppressed (say by magnetic fields).In order to prove the validity of the described scenario, all B_p starsfor which reliable fundamental parameters exist, are discussed on thebasis of the (augmented) (g, T_eff)-diagram of Babel (\cite{Bab2}). Itis shown that the fractionation process is able to explain the observedtemperature sequence of He-rich and He-poor stars, additionally toclassical diffusion processes. A necessary condition is that a magneticfield is present. This explains why only a fraction of B stars exhibitsH/He anomalies. While classical diffusion operates in the quiet zones(no wind) of a star, fractionation takes place above the wind bases. On the HIPPARCOS photometry of chemically peculiar B, A, and F starsThe Hipparcos photometry of the Chemically Peculiar main sequence B, A,and F stars is examined for variability. Some non-magnetic CP stars,Mercury-Manganese and metallic-line stars, which according to canonicalwisdom should not be variable, may be variable and are identified forfurther study. Some potentially important magnetic CP stars are noted.Tables 1, 2, and 3 are available only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The observed periods of AP and BP starsA catalogue of all the periods up to now proposed for the variations ofCP2, CP3, and CP4 stars is presented. The main identifiers (HD and HR),the proper name, the variable-star name, and the spectral type andpeculiarity are given for each star as far as the coordinates at 2000.0and the visual magnitude. The nature of the observed variations (light,spectrum, magnetic field, etc.) is presented in a codified way. Thecatalogue is arranged in three tables: the bulk of the data, i.e. thosereferring to CP2, CP3, and CP4 stars, are given in Table 1, while thedata concerning He-strong stars are given in Table 2 and those foreclipsing or ellipsoidal variables are collected in Table 3. Notes arealso provided at the end of each table, mainly about duplicities. Thecatalogue contains data on 364 CP stars and is updated to 1996, October31. This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS,Strasbourg, France. The HR-diagram from HIPPARCOS data. Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of BP - AP starsThe HR-diagram of about 1000 Bp - Ap stars in the solar neighbourhoodhas been constructed using astrometric data from Hipparcos satellite aswell as photometric and radial velocity data. The LM method\cite{luri95,luri96} allows the use of proper motion and radial velocitydata in addition to the trigonometric parallaxes to obtain luminositycalibrations and improved distances estimates. Six types of Bp - Apstars have been examined: He-rich, He-weak, HgMn, Si, Si+ and SrCrEu.Most Bp - Ap stars lie on the main sequence occupying the whole width ofit (about 2 mag), just like normal stars in the same range of spectraltypes. Their kinematic behaviour is typical of thin disk stars youngerthan about 1 Gyr. A few stars found to be high above the galactic planeor to have a high velocity are briefly discussed. Based on data from theESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite and photometric data collected in theGeneva system at ESO, La Silla (Chile) and at Jungfraujoch andGornergrat Observatories (Switzerland). Tables 3 and 4 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Stellar Content of Star Stream IAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....111.1615E&db_key=AST The λ 3984 feature in late-B spectroscopic binaries.We report about a spectroscopic study aimed at searching the line Hg IIλ 3984 in a sample of 28 spectroscopic binaries with primaries inthe same temperature range as HgMn stars. One system, HD 75642, showsthis line very prominently. In another system, HD 41040, Hg may besomewhat overabundant, while HD 87751 shows marginal Mn and Penhancement. The present study does not bring a definitive answer to thequestion of the relation between binarity, slow rotation, and theappearance of HgMn anomalies in late B stars, possibly because othereffects (like the influence of a magnetic field), which could not betaken into consideration, are important too. In the course of thisstudy, 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries were discovered, 10 ofwhich were previously known as single-lined systems. Of particularinterest among them are 4 stars that may have the Si or He weakpeculiarities. The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars. Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. A new list of effective temperatures of chemically peculiar stars. II.Not Available Mid-ultraviolet and optical photometry of helium starsMid-ultraviolet and optical photometric analysis of helium stars arepresented. A linear relation exists between the effective temperaturederived from model atmospheres and (1965-V)0 index. The effectivetemperatures derived from (1965-V)0 index are somewhat higher than thatof MK spectral type estimates especially for late B-type helium objects. Intensive photometry of southern Be variables. II - Summer objectsResults are presented of photometric campaign on some bright southern Bestars to search for periodic light variations. In order to obtain goodphase coverage, many observations were conducted from two sites withdifferent longitudes: ESO and SAAO. A large fraction of early-Be starsare found to be variable with periods close to or equal to theirrotational periods. Particular attention is devoted to the late-Bestars. Unlike the hotter members of this class, the late-Be stars do notseem to have detectable periodic light variations except for one or twostars of very small amplitude. Fifth fundamental catalogue. Part 2: The FK5 extension - new fundamental starsThe mean positions and proper motions for 3117 new fundamental starsessentially in the magnitude range about 4.5 to 9.5 are given in thisFK5 extension. Mean apparent visual magnitude is 7.2 and is on average2.5 magnitudes fainter then the basic FK5 which has a mean magnitude of4.7. (The basic FK5 gives the mean positions and proper motions for theclassical 1535 fundamental stars). The following are discussed: theobservational material, reduction of observations, star selection, andthe system for the FK5 extension. An explanation and description of thecatalog are given. The catalog of 3117 fundamental stars for the equinoxand epoch J2000.0 and B1950.0 is presented. The parallaxes and radialvelocities for 22 extension stars with large forecasting effects aregiven. Catalogs used in the compilation of the FK5 fundamental catalogare listed. Beta Cephei pulsation and the helium-strong starsSix He-strong stars are identified which may be good candidates insearches for Beta Cephei pulsation based on their location in a plot ofbeta vs (u-b). The significance of detection of pulsational variabilityamong the He-peculiar stars in the study of excitation mechanisms forBeta Cephei stars is discussed. A photometric survey of the bright southern Be starsRepeated UBV photometric measurements were made of the 86 bright Bestars south of declination -20 deg, and a network of comparison starswas set up. From a statistical study of the differential photometry itwas found that short- or intermediate-term variability seems to beoccurring in about half of the Be stars, and to be more evident in thestars of earlier spectral type. It was also possible to identify 11individual short- or intermediate-term variables. Four of these (all ofearly B spectral type) appear to exhibit significant variability on atime-scale of a day or less. More intensive observations of one of thesestars, 28 Omega CMA, indicate short-term variations consistent with thepublished spectroscopic period of 1.37 day. On the Effective Temperatures of Chemically Peculiar StarsNot Available Statistical Investigation of Chemically Peculiar Stars - Part Two - the Stars with the Dispersion of Continuum Spectrum at Lambda 5200ANot Available Statistical Investigation of Chemically Peculiar Stars - Part One - the Stars with Known PeriodsNot Available Observational problems of investigation of stars with anomalous helium lines.Not Available The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematicsPublished uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter. Catalog of observed periods for the AP starsA preliminary catalog of the Ap stars, taken in the broad sense toinclude many Bp stars, is presented. The HD and HR numbers,variable-star names, spectral types, and proposed periods are listed;the nature of the periodic variability is indicated; and references tothe observations are provided. Companion stars, confirmed spectroscopicbinaries, and anomalies are mentioned in notes.
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