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# σ Aur (Al Hiba ath Thaalith)

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 Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclustersThe availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165} Ca II K Emission-Line Asymmetries Among Red GiantsMeasurements of the asymmetry of the K2 emission line of CaII have been made for a sample of bright field giants with B-V>1.15observed with the Cassegrain echelle spectrometer on the McDonaldObservatory 2.1 m telescope. The asymmetry of the Ca II K2line is quantified through measurement of a parameter V/R, which isdefined as the ratio between the maximum counts recorded in the violetand red components of the double-peaked emission profile. Red-maximumasymmetry (V/R<1.0) is found in our sample of 35 giants only amongstars with B-V>1.35, a trend that is still maintained (with oneexception) with the inclusion of an additional sample of giantspreviously observed by us with the same spectrograph. Althoughexceptional stars can be found in the literature, the data support anearlier finding by R. Stencel that among luminosity class III fieldgiants the occurrence of V/R<1.0 is generally restricted to effectivetemperatures cooler than 4320 K. This limit may coincide with the onsetof pulsation. Rotation and lithium in single giant starsIn the present work, we study the link between rotation and lithiumabundance in giant stars of luminosity class III, on the basis of alarge sample of 309 single stars of spectral type F, G and K. We havefound a trend for a link between the discontinuity in rotation at thespectral type G0III and the behavior of lithium abundances around thesame spectral type. The present work also shows that giant starspresenting the highest lithium contents, typically stars earlier thanG0III, are those with the highest rotation rates, pointing for adependence of lithium content on rotation, as observed for otherluminosity classes. Giant stars later than G0III present, as a rule, thelowest rotation rates and lithium contents. A large spread of about fivemagnitudes in lithium abundance is observed for the slow rotators.Finally, single giant stars with masses 1.5 < M/Msun<=2.5 show a clearest trend for a correlation between rotational velocityand lithium abundance. Based on observations collected at theObservatoire de Haute -- Provence (France) and at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla (Chile). Table 2 is only available electronicallywith the On-Line publication athttp://link.springer.de/link/service/00230/ A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Absolute declinations with the photoelectric astrolabe at Calern Observatory (OCA)A regular observational programme with a photoelectric astrolabe havebeen performed at Observatoire du Calern" (Observatoire de laCôte d'Azur, OCA, phi = +43() o44′55.011″; lambda =-0() h27() m42.44() s, Calern, Caussols, France) for the last twentyyears. It has been almost fully automatized between 1984 and 1987. Since1988 the photoelectric astrolabe was used without any modification. Inaddition to determining the daily orientation of the local vertical, theyearly analysis of the residuals permits to derive corrections to theused star catalogue \cite[(Vigouroux et al. 1992)]{vig92}. A globalreduction method was applied for the ASPHO observations. The new form ofthe equations \cite[(Martin & Leister 1997)]{mar97} give us thepossibility of using the entire set of the observing program using datataken at two zenith distances (30() o and 45() o). The program containsabout 41648 stars' transits of 269 different stars taken atObservatoire du Calern" (OCA). The reduction was based on theHIPPARCOS system. We discuss the possibility of computing absolutedeclinations through stars belonging simultaneously to the 30() o and45() o zenith distances programmes. The absolute declination correctionswere determined for 185 stars with precision of 0.027arcsec and thevalue of the determined equator correction is -0.018arcsec +/-0.005arcsec . The instrumental effects were also determined. The meanepoch is 1995.29. Catalogue only available at CDS in electronic from viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Catalogs of temperatures and [Fe/H] averages for evolved G and K starsA catalog of mean values of [Fe/H] for evolved G and K stars isdescribed. The zero point for the catalog entries has been establishedby using differential analyses. Literature sources for those entries areincluded in the catalog. The mean values are given with rms errors andnumbers of degrees of freedom, and a simple example of the use of thesestatistical data is given. For a number of the stars with entries in thecatalog, temperatures have been determined. A separate catalogcontaining those data is briefly described. Catalog only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The structure of roundchroms in close binary systemsThe determination of common chromospheres - roundchroms - for 32 closebinary systems, all of RS CVn type, is described; the main parameters ofthese roundchroms - volumes, electron concentrations and masses, areestimated. Three types of roundchroms are established according to theirstructure. The empirical relationship between their electronconcentration n_e and intercomponent distance a - n_e = K a^-0.80,discovered earlier, is confirmed by data for over fifty close binarysystems. This law holds promise for the determination of component radiiof close binary systems and some parameters of their roundchroms. A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 editionA fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html H-alpha measurements for cool giantsThe H-alpha line in a cool star is usually an indication of theconditions in its chromosphere. I have collected H-alpha spectra of manynorthern G-M stars, which show how the strength and shape of the H-alphaline change with spectral type. These observations detect surprisinglittle variation in absoption-line depth (Rc approximately0.23 +/- 0.08), linewidth (FWHD approximately 1.44 +/- 0.22 A), orequivalent width (EW approximately 1.12 +/- 0.17 A) among G5-M5 IIIgiants. Lines in the more luminous stars tend to be broader and strongerby 30%-40% than in the Class III giants, while the H-alpha absorptiontends to weaken among the cooler M giants. Velocities of H-alpha andnearby photospheric lines are the same to within 1.4 +/- 4.4 km/s forthe whole group. To interpret these observations, I have calculatedH-alpha profiles, Ly-alpha strengths, and (C II) strengths for a seriesof model chromospheres representing a cool giant star like alpha Tau.Results are sensitive to the mass of the chromosphere, to chromospherictemperature, to clumping of the gas, and to the assumed physics of lineformation. The ubiquitous nature of H-alpha in cool giants and the greatdepth of observed lines argue that chromospheres of giants cover theirstellar disks uniformly and are homogeneous on a large scale. This isquite different from conditions on a small scale: To obtain a highenough electron density with the theoretical models, both to explain theexitation of hydrogen and possibly also to give the observed C IImultiplet ratios, the gas is probably clumped. The 6540-6580 A spectraof 240 stars are plotted in an Appendix, which identifies the date ofobservation and marks positions of strong telluric lines on eachspectrum. I assess the effects of telluric lines and estimates that thestrength of scattered light is approximately 5% of the continuum inthese spectra. I give the measurements of H-alpha as well as equivalentwidths of two prominent photospheric lines, Fe I lambda 6546 and Ca Ilambda 6572, which strengthen with advancing spectral type. Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. The corona of the G-type giant HR 2554: Discovery of co-existing, very different temperature regimesWe present direct observational evidence for two different co-existingcoronal temperature regimes in the sigma Aur-type binary HR 2554 (G7II +A1V). ROSAT observations reveal the presence of plasma at temperaturesaround 106.7 K, typical of coronal plasma found in giants,while IUE observations, taken during egress from eclipse, showcircumstellar (CS) C IV and Si IV absorption lines in the spectrum ofthe secondary, which reveal a significant amount of geometricallyextended (0 less than h less than 1R*) plasma in thetemperature regime of about 105 K, similar to that found inHR 6902. The correction in right ascension of 508 stars determinated with PMO photoelectric transit instrument.Not Available A critical appraisal of published values of (Fe/H) for K II-IV stars'Primary' (Fe/H) averages are presented for 373 evolved K stars ofluminosity classes II-IV and (Fe/H) values beween -0.9 and +0.21 dex.The data define a 'consensus' zero point with a precision of + or -0.018 dex and have rms errors per datum which are typically 0.08-0.16dex. The primary data base makes recalibration possible for the large(Fe/H) catalogs of Hansen and Kjaergaard (1971) and Brown et al. (1989).A set of (Fe/H) standard stars and a new DDO calibration are given whichhave rms of 0.07 dex or less for the standard star data. For normal Kgiants, CN-based values of (Fe/H) turn out to be more precise than manyhigh-dispersion results. Some zero-point errors in the latter are alsofound and new examples of continuum-placement problems appear. Thushigh-dispersion results are not invariably superior to photometricmetallicities. A review of high-dispersion and related work onsupermetallicity in K III-IV star is also given. High-resolution spectroscopic survey of 671 GK giants. I - Stellar atmosphere parameters and abundancesA high-resolution spectroscopic survey of 671 G and K field giants isdescribed. Broad-band Johnson colors have been calibrated againstrecent, accurate effective temperature, T(eff), measurements for starsin the range 3900-6000 K. A table of polynomial coefficients for 10color-T(eff) relations is presented. Stellar atmosphere parameters,including T(eff), log g, Fe/H, and microturbulent velocity, are computedfor each star, using the high-resolution spectra and various publishedphotometric catalogs. For each star, elemental abundances for a varietyof species have been computed using a LTE spectrum synthesis program andthe adopted atmosphere parameters. A search for lithium-rich giant starsLithium abundances or upper limits have been determined for 644 brightG-K giant stars selected from the DDO photometric catalog. Two of thesegiants possess surface lithium abundances approaching the 'cosmic' valueof the interstellar medium and young main-sequence stars, and eight moregiants have Li contents far in excess of standard predictions. At leastsome of these Li-rich giants are shown to be evolved to the stage ofhaving convectively mixed envelopes, either from the direct evidence oflow surface carbon isotope ratios, or from the indirect evidence oftheir H-R diagram positions. Suggestions are given for the uniqueconditions that might have allowed these stars to produce or accrete newlithium for their surface layers, or simply to preserve from destructiontheir initial lithium contents. The lithium abundance of the remainingstars demonstrates that giants only very rarely meet the expectations ofstandard first dredge-up theories; the average extra Li destructionrequired is about 1.5 dex. The evolutionary states of these giants andtheir average masses are discussed briefly, and the Li distribution ofthe giants is compared to predictions of Galactic chemical evolution. Radial velocities of standard starsRadial-velocity observations obtained over a five-year period with theMcDonald Observatory photoelectric radial-velocity spectrometer arereported for those stars not known to be velocity variable. There are259 stars included in the 1650 observations of the spectral type rangeF0 to M0 and brighter than a V of 6.5 mag. For the best-observed 134stars, the standard error of the mean velocity is typically better than+ or - 0.9 km/s. Sixteen stars are shown to be constant to a sufficientlevel to warrant standard-star status. Six possible spectroscopicbinaries are found. E. W. Fick Observatory stellar radial velocity measurements. I - 1976-1984Stellar radial velocity observations made with the large vacuumhigh-dispersion photoelectric radial velocity spectrometer at FickObservatory are reported. This includes nearly 2000 late-type starsobserved during 585 nights. Gradual modifications to this instrumentover its first eight years of operation have reduced the observationalerror for high-quality dip observations to + or - 0.8 km/s. Transformation equations and other aids for VRI photometryTransformations among VRI systems are commonly beset by Paschen-jumpeffects, for which fully satisfactory allowance has not previously beenmade. This paper describes two new techniques which are based on thework of Gutierrez-Moreno, and which allow fully for the effects of thePaschen jump. Values of E(V-R)/E(B-V) and E(R-I)/E(B-V) are also givenfor the Cousins system for a wide range of temperatures. These and thenew techniques contribute to a set of new transformation relations whichapply for most VRI systems; the status of the remaining systems isreviewed, and future work needed for them is described. Two majorsources of Cousins VRI data underlie the new relations; the consistencyof these sources is reviewed and found to be generally satisfactory,although more work on this question is needed. Finally, three tables oftransformed standard-star and other data are given for the Cousins andJohnson systems, and a description of ways to reproduce the latter ispresented. Visual multiples. VIII - 1000 MK typesA total of 1000 new classifications are given for stars brighter than B= 8.0 mag in the Aitken double star catalog. The classificationssupplement 865 classifications obtained in 1981 and 1984. Among thenewly discovered stars are 12 new Ap stars, eight Lambda Bootis stars,one Ba II star, and 60 Am stars. A detailed list of the newclassifications is given. Catalogue of stars with CaII H and K emissionsNot Available Radial-velocity standard starsThe paper reports the results of applying an iterative procedure devisedto establish a set of velocity standard stars for monitoring thebehavior of the Fick Observatory photoelectric radial-velocityspectrometer. Data obtained during the first three years of observationwith this instrument are used to select a set of 200 velocity standardstars brighter than 7th magnitude of spectral types from late F to earlyM. All velocities have been reduced to the Fick Observatory system. Absolute magnitudes of stars from widths of chromospheric CaII emission lines.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976ApJ...205..823W&db_key=AST Luminosity and velocity distribution of high-luminosity red stars. III. Old-disk-population giantsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973PASP...85..542E&db_key=AST Strong-Cyanogen Stars: Photometry and KinematicsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971ApJ...165..561J&db_key=AST Determination of atmospheric parameters for G and K giants by means of photoelectric indices.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971A&A....15..123H&db_key=AST Catalog of Indidual Radial Velocities, 0h-12h, Measured by Astronomers of the Mount Wilson ObservatoryAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1970ApJS...19..387A&db_key=AST Narrow-band photometry of late-type starsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1970A&AS....1..199H&db_key=AST Scanner Abundance Studies. I. an Investigation of Supermetallicity in Late-Type Evolved StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1969ApJ...157.1279S&db_key=AST Abundances of sodium, magnesium and calcium in K-type giant starsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1968MNRAS.140...21P&db_key=AST Polarimetric Observations of Nearby Stars in the Directions of the Galactic Poles and the Galactic PlaneAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1968ApJ...151..907A&db_key=AST
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