Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

τ UMa



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

The Puzzle of the Metallic Line Stars
In the puzzle of the metallic line (Am) stars, there still seem to bemissing pieces. While the ``normal'' A stars have elemental abundancesclose to solar, the classical Am stars show stronger absorption linesfor most heavy elements in their spectra. Elements with ionizationpotentials that nearly agree with those of hydrogen or helium havereduced abundances. The Ca II and Sc II lines are especially weak. TheAm stars have no ultraviolet emission lines. They are binaries that,with very few exceptions, have rotational velocities vsini lower than100 km s-1. Of the main-sequence A stars, 20% to 30% are Amstars. Here we rediscuss previous suggestions that tried to explain thepeculiar line strengths in the Am star spectra. In particular, wecompare the well-studied properties of Hyades A and Am stars in order toidentify reasons that can or cannot explain the differences. We findthat accretion of interstellar material by A stars with distortedmagnetic fields, which are weaker than those in peculiar A (Ap) stars,has the best chance of explaining the main characteristics of thepeculiar heavy-element abundances in Am star photospheres.Charge-exchange reactions also seem to be important.

Observed Orbital Eccentricities
For 391 spectroscopic and visual binaries with known orbital elementsand having B0-F0 IV or V primaries, we collected the derivedeccentricities. As has been found by others, those binaries with periodsof a few days have been circularized. However, those with periods up toabout 1000 or more days show reduced eccentricities that asymptoticallyapproach a mean value of 0.5 for the longest periods. For those binarieswith periods greater than 1000 days their distribution of eccentricitiesis flat from 0 to nearly 1, indicating that in the formation of binariesthere is no preferential eccentricity. The binaries with intermediateperiods (10-100 days) lack highly eccentric orbits.

Astrometric orbits of SB^9 stars
Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) have been used to deriveastrometric orbital elements for spectroscopic binaries from the newlyreleased Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits(SB^9). This endeavour is justified by the fact that (i) theastrometric orbital motion is often difficult to detect without theprior knowledge of the spectroscopic orbital elements, and (ii) suchknowledge was not available at the time of the construction of theHipparcos Catalogue for the spectroscopic binaries which were recentlyadded to the SB^9 catalogue. Among the 1374 binaries fromSB^9 which have an HIP entry (excluding binaries with visualcompanions, or DMSA/C in the Double and Multiple Stars Annex), 282 havedetectable orbital astrometric motion (at the 5% significance level).Among those, only 70 have astrometric orbital elements that are reliablydetermined (according to specific statistical tests), and for the firsttime for 20 systems. This represents a 8.5% increase of the number ofastrometric systems with known orbital elements (The Double and MultipleSystems Annex contains 235 of those DMSA/O systems). The detection ofthe astrometric orbital motion when the Hipparcos IAD are supplementedby the spectroscopic orbital elements is close to 100% for binaries withonly one visible component, provided that the period is in the 50-1000 drange and the parallax is >5 mas. This result is an interestingtestbed to guide the choice of algorithms and statistical tests to beused in the search for astrometric binaries during the forthcoming ESAGaia mission. Finally, orbital inclinations provided by the presentanalysis have been used to derive several astrophysical quantities. Forinstance, 29 among the 70 systems with reliable astrometric orbitalelements involve main sequence stars for which the companion mass couldbe derived. Some interesting conclusions may be drawn from this new setof stellar masses, like the enigmatic nature of the companion to theHyades F dwarf HIP 20935. This system has a mass ratio of 0.98 but thecompanion remains elusive.

The field Am and ρ Puppis-like stars: Lithium and heavier elements
With observations at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, photosphericabundances of two evolved field Am stars, τ UMaand HR 178, have been determined for Li, Al, Si, S,Fe, Ni, and Eu by model abundance analysis. Thanks to these newdetermined abundances and the HIPPARCOS mission, making it possible tobetter estimate the evolutionary stage of field stars, one can considerthe influence of evolution on the abundances of Am stars. No abundancetrend for Al, Si, S, and Fe is found during Main Sequence evolution, upto its very last phases. The abundance of Li is, generally, cosmic.Large Li deficiencies may be observed in the very last phases (the``hook'' region of the H-R diagram) and, too, on the red side of the Amphenomenon region where the ρ Puppis-like stars lie.Based on observations collected at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope(Hawaii).

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

Tidal Effects in Binaries of Various Periods
We found in the published literature the rotational velocities for 162B0-B9.5, 152 A0-A5, and 86 A6-F0 stars, all of luminosity classes V orIV, that are in spectroscopic or visual binaries with known orbitalelements. The data show that stars in binaries with periods of less thanabout 4 days have synchronized rotational and orbital motions. Stars inbinaries with periods of more than about 500 days have the samerotational velocities as single stars. However, the primaries inbinaries with periods of between 4 and 500 days have substantiallysmaller rotational velocities than single stars, implying that they havelost one-third to two-thirds of their angular momentum, presumablybecause of tidal interactions. The angular momentum losses increase withdecreasing binary separations or periods and increase with increasingage or decreasing mass.

Contributions to the Nearby Stars (NStars) Project: Spectroscopy of Stars Earlier than M0 within 40 Parsecs: The Northern Sample. I.
We have embarked on a project, under the aegis of the Nearby Stars(NStars)/Space Interferometry Mission Preparatory Science Program, toobtain spectra, spectral types, and, where feasible, basic physicalparameters for the 3600 dwarf and giant stars earlier than M0 within 40pc of the Sun. In this paper, we report on the results of this projectfor the first 664 stars in the northern hemisphere. These resultsinclude precise, homogeneous spectral types, basic physical parameters(including the effective temperature, surface gravity, and overallmetallicity [M/H]), and measures of the chromospheric activity of ourprogram stars. Observed and derived data presented in this paper arealso available on the project's Web site.

Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars
This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin i
This work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897

A highly sensitive search for magnetic fields in B, A and F stars
Circular spectropolarimetric observations of 74 stars were obtained inan attempt to detect magnetic fields via the longitudinal Zeeman effectin their spectral lines. The sample observed includes 22 normal B, A andF stars, four emission-line B and A stars, 25 Am stars, 10 HgMn stars,two lambda Boo stars and 11 magnetic Ap stars. Using the Least-SquaresDeconvolution multi-line analysis approach (Donati et al.\cite{donati97etal}), high precision Stokes I and V mean signatures wereextracted from each spectrum. We find absolutely no evidence formagnetic fields in the normal, Am and HgMn stars, with upper limits onlongitudinal field measurements usually considerably smaller than anypreviously obtained for these objects. We conclude that if any magneticfields exist in the photospheres of these stars, these fields are notordered as in the magnetic Ap stars, nor do they resemble the fields ofactive late-type stars. We also detect for the first time a field in theA2pSr star HD 108945 and make new precise measurements of longitudinalfields in five previously known magnetic Ap stars, but do not detectfields in five other stars classified as Ap SrCrEu. We also report newresults for several binary systems, including a new vsin i for therapidly rotating secondary of the Am-delta Del SB2 HD 110951. Based onobservations obtained using the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter on theBernard Lyot telescope, l'Observatoire du Pic du Midi, France.

The core-wing anomaly of cool Ap stars. Abnormal Balmer Profiles
The profiles of Hα in a number of cool Ap stars are anomalous.Broad wings, indicative of temperatures in the range 7000-8000 K endabruptly in narrow cores. The widths of these cores are compatible withthose of dwarfs with temperatures of 6000 K or lower. This profile hasbeen known for Przybylski's star, but it is seen in other cool Ap stars.The Hβ profile in several of these stars shows a similar core-winganomaly (CWA). In Przybylski's star, the CWA is probably present athigher Balmer members. We are unable to account for these profileswithin the context of LTE and normal dwarf atmospheres. We conclude thatthe atmospheres of these stars are not ``normal''. This is contrary to anotion that has long been held. Based on observations obtained at theEuropean Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programme No.65.I-0644) and the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO).}

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

Metal abundances of field A and Am stars
Detailed abundances of 9 field A and Am stars are derived for Mg, Ca,Sc, Cr, Fe, and Ni using high resolution spectroscopy. Most of oursample Am stars show the characteristic deficiencies of Ca and Sc on onehand, and the overabundances of the iron peak elements on the other,which is consistent with the predictions of the diffusion model for MainSequence or slightly evolved stars. There seems to be a correlationbetween abundances of Ca and Sc and the effective temperature for starsof similar age: the abundance of Ca increases with increasing masswhereas that of Sc decreases. Two of our Am stars have a differentabundance pattern: Ca is overabundant in the hot magnetic Am star o Pegand its abundance is nearly normal in the metallic giant star rho Pup.The other objects of our sample have globally a solar composition except28 And, which shows significant deficiencies for most the studiedelements. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire deHaute-Provence (France), and on data from the ESA\protect\linebreakHIPPARCOS astrometry satellite.

On the cobalt abundances of early-type stars
Photographic region high-dispersion high signal-to-noise spectra of Aand F main sequence band stars which exhibit modest rotation show Co Ilines. In the hottest of these stars, we also found weak Co II lineswhose abundances are consistent with those from Co I lines. As a classthe Am stars have cobalt abundances which are greater than solar whilethe normal stars have solar values.

Oxygen 6156-8 Angstroms Triplet in Chemically Peculiar Stars of the Upper Main Sequence: Do HgMn Stars Show an Oxygen Anomaly?
An extensive spectrum-fitting analysis in the lambda ~ 6150 Angstromsregion was performed for forty late-B and A chemically peculiar (HgMn,Ap, Am, weak-lined) and normal stars of the upper main sequence, inorder to quantitatively establish the abundance of oxygen from the O I6156-8 triplet and to study its behavior/anomaly for each peculiaritygroup, where special attention was paid to HgMn-type stars. Magnetic Apvariables (Si or SrCrEu type) generally show a remarkably large oxygendepletion (by ~ -1.6 dex to ~ -0.4 dex relative to the solar abundance),and classical Am stars also show a clear underabundance (by ~ -0.6 dexon the average). In contrast, the oxygen abundance in HgMn stars,exhibiting only a mild deficiency relative to the Sun typically by ~0.3-0.4 dex, is not markedly different from the tendency of normalstars, also showing a subsolar abundance ([O/H] =~ -0.2). In view of therecent observational implication that the present solar oxygen abundanceis enriched by ~ 0.2-0.3 dex relative to the interstellar gas (fromwhich young stars are formed), and thus unsuitable for the comparisonstandard, we concluded that the extent of the average O-deficiency inHgMn stars is appreciably reduced down to only ~ 0.1-0.2 dex (i.e., notmuch different from the initial composition), which contrasts with theirwell-known drastically large N-depletion. Yet, as can be seen from thedelicate and tight O vs. Fe anticorrelation, this marginal deficiencyshould be real, and thus some physical process simultaneously producingO-depletion/Fe-enrichment must have actually worked in the atmosphere ofHgMn stars.

A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 Stars
Ultraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories.

Testing convection theories using Balmer line profiles of A, F, and G stars
We consider the effects of convection on the Balmer line profiles({H_α} and {H_β}) of A, F, and G stars. The standardmixing-length theory (MLT) atlas9 models of Kurucz (1993), with andwithout overshooting, are compared to atlas9 models based on theturbulent convection theory proposed by Canuto & Mazzitelli (1991,1992) and implemented by Kupka (1996), and the improved version of thismodel proposed by Canuto et al. (1996) also implemented by Kupka. TheBalmer line profiles are a useful tool in investigating convectionbecause they are very sensitive to the parameters of convection used inthe stellar atmosphere codes. The {H_α} and {H_β} lines areformed at different depths in the atmosphere. The {H_α} line isformed just above the convection zone. The {H_β} line, however, ispartially formed inside the convection zone. We have calculated the{T_eff} of observed stars by fitting Balmer line profiles to syntheticspectra and compared this to: (i) the {T_eff} of the fundamental stars;(ii) the {T_eff} of stars determined by the Infra-Red Flux Method and(iii) the {T_eff} determined by Geneva photometry for the stars in theHyades cluster. We find that the results from the {H_α} and{H_β} lines are different, as expected, due to the differing levelsof formation. The tests are inconclusive between three of the fourmodels; MLT with no overshooting, CM and CGM models, which all giveresults in reasonable agreement with fundamental values. The resultsindicate that for the MLT theory with no overshooting it is necessary toset the mixing length parameter alpha equal to 0.5 for stars with {T_eff<= 6000} K or {T_eff >= 7000} K. However for stars with {6000}K{<= T_eff <= 7000} K the required value for the parameter is{alpha >= 1.25}. Models with overshooting are found to be clearlydiscrepant, consistent with the results with uvby photometry by Smalley& Kupka (1997). Based on observations made at the Observatorio delRoque de los Muchachos using the Richardson-Brealey Spectrograph on the1.0m Jacobs Kapteyn Telescope.

Concerning the Reported Phase-modulated Changes in the Spectrum of 41 Sextantis
Sreedhar Rao et al. have reported that the metallic-line star 41Sextantis exhibits significant changes in the depths and equivalentwidths of its spectral lines and that these changes are coupled with theorbital motion of this spectroscopic binary. Based on their discovery,they suggest that 41 Sex is a possible evolutionary link between the Amand Ap stars. High-dispersion CCD spectra of 41 Sex, obtained in 1991with the 0.9 m feed telescope and coudé spectrograph at the KittPeak National Observatory, were measured to determine the equivalentwidths and depths of several metallic lines and the depths of Ca ii Kand H_8 as a function of orbital phase. The spectrum changes thatSreedhar Rao et al. observed could not be verified with these data.Possible explanations for this lack of confirmation might be that thestar was in a quiescent state in 1991 or that the reported changes tothe spectrum happen on a timescale much greater than the orbital period.An updated solution for the spectroscopic orbital elements is alsopresented.

Effective temperatures from A5 to G5 spectral types, using Balmer line profiles
We show how previous works (Fuhrmann et al., van 't Veer-Menneret &Megessier) demonstrate the efficiency of the use of Balmer line profilesfor effective temperature determination. In agreement with them, weinsist on the physical interest of this method based on the behaviour ofthese lines with the variations of the parameters involved in thetreatment of the convective transport. The comparison between Fuhrmann'sresults and ours, independently obtained, exhibits a quite goodagreement. We show new results of effective temperature, gravity andmetallicities for a few of our programme stars, ranging from solar tooverabundant metallicities.

On the HIPPARCOS photometry of chemically peculiar B, A, and F stars
The Hipparcos photometry of the Chemically Peculiar main sequence B, A,and F stars is examined for variability. Some non-magnetic CP stars,Mercury-Manganese and metallic-line stars, which according to canonicalwisdom should not be variable, may be variable and are identified forfurther study. Some potentially important magnetic CP stars are noted.Tables 1, 2, and 3 are available only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Delta a and Stroemgren photometry of stars in the Renson-catalogue of AP and AM stars
We have observed 131 stars of \cite[Renson's (1991)]{re91} catalogue ofAp and Am stars both in the Stroemgren & Maitzen's (1976) Delta asystem as a contribution to the photometric studies of the lambda 5200broad band flux depression feature in chemically peculiar stars. Withfew exceptions the probability grouping of Renson for membership in theCP2 group of peculiar stars is nicely reflected by peculiar values ofDelta a. Comparison with already available Delta a values yieldsslightly larger values due to a minor shift in the filter g_1 samplingthe depression. As found by \cite[Maitzen & Vogt (1983)]{ma83} theGeneva system peculiarity parameters correlate well with Delta a. Thisstudy demonstrates the advantageous performance of a photoelectricphotometer with a rapidly rotating filter wheel moving in a stop and gomode. Tables 3 and 4 are also available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Chemically peculiar stars in the field of NGC 2244
Low-resolution long-slit spectra of reference stars, including MKKstandard stars and well-known chemically peculiar stars, are used todevelop a spectroscopic method for the detection of the 5200 {Angstroms} flux depression in CP stars. This new method is shown to beas sensitive a detection tool as the photometrical techniques, andprovides a higher resolution view of the excess blocking. Application tostars in the field of NGC 2244 allows us to estimate and eliminatereddening effects. CP stars detected in this field include two members(# 334 and # 276) of the very young stellar group NGC 2244 (age ~ 3 x10(6) yr) and two or three foreground stars (# 381, # 625 and maybe #629). # 334 and # 625 are strongly peculiar. Based on observationsobtained at the Observatoire du Haute--Provence (OHP), France

The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.

The Angular Momentum of Main Sequence Stars and Its Relation to Stellar Activity
Rotational velocities are reported for intermediate-mass main sequencestars it the field. The measurements are based on new, high S/N CCDspectra from the Coudé Feed Telescope of the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. We analyze these rotation rates for a dependence on bothmass and age. We compare the average rotation speeds of the field starswith mean velocities for young stars in Orion, the Alpha Persei cluster,the Pleiades, and the Hyades. The average rotation speeds of stars moremassive than $\sim1.6$ \msun\experience little or no change during theevolutionary lifetimes of these stars on the zero age main sequence orwithin the main sequence band. Less massive stars in the range betwee n1.6\msun\ and 1.3\msun\ also show little decline in mean rotation ratewhile they are on the main sequence, and at most a factor of 2 decreasein velocity as they evolve off the main sequence. The {\it e}-foldingtime for the loss of angular momentum b y the latter group of stars isat least 1--2 billion years. This inferred characteristic time scale forspindown is far longer than the established rotational braking time forsolar-type stars with masses below $\sim1.3$ \msun. We conclude from acomparison of the trends in rotation with trends in chromospheric andcoronal activity that the overall decline in mean rotation speed alongthe main sequence, from $\sim2$ \msun\ down to $\sim1.3$ \msun, isimposed during the pre-main sequence phase of evolution, and that thispattern changes little thereafter while the star resides on the mainsequence. The magnetic activity implicated in the rotational spindown ofthe Sun and of similar stars during their main sequence lifetimes mus ttherefore play only a minor role in determining the rotation rates ofthe intermediate mass stars, either because a solar-like dynamo is weakor absent, or else the geometry of the magnetic field is appreciablyless effective in removing angular momentu m from these stars. (SECTION:Stars)

Oxygen lambda7771--5 Triplet in Hyades A-Type Stars: A Quest for the Key to the AM Phenomenon
An extensive profile-fitting analysis of the OI 7771--5 triplet (alongwith the nearby FeI line) was carried out for thirty-one A-type stars,eighteen of them belonging to the Hyades group, in order to clarify thekey factor which plays the decisive role in the appearance of abundanceanomalies of metallic-line stars (Am), by examining whether anymeaningful relation exists between the microturbulence (xi ), the oxygenabundance (log epsilon_O ), the iron abundance (log epsilon_Fe ), theprojected rotational velocity (v_esin i), and the stellar atmosphericparameters. It was clearly found based on the Hyades results that theabundance of O/Fe, both being good indicators of the Am phenomenon,because of the negative/positive correlation with the metallicityestimated from colors, progressively increases/decreases (i.e., towardthe direction of disappearance of anomaly) with an increase in v_esin ias well as with a decrease in log g. It was thus concluded that the mostimportant driver of the Am phenomenon, producing a significantdeficiency/excess of O/Fe, is the rotational velocity which appears tobe responsible for not only the triggering, but also the extent of thepeculiarity. Meanwhile, the observed log g-dependence of the abundance eanomalies is considered to be nothing but superficial, which may beinterpreted as being due to the correlation between log g and v_esin i,i.e., rotation-induced lowering of the effective gravity.

A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (, or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Spectral classifications in the near infrared of stars with composite spectra. II. Study of a sample of 180 stars
A sample of 180 supposedly composite-spectrum stars has been studied onthe basis of spectra obtained in the near infrared (8370-8780 Angstroms)at a dispersion of 33 Anstroms/mm. The objective was to study the coolercomponents of the systems. Of our sample, 120 are true compositespectra, 35 are hot spectra of types B, F and 25 are Am stars. We find astrong concentration of the cooler components of the composite spectraaround G8III. In view of the difficulty of classifying compositespectra, because of the super position of an early type dwarf and a latetype giant or supergiant spectrum, we have made several tests to controlthe classification based upon the infrared region. Since all tests gavepositive results, we conclude that our classifications can be consideredas being both reliable and homogeneous. Table \ref{tab1} is alsoavailable electronically at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstracts.html} Based upon observationscarried out at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS).

On the nature of the AM phenomenon or on a stabilization and the tidal mixing in binaries. II. Metallicity and pseudo-synchronization.
We reveal sufficient evidences that for Am binaries the metallicitymight depend on their orbital periods, P_orb_, rather than on vsini. Inparticular, δm_1_ index seems to decrease with increasing orbitalperiod up to at least P_orb_=~50d, probably even up to P_orb_=~200d.This gives further support to our "tidal mixing + stabilization"hypothesis formulated in Part I. Moreover, while the most metallic Amstars seem to have rather large periods the slowest rotators are foundto exhibit substantially shorter P_orb_. A questioning eye is thus caston the generally adopted view that Am peculiarity is caused by asuppressed rotationally induced mixing in slowly rotating `single'stars. The observed anticorrelation between rotation and metallicity mayhave also other than the `textbook' explanation, namely being the resultof the correlation between metallicity and orbital period, as themajority of Am binaries are possibly synchronized. We further argue thatthere is a tendency in Am binaries towards pseudo-synchronization up toP_orb_=~35d. This has, however, no serious impact on our conclusionsfrom Part I; on the contrary, they still hold even if this effect istaken into account.

The spectrum of β Coronae Borealis in the lithium region.
Results from spectroscopic observations in the Li region of the binaryCP star β CrB (HD 137909, HR 5747, F0p ) are presented. Theobservations were carried out at the Crimean Observatory from 1993 to1995 with the coude spectrograph equipped with a CCD detector, R=45000.We have analyzed the 6693-6721Å region by means of the spectralsynthesis method by assuming a model with parameters T_eff_=8000K,logg=4.0, and [M/H]=1.0. We derived abundances for the elements withlines in the studied range. The observed feature at 6708Å is notwell fitted by the Li doublet even by assuming an isotopic ratio 10times the terrestrial value and an overabundance of lithium of 2.6dex; avery good fit is obtained assuming a blend with V I at 6708.094Å,in the hypothesis that Vanadium is in excess by a factor larger than10^3^ (a value which is not confirmed by other abundancedeterminations). It is more probable that the Li feature is blended withsome unidentified line due to some overabundant heavy element. Theultraviolet excess for λ<1600Å is discussed. It could beexplained either by assuming that the companion is a λ Boo starhaving a metal deficiency [M/H]=-1.0 and T_eff_~8200K, or by assumingthat β CrB is Si deficient, so that the Si I discontinuities at1514.34Å and at 1674.03Å disappear. However, there is noclear evidence of underabundances of this element with respect to thesolar value. The main results of this paper are: the variability of thelithium blend with the period of rotation of the star; the relationsbetween rotational radial velocity, line intensity Wlambda_and FWHM variations for the Li blend and other lines of differentelements - Fe Gd Ce - which show similar variations.

On the nature of the AM phenomenon or on a stabilization and the tidal mixing in binaries. I. Orbital periods and rotation.
The paper casts a questioning eye on the unique role of the diffusiveparticle transport mechanism in explaining the Am phenomenon and arguesthat the so-called tidal effects might be of great importance incontrolling diffusion processes. A short period cutoff at =~1.2d as wellas a 180-800d gap were found in the orbital period distribution (OPD) ofAm binaries. The existence of the former can be ascribed to the state ofthe primaries with the almost-filled Roche lobes. The latter couldresult from the combined effects of the diffusion, tidal mixing andstabilization processes. Because the tidal mixing might surpassdiffusion in the binaries with the orbital periods P_orb_ less thanseveral hundred days and might thus sustain the He convection zone,which would otherwise disappear, no Am stars should lie below thisboundary. The fact that they are nevertheless seen there implies theexistence of some stabilization mechanism (as, e.g., that recentlyproposed by Tassoul & Tassoul 1992) for the binaries with orbitalperiods less than 180d. Further evidence is given to the fact that theOPD for the Am and the normal binaries with an A4-F1 primary arecomplementary to each other, from which it stems that Am stars are closeto the main sequence. There are, however, indications that they haveslightly larger radii (2.1-3 Rsun_) than expected for theirspectral type. The generally accepted rotational velocity cutoff at=~100km/s is shown to be of little value when applied on Am binaries ashere it is not a single quantity but, in fact, a function of P_orb_whose shape is strikingly similar to that of the curves of constantmetallicity as ascertained from observations. This also leads to thewell known overlap in rotational velocities of the normal and Am starsfor 402.5d.We have exploited this empirical cutoff function to calibrate thecorresponding turbulent diffusion coefficient associated with tidalmixing, having found out that the computed form of the lines of constantturbulence fits qualitatively the empirical shape of the curves ofconstant metallicity. As for larger orbital periods(20d55km/s found by Burkhart(1979) would then be nothing but a manifestation of insufficientlypopulated corresponding area of larger P_orb_.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:09h10m55.10s
Apparent magnitude:4.67
Distance:37.327 parsecs
Proper motion RA:97.1
Proper motion Dec:-60.8
B-T magnitude:5.078
V-T magnitude:4.684

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Bayerτ UMa
Flamsteed14 UMa
HD 1989HD 78362
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 4138-1687-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1500-05146812
BSC 1991HR 3624
HIPHIP 45075

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR