|Asphericity and clumpiness in the winds of Luminous Blue Variables|
We present the first systematic spectropolarimetric study of LuminousBlue Variables (LBVs) in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds, in orderto investigate the geometries of their winds. We find that at least halfof our sample show changes in polarization across the strong Hαemission line, indicating that the light from the stars is intrinsicallypolarized and therefore that asphericity already exists at the base ofthe wind. Multi-epoch spectropolarimetry on four targets revealsvariability in their intrinsic polarization. Three of these, AG Car, HRCar and P Cyg, show a position angle (PA) of polarization which appearsrandom with time. Such behaviour can be explained by the presence ofstrong wind-inhomogeneities, or “clumps” within the wind.Only one star, R 127, shows variability at a constant PA, and henceevidence for axi-symmetry as well as clumpiness. However, if viewed atlow inclination, and at limited temporal sampling, such a wind wouldproduce a seemingly random polarization of the type observed in theother three stars. Time-resolved spectropolarimetric monitoring of LBVsis therefore required to determine if LBV winds are axi-symmetric ingeneral. The high fraction of LBVs (>50%) showing intrinsicpolarization is to be compared with the lower ~20-25% for similarstudies of their evolutionary neighbours, O supergiants and Wolf-Rayetstars. We anticipate that this higher incidence is due to the lowereffective gravities of the LBVs, coupled with their variabletemperatures within the bi-stability jump regime. This is alsoconsistent with the higher incidence of wind asphericity that we find inLBVs with strong Hα emission and recent (last ~10 years) strongvariability.
|New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry|
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|The 74th Special Name-list of Variable Stars|
We present the Name-list introducing GCVS names for 3153 variable starsdiscovered by the Hipparcos mission.
|Spectroscopy of the post-AGB star HD 101584 (IRAS 11385-5517)|
From an analysis of the spectrum (4000 Ä to 8800 Ä) of HD101584 it is found that most of the neutral and single ionized metalliclines are in emission. The forbidden emission lines of [OI] 6300 Äand 6363 Ä and [CI] 8727 Ä are detected, which indicate thepresence of a very low excitation nebula. The Hα , FeII 6383Ä, NaI D1, D2 lines and the CaII IR tripletlines show P-Cygni profiles indicating a mass outflow. The Hα lineshows many velocity components in the profile. The FeII 6383 Ä alsohas almost the same line profile as the Hα line indicating thatthey are formed in the same region. From the spectrum synthesis analysiswe find the atmospheric parameters to be T_eff=8500 K, log g=1.5,V_turb=13 km s(-1) and [Fe/H] = 0.0. From an analysis of the absorptionlines the photospheric abundances of some of the elements are derived.Carbon and nitrogen are found to be overabundant. From the analysis ofFe emission lines we derived T_exi=6100 K +/- 200 for the emission lineregion. Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory (ESO), Chile and the Vainu Bappu Observatory, Kavalur,India.
|UBV beta Database for Case-Hamburg Northern and Southern Luminous Stars|
A database of photoelectric UBV beta photometry for stars listed in theCase-Hamburg northern and southern Milky Way luminous stars surveys hasbeen compiled from the original research literature. Consisting of over16,000 observations of some 7300 stars from over 500 sources, thisdatabase constitutes the most complete compilation of such photometryavailable for intrinsically luminous stars around the Galactic plane.Over 5000 stars listed in the Case-Hamburg surveys still lackfundamental photometric data.
|A Radial Velocity Database for Stephenson-Sanduleak Southern Luminous Stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....113..823R&db_key=AST
|A spectroscopic database for Stephenson-Sanduleak Southern Luminous Stars|
A database of published spectral classifications for objects in theStepenson-Sanduleak Luminous Stars in the Southern Milky Way catalog hasbeen compiled from the literature. A total of 6182 classifications for2562 stars from 139 sources are incorporated.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|An atlas of ultraviolet P Cygni profiles|
We have selected spectra of 232 stars from the International UltravioletExplorer (IUE) archives for inclusion in an atlas intended for varioususes but tailored especially for the study of stellar winds. The atlascovers the range in spectral types from O3 to F8. The full atlas coversthe reduced and normalized high resolution spectra from the IUE long-and short-wavelength spectrographs. Here we discuss the selection of thestars and the data reduction, and we present in velocity units theprofiles of lines formed in the stellar winds. The selected lines covera wide range of ionizations, allowing a comparison of the profiles fromdifferent ions in the wind of each star and a comparison of thedifferent wind lines as a function spectral type and luminosity. We alsopresent the basic data on the program stars to facilitate study of thedependence of wind features on stellar parameters such as luminosity,temperature, escape velocity, and v sin i. We provide an overview of thecharacteristic behavior of the wind lines in the H-R diagram. Thecomplete spectra are available in digital form through the NASAAstrophysics Data System (ADS). We offer a description of the electronicdatabase that is available through the ADS and guidelines for obtainingaccess to that database.
|Stromgren and H-Beta Photometry of OB Associations and Open Clusters - Part Two - TRIANGULUM:16 and CARINA:OB2|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993MNRAS.261..847K&db_key=AST
|Asymptotic giant branch stars near the sun|
Available red and near-infrared photometry and apparent motions of M, S,and C asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Bright Star Catalogueare tabulated and discussed. It is shown that the red and near infraredindices normally used for late-type stars are interchangeable except forcarbon stars. The M-type giants are variable with visual amplitudegreater than 0.05 mag. The reddening-free parameter m2 from Genevaphotometry is essentially a temperature parameter for M giants, whilethe reddening-free parameter d is a sensitive detector of blue stellarcompanions. The space density of AGB stars near the sun decreases by afactor of 35 in a temperature range 3800 to 3400 K. Two of the S starsnear the sun were found to have nearly equal space motions and may becomembers of the Arcturus group.
|Photometry of F-K type bright giants and supergiants. I - Intermediate band and H-Beta observations|
Over 1500 observations of 560 bright giants and supergiants of types F-Kare presented and compared to the observations by Gray and Olsen (1991).The present results include intermediate-band which is slightlydifferent from the Stromgren data by Gray and Olsen due to a differentwidth for the v filter. A systematic difference in m(1) - M(1) withdecreasing temperature is noted in the two H-Beta data sets, and thecorrelations are defined.
|Calibration of the normal color indices (b-y)0 and absolute stellar magnitudes M(V) for A4-F3-class supergiants on the basis of uvby-beta-photometry data|
Calibration relations obtained for the color index (b-y)0 = F (/m1/, r)and absolute magnitudes M(V) = M(V) (beta) for high-luminosity stars arepresented. The regions where the calibrations are valid include stars ofspectral types ranging from A4 to F3 and luminosity classes from I toII. The calibration relations are used to estimate the distance moduliof 10 supergiants in the LMC.
|A new discussion on the M(v) - W(O I 7774 A) relationship for F-G stars in the light of high-resolution data|
High-resolution CCD data and a large group of F-G stars of fundamentallydetermined distances are used here to investigate the intrinsic natureof the M(v) - W(O I) relation and the effect of other atmosphericparameters on this relation. The M(v) - W(O I) relation is not linear inthe absolute magnitude range -10 to +21. Introduction of the (b - y)0color index to represent stellar temperature leads to a calibration ofthe M(v) - W(O I) - (b-y)0 relationship in the above M(v) range, whichcan serve as a valuable tool to determine M(v) for F-G field stars. Nosystematic effect of the turbulent velocity on the calibration is found.
|Photometry of F-K type bright giant and supergiants. II - Calibration on indices in terms of luminosity reddening and abundance of F-type stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1991AJ....102.1826E&db_key=AST
|The calibration of the Stromgren photometric system for A, F and early G supergiants. I - The observational data|
An empirical calibration of the Stromgren uvby-beta photometric systemfor the A, F, and early G supergiants is being derived. This paperexplains the observational program and the photometric reductiontechniques used and presents a catalog of new Stromgren photometry forover 600 A, F, and G supergiants.
|Anomalous infrared emitters among A-type stars|
Spectroscopic observations of a sample of 26 stars have been analyzed inthe blue and near-IR to find out if anomalous IR emitters (AIEs) have aspectral signature. It is found that many, but not all, such starsexhibit shell characteristics. Analysis of available IRAS photometricobservations of A-type stars shows that the detection of circumstellarfeatures depends strongly on the number of IR bands at which the objectwas observed. Out of the 707 stars observed by IRAS, 41 AIEs, or 5.7percent, are found. Among nonsupergiant AIEs, 23 percent show shellfeatures. The true percentage of AIEs among A-type stars is estimated tobe 1.5 percent in a volume-corrected sample. A list of 24 stars whichwere apparently not previously detected as AIEs is given.
|A survey of Balmer-line profiles and IRAS fluxes in forty yellow supergiants|
Results of a survey of yellow supergiants (predominantly F and G) thatwas undertaken to search for distorted Balmer lines are presented. Acomparison between the photometrically variable and nonvariablesupergiants is made with respect to the distorted and undistortedBalmer-line profiles. To complement the analysis, IRAS data are used todetect excess infrared emission, to infer circumstellar dust, and tosuggest a possible prior M supergiant evolutionary phase. Plans forfuture work are briefly discussed.
|The catalogue of equivalent line widths in the spectra of A- and F-stars.|
|Colour excesses and absolute magnitudes for non-Cepheid F-G supergiants from uvbybeta photometry|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1990A&A...239..205A&db_key=AST
|The late A-type stars - Refined MK classification, confrontation with Stromgren photometry, and the effects of rotation|
The MK spectral classification for late A-type stars is refined and theeffects of rotation of spectral classification and uvby(beta) photometryfor these stars are examined. It is found that, for A3 stars, the4417/4481 A wavelength ratio produces results that are inconsistent withthe Stark broadening of the H lines. It is suggested that this ratio isnot useful as a luminosity criterion at any spectral type.Self-consistent sequences of narrow- and broadline standards areestablished. The results of the refined classification system arecompared with Stromgren photometry, showing a set of low-v sin i A-typestars with anomalously large delta(c1) indices for theirluminosity types. It is proposed that these stars are rapid rotatorsseen at fairly low inclination angles.
|Diffuse interstellar bands - an observational review (Review)|
This paper presents a review of observational data concerning theunidentified diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The history of theinvestigation of these fascinating spectral features is presentedtogether with very recent results obtained with the aid of solid statedetectors. The high signal-to-noise spectra allowed to divide diffusebands into at least 3 families defined as sets of these featurescharacterized by constant intensity ratios in every observed spectrum.'Intrinsic' profiles of DIBs, i.e., profiles that originated in singleinterstellar clouds free of any Doppler splitting were derived from highresolution spectra. The same observations revealed convincingly theDoppler structures inside DIB profiles observed in distant objects. Itis shown that DIBs may originate in clouds of very low opacity - theiragent(s) being thus resistant against diffuse UV radiation. The agent(s)seems not to be the dust causing the visual extinction as the bands maybe absent in some of reddened spectra. Relations between DIBs and otherinterstellar absorptions are also briefly reviewed.
|Extraordinary spectral types|
Astronomical objects with unusual spectra are discussed. Novae, dwarfand recurrent novae, planetary nebulae and their nuclei, and supernovaeare examined with regard to their spectral characteristics, showing howthe latter relate to the physical characteristics of the objects. Thenature of Eta Carinae is briefly considered, and objects withcombination spectra are addressed.
|The structure of the diffuse interstellar bands|
It is shown that the diffuse interstellar bands (DIB) at 5780, 5797,6196, and 6203 A are composed of Doppler-shifted components ofappreciable widths in those directions where several interstellar sodiumclouds have been identified. The optical properties of the interveningclouds may differ appreciably; some of the clouds are more likely tocontain the carrier(s) of one DIB family than that of another. The DIBsobserved in the spectra of distant objects are therefore generallyill-defined averages over a number of clouds along the line-of-sight. Asevery component also introduces its particular radial velocity, asubstantial widening of some of the profiles is observed. In some cases,a resolution of the bands into a number of Gaussian components has beenpossible. In general 'intrinsic bands', defined with the aid of nearbystars, have been successfully fitted to complex bands observed indistant stars. These 'intrinsic' bands are presented as normalizedprofiles in the case of the 5780- and 5797-bands.
|Small Magellanic Cloud: H-gamma-line equivalent widths and luminosity classes of the brightest blue star members|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1987A&AS...69..421A&db_key=AST
|A photometric determination of the metal content for F-G type supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
A VBLUW photometric analysis is used to derive the metal content of some100 F- and G type supergiants in the LMC. Using the empirical locus ofPel in the V-B/B-L diagram in conjunction with the relative dependenceof theoretical colors on the metal abundance, a metal deficiency of1.4-1.6 is found for the LMC stars in comparison with those in the solarneighborhood. With an average UBV system foreground reddening of E(B-V)= 0.05 for the LMC, these stars have a metal content of 0.66 + 0.11,-0.03 of the solar abundance. Agreement is found with the result ofprevious studies. Application to the derivation of the reddenings ofmost of the galactic supergiants is noted.
|Geneva intrinsic colours of the supergiants of spectral types A and F|
The aim of this research note is to expose a photometric method todetermine the intrinsic values of the Geneva color index (B2-V1) for thesupergiants of spectral types A and F. The different stages which led tothis objective are presented, and the method is tested with a few starsbelonging to clusters for which color excesses were found in theliterature. A list of stars classified as supergiants which behavephotometrically as dwarfs is indicated.
|New UBVRI photometry for 900 supergiants|
A description is presented of the results obtained in connection with asystematic program of supergiant photometry on the Johnson UBVRI system.During the eight years after the start of the program, almost 1000 starshave been observed, about 400 three or more times each. The originalselection of stars used the spectral type catalog of Jaschek et al.(1964) to choose supergiants. Since observations were possible from bothChile and Canada, no declination limits were imposed, and no particularselection criteria were imposed other than to eliminate carbon stars.These are so red as to require enormous extrapolations of thetransformation equations.
|Pseudocepheids. I - R Puppis, HR 4441, HR 4511, and AI CMI|
Four PC stars which are all thought to be high-mass objects, areconsidered. It is noted that R Pup and HR 4441 are apparentlyvery-high-luminosity stars for which the photometric indices areuncomplicated by photometrically unresolved companions or circumstellarmaterial. HR 4511 is seen as illustrating the effect of a close,early-type companion, and it is believed that the photometry of AI CMimay be strongly affected by circumstellar material. On the basis ofobservations of nonvariable stars covering the magnitude rangerepresented, a mean dispersion of 0.005 mag is expected in all colorindices.