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 Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclustersThe availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165} The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. Synthetic Lick Indices and Detection of α-Enhanced StarsSynthetic Lick indices computed with solar scaled abundances and withα-element enhancement are presented and compared with predictionsfrom both theoretical computations (Tripicco & Bell; Thomas,Maraston, & Bender; Barbuy et al.) and empirical fitting functions(de Freitas Pacheco). We propose selected combinations of indicescapable of singling out α-enhanced stars without requiringprevious knowledge of their main atmospheric parameters. By applyingthis approach to the 460 stars in the Worthey et al. catalog, wedetected a list of 82 candidate α-enhanced stars. The confirmationof α-enhancement was obtained by searching the literature forindividual element abundance determinations from high-resolutionspectroscopy for a subsample of 34 stars. Preliminary discussion of theproperties of the detected α-enhanced stars with respect to their[Fe/H] values and kinematics is presented. Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systemsFor Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997 Do red giant stars pulsate in high overtones?About 30 photometrically variable red giant stars have periods less than10d, as determined by the compilers of the Hipparcos Catalogue fromHipparcos photometric measurements. These periods, when combined withestimates of the radii and masses of these stars, and with pulsationtheory, imply that these stars are pulsating in very high overtones. Wepresent several pieces of evidence which suggest that the periods may bespurious, as a result of the particular aliasing properties of theHipparcos photometry. We conclude that the evidence for high-overtonepulsation in red giant stars is equivocal. New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometryTwo selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcosunsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed. Periods of 25 Pulsating Red GiantsWe report periods and amplitudes of 25 pulsating red giants: T Cet, EGAnd, AK Hya, TV UMa, GK Com, SW Vir, FH Vir, EV Vir, tau-4 Ser, AZ Dra,V973 Cyg, V1070 Cyg, and also HR 211, 284, 648, 2286, 2999, 3521, 4267,4483, 5331, 5352, 6543, 6815, and 7009, determined from AmericanAssociation of Variable Stars (AAVSO) photoelectric photometry over upto 5800 days. Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included). The Optical Contents of the IPN1 Localization of GRB 790325B: The Discovery of a Probable QSO AssociationWe report the results of the deepest imaging survey yet carried out ofthe IPN1 localization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 790325b. While this isone of the smallest of the IPN1 GRB localizations, it has beenpreviously surveyed only to shallow limits because of the nearby bright(V=4.97) star 104 Herculis. We have used a camera with a 9 mag neutraldensity region in front of a Tek 2048^2 CCD to apodize the light of 104Her and allow deep UBVI imaging of the localization. The observations,obtained at the US Naval Observatory 1.55 m telescope to a detectionlimit of V~22.9, reveal 20 objects clearly within or at the edge of thelocalization. Near the center of the localization is a QSO candidatethat is unlikely (~97% confidence) to be a random occurrence based onknown QSO statistics. Combining these new statistics with earlier summedstatistics linking QSOs/blue galaxies with IPN1 localizations yields amarginal (~96% confidence) overall correlation. We also compare ourobservational results for this field with another recent imaging surveyof GRB 790325b based on HST data and discuss the differences in theresults. Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem HIPPARCOS BinariesThe ESA Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 12,000 doublestars and discovered 3406 new systems. In addition to these, 4706entries in the Hipparcos Catalogue correspond to double star solutionsthat did not provide the classical parameters of separation and positionangle (rho,theta) but were the so-called problem stars, flagged G,''O,'' V,'' or X'' (field H59 of the main catalog). An additionalsubset of 6981 entries were treated as single objects but classified byHipparcos as suspected nonsingle'' (flag S'' in field H61), thusyielding a total of 11,687 `problem stars.'' Of the many ground-basedtechniques for the study of double stars, probably the one with thegreatest potential for exploration of these new and problem Hipparcosbinaries is speckle interferometry. Results are presented from aninspection of 848 new and problem Hipparcos binaries, using botharchival and new speckle observations obtained with the USNO and CHARAspeckle cameras. Empirical calibration of the lambda 4000 Å breakEmpirical fitting functions, describing the behaviour of the lambda 4000Ä break, D4000, in terms of effective temperature,metallicity and surface gravity, are presented. For this purpose, thebreak has been measured in 392 stars from the Lick/IDS Library. We havefollowed a very detailed error treatment in the reduction and fittingprocedures, allowing for a reliable estimation of the breakuncertainties. This calibration can be easily incorporated into stellarpopulation models to provide accurate predictions of the break amplitudefor, relatively old, composite systems. Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Stellar radii of M giantsWe determine the stellar radii of the M giant stars in the Hipparcoscatalogue that have a parallax measured to better than 20% accuracy.This is done with the help of a relation between a visual surfacebrightness parameter and the Cousins (V - I) colour index, which wecalibrate with M giants with published angular diameters.The radii of(non-Mira) M giants increase from a median value of 50 R_Sun at spectraltype M0 III to 170 R_Sun at M7/8 III. Typical intermediate giant radiiare 65 R_Sun for M1/M2, 90 R_Sun for M3, 100 R_Sun for M4, 120 R_Sun forM5 and 150 R_Sun for M6. There is a large intrinsic spread for a givenspectral type. This variance in stellar radius increases with latertypes but in relative terms, it remains constant.We determineluminosities and, from evolutionary tracks, stellar masses for oursample stars. The M giants in the solar neighbourhood have masses in therange 0.8-4 M_Sun. For a given spectral type, there is a close relationbetween stellar radius and stellar mass. We also find a linear relationbetween the mass and radius of non-variable M giants. With increasingamplitude of variability we have larger stellar radii for a given mass. Gamma-Ray Burst Counterparts: Optical DataThe surest solution of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) mystery is to find anunambiguous low-energy quiescent counterpart. To this end, we haveintensively searched within the smallest GRB error boxes for anycounterpart candidates. This paper reports on 255 hr of exposure withground-based telescopes since 1981. We report our results in the U, B,V, R. I, J, H, and K bands. We find the usual array of mildly unusualsources in the boxes, but none is sufficiently unusual to suggest acausal connection. We find that the smallest boxes are empty to fairlydeep magnitudes. This fact can be of significance since virtually allcosmological models place bright bursters inside normal host galaxies atmoderate distances. To allow for quantitative evaluation of thepredictions of these models, we have compiled a list of limits on thebrighest galaxy inside each of the 26 regions in various bands. Thislist was compiled from our own results as well as from the publishedliterature. The limits on host galaxy luminosities from these data aresubstantially more restrictive than the limits from recent opticaltransients because the bursts we report on are much brighter than thebursts with optical transients. The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circleThe sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30. The Mystery of HR 6815The catalogue data for HR 6815 (V669 Herculis) are very incomplete. Aliterature search was carried out in an attempt to find the missingparameters, and a possible source for the single catalogued datum wasfound. Further suggested elements are provided, based on 105photoelectric observations made between 1991 and 1996. Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution SpectraIRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed. H gamma and H delta Absorption Features in Stars and Stellar PopulationsThe H gamma and H delta absorption features are measured in a sample of455 (out of an original 460) Lick/IDS stars with pseudo--equivalentwidth indices. For each Balmer feature, two definitions, involving anarrow (~20 Angstroms) and a wide (~40 Angstroms) central bandpass, aremeasured. These four new Balmer indices augment 21 indices previouslydetermined by Worthey et al., and polynomial fitting functions that giveindex strengths as a function of stellar temperature, gravity, and[Fe/H] are provided. The new indices are folded into models for theintegrated light of stellar populations, and predictions are given forsingle-burst stellar populations of a variety of ages and metallicities.Contrary to our initial hopes, the indices cannot break a degeneracybetween burst age and burst strength in post-starburst objects, but theyare successful mean-age indicators when used with sensitive metallicityindicators. An appendix gives data, advice, and examples of how totransform new spectra to the 25-index Lick/IDS system. Gamma-Ray Burster Counterparts: Hubble Space Telescope Blue and Ultraviolet DataThe surest solution of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) mystery is to find anunambiguous low-energy quiescent counterpart. However, to date noreasonable candidates have been identified in the X-ray, optical,infrared, or radio ranges. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has nowallowed for the first deep ultraviolet searches for quiescentcounterparts. This paper reports on multiepoch ultraviolet searches offive GRB positions with HST. We found no sources with significantultraviolet excesses, variability, parallax, or proper motion in any ofthe burst error regions. In particular, we see no sources similar tothat proposed as a counterpart to the GRB 970228. While this negativeresult is disappointing, it still has good utility for its strict limitson the no-host-galaxy problem in cosmological models of GRBs. For mostcosmological models (with peak luminosity 6 x 1050 ergs s-1), theabsolute B magnitude of any possible host galaxy must be fainter than-15.5 to -17.4. These smallest boxes for some of the brightest burstsprovide the most critical test, and our limits are a severe problem forall published cosmological burst models. Accurate Two-dimensional Classification of Stellar Spectra with Artificial Neural NetworksWe present a solution to the long-standing problem of automaticallyclassifying stellar spectra of all temperature and luminosity classeswith the accuracy shown by expert human classifiers. We use the 15Angstroms resolution near-infrared spectral classification systemdescribed by Torres-Dodgen & Weaver in 1993. Using the spectrum withno manual intervention except wavelength registration, artificial neuralnetworks (ANNs) can classify these spectra with Morgan-Keenan types withan accuracy comparable to that obtained by human experts using 2Angstroms resolution blue spectra, which is about 0.5 types (subclasses)in temperature and about 0.25 classes in luminosity. Accuratetemperature classification requires a hierarchy of ANNs, whileluminosity classification is most successful with a single ANN. Wepropose an architecture for a fully automatic classification system. Intrinsic Energy Distribution in Stellar Spectra in the Wavelength Interval 320--760 NMThe intrinsic energy distributions in the interval 320--760 nm ofspectral types B5--G8 of luminosity V, F0--F5 of luminosity IV andG8--M2 of luminosity III, determined by authors, are intercompared withthe catalogue of the mean energy distribution data published bySviderskiene (1988). H-alpha measurements for cool giantsThe H-alpha line in a cool star is usually an indication of theconditions in its chromosphere. I have collected H-alpha spectra of manynorthern G-M stars, which show how the strength and shape of the H-alphaline change with spectral type. These observations detect surprisinglittle variation in absoption-line depth (Rc approximately0.23 +/- 0.08), linewidth (FWHD approximately 1.44 +/- 0.22 A), orequivalent width (EW approximately 1.12 +/- 0.17 A) among G5-M5 IIIgiants. Lines in the more luminous stars tend to be broader and strongerby 30%-40% than in the Class III giants, while the H-alpha absorptiontends to weaken among the cooler M giants. Velocities of H-alpha andnearby photospheric lines are the same to within 1.4 +/- 4.4 km/s forthe whole group. To interpret these observations, I have calculatedH-alpha profiles, Ly-alpha strengths, and (C II) strengths for a seriesof model chromospheres representing a cool giant star like alpha Tau.Results are sensitive to the mass of the chromosphere, to chromospherictemperature, to clumping of the gas, and to the assumed physics of lineformation. The ubiquitous nature of H-alpha in cool giants and the greatdepth of observed lines argue that chromospheres of giants cover theirstellar disks uniformly and are homogeneous on a large scale. This isquite different from conditions on a small scale: To obtain a highenough electron density with the theoretical models, both to explain theexitation of hydrogen and possibly also to give the observed C IImultiplet ratios, the gas is probably clumped. The 6540-6580 A spectraof 240 stars are plotted in an Appendix, which identifies the date ofobservation and marks positions of strong telluric lines on eachspectrum. I assess the effects of telluric lines and estimates that thestrength of scattered light is approximately 5% of the continuum inthese spectra. I give the measurements of H-alpha as well as equivalentwidths of two prominent photospheric lines, Fe I lambda 6546 and Ca Ilambda 6572, which strengthen with advancing spectral type. Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. Photometric surveys of suspected small-amplitude red variables. 3: an AAVSO photometric photometry surveyWe have carried out a survey of the photometric (V) variability of 61'known' or suspected small-amplitude red variables, mostly M giants.Approximately two-thirds appear to be variable; several suspectedvariable comparison stars have also been identified. The incidence andaverage amplitude of variability increase rapidly from spectral type M0III to M6 III. Old stellar populations. 5: Absorption feature indices for the complete LICK/IDS sample of starsTwenty-one optical absorption features, 11 of which have been previouslydefined, are automatically measured in a sample of 460 stars. FollowingGorgas et al., the indices are summarized in fitting functions that giveindex strengths as functions of stellar temperature, gravity, and(Fe/H). This project was carried out with the purpose of predictingindex strengths in the integrated light of stellar populations ofdifferent ages and metallicities, but the data should be valuable forstellar studies in the Galaxy as well. Several of the new indices appearto be promising indicators of metallicity for old stellar populations. Acomplete list of index data and atmospheric parameters is available incomputer-readable form. Improved Mean Positions and Proper Motions for the 995 FK4 Sup Stars not Included in the FK5 ExtensionNot Available Corrections to the right ascension to be applied to the apparent places of 1217 stars given in "The Chinese Astronomical Almanach" for the year 1984 to 1992.Not Available A new library of stellar optical spectraAttention is given to a new digital optical stellar library consistingof spectra covering 3510-8930 R at 11-A resolution for 72 differentstellar types. These types extend over the spectral classes O-M andluminosity classes I-V. Most spectra are of solar metallicity stars butsome metal-rich and metal-poor spectra are included. This new library isquantitatively compared to two previously published libraries. It offersseveral advantages over them: it is photometrically well-calibratedindividually and consistently from star to star. Good temperature andluminosity coverage has been achieved. The incorporation of stars withwell-determined temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity parametersincreases the accuracy of the spectral type assigned to each compositelibrary star. Asymptotic giant branch stars near the sunAvailable red and near-infrared photometry and apparent motions of M, S,and C asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Bright Star Catalogueare tabulated and discussed. It is shown that the red and near infraredindices normally used for late-type stars are interchangeable except forcarbon stars. The M-type giants are variable with visual amplitudegreater than 0.05 mag. The reddening-free parameter m2 from Genevaphotometry is essentially a temperature parameter for M giants, whilethe reddening-free parameter d is a sensitive detector of blue stellarcompanions. The space density of AGB stars near the sun decreases by afactor of 35 in a temperature range 3800 to 3400 K. Two of the S starsnear the sun were found to have nearly equal space motions and may becomembers of the Arcturus group. Secondary spectrophotometric standardsEnergy distribution data on 238 secondary standard stars are presentedin the range 3200-7600 A with 50 A step. These stars are common to theCatalog of the Sternberg State Astronomical Institute and the FessenkovAstrophysical Institute. For these stars, the differences betweenspectral energy distribution data of the two catalogs do not exceed 5percent, while the mean internal accuracy of both catalogs data in thisrange are about 3.5 percent. For 99 stars energy distribution data inthe near infrared (6000-10,800 A) obtained at the Sternberg StateAstronomical Institute are also presented. Carbon abundances and isotope ratios in 70 bright M giantsApproximate carbon abundances and C-12/C-13 isotope ratios are obtainedfor 70 M giant stars from intermediate-resolution spectrophotometry ofthe CO bands near 2.3 microns. A low mean carbon abundance (C/H = -0.64+ or - 0.29) is obtained, suggesting that standard mixing isinsufficient to explain atmospheric abundances in M giants. HR 8795appears to be exceptionally carbon deficient, and is worthy of furtherstudy as a possible weak G-band star descendant.
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