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The epoch of the constellations on the Farnese Atlas and their origin in Hipparchus's lost catalogue
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First results from the ESO VLTI calibrators program
The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is one of the leadinginterferometric facilities. It is equipped with several 8.2 and 1.8 mtelescopes, a large number of baselines up to 200 m, and with severalsubsystems designed to enable high quality measurements and to improvesignificantly the limits of sensitivities currently available tolong-baseline interferometry. The full scientific potential of the VLTIcan be exploited only if a consistent set of good quality calibrators isavailable. For this, a large number of observations of potentialcalibrators have been obtained during the commissioning phase of theVLTI. These data are publicly available. We briefly describe theinterferometer, the VINCI instrument used for the observations, the dataflow from acquisition to processed results, and we present and commenton the volume of observations gathered and scrutinized. The result is alist of 191 calibrator candidates, for which a total of 12 066observations can be deemed of satisfactory quality. We present a generalstatistical analysis of this sample, using as a starting point theangular diameters previously available in the literature. We derive thegeneral characteristics of the VLTI transfer function, and its trendwith time in the period 2001 through mid-2004. A second paper will bedevoted to a detailed investigation of a selected sample, aimed atestablishing a VLTI-based homogeneous system of calibrators.

Aldebaran's angular diameter: How well do we know it?
The bright, well-known K5 giant Aldebaran,α Tau, is probably the star with the largestnumber of direct angular diameter determinations, achieved over a longtime by several authors using various techniques. In spite of thiswealth of data, or perhaps as a direct result of it, there is not a verygood agreement on a single angular diameter value. This is particularlyunsettling if one considers that Aldebaran is also used as a primarycalibrator for some angular resolution methods, notably for optical andinfrared long baseline interferometry. Directly connected to Aldebaran'sangular diameter and its uncertainties is its effective temperature,which also has been used for several empirical calibrations. Among theproposed explanations for the elusiveness of an accurate determinationof the angular diameter of Aldebaran are the possibility of temporalvariations as well as a possible dependence of the angular diameter onthe wavelength. We present here a few, very accurate new determinationsobtained by means of lunar occultations and long baselineinterferometry. We derive an average value of 19.96±0.03milliarcsec for the uniform disk diameter. The correspondinglimb-darkened value is 20.58±0.03 milliarcsec, or 44.2±0.9Rȯ. We discuss this result, in connection with previousdeterminations and with possible problems that may affect suchmeasurements.Based on observations collected at TIRGO (Gornergrat, Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CNR - CAISMI Arcetri, Italy.

A near-infrared stellar spectral library: I. H-band spectra.
This paper presents the H band near-infrared (NIR) spectral library of135 solar type stars covering spectral types O5-M3 and luminosityclasses I-V as per MK classification. The observations were carried outwith 1.2 meter Gurushikhar Infrared Telescope (GIRT), at Mt. Abu, Indiausing a NICMOS3 HgCdTe 256 x 256 NIR array based spectrometer. Thespectra have a moderate resolution of 1000 (about 16 A) at the H bandand have been continuum shape corrected to their respective effectivetemperatures. This library and the remaining ones in J and K bands oncereleased will serve as an important database for stellar populationsynthesis and other applications in conjunction with the newly formedlarge optical coude feed stellar spectral library of Valdes et al.(2004). The complete H-Band library is available online at: http://vo.iucaa.ernet.in/~voi/NIR_Header.html

New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.

A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved stars. II. Ib supergiant stars
Rotational velocity vsin i and mean radial velocity are presented for asample of 231 Ib supergiant stars covering the spectral region F, G andK. This work is the second part of the large survey carried out with theCORAVEL spectrometer to establish the behavior of the rotation for starsevolving off the main sequence (De Medeiros & Mayor 1999). Thesedata will add constraints to the study of the rotational behavior inevolved stars, as well as solid information concerning tidalinteractions in binary systems and on the link between rotation,chemical abundance and activity in stars of intermediate masses. Basedon observations collected at the Haute-Provence Observatory,Saint-Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/395/97

Late-type members of young stellar kinematic groups - I. Single stars
This is the first paper of a series aimed at studying the properties oflate-type members of young stellar kinematic groups. We concentrate ourstudy on classical young moving groups such as the Local Association(Pleiades moving group, 20-150Myr), IC 2391 supercluster (35Myr), UrsaMajor group (Sirius supercluster, 300Myr), and Hyades supercluster(600Myr), as well as on recently identified groups such as the Castormoving group (200Myr). In this paper we compile a preliminary list ofsingle late-type possible members of some of these young stellarkinematic groups. Stars are selected from previously established membersof stellar kinematic groups based on photometric and kinematicproperties as well as from candidates based on other criteria such astheir level of chromospheric activity, rotation rate and lithiumabundance. Precise measurements of proper motions and parallaxes takenfrom the Hipparcos Catalogue, as well as from the Tycho-2 Catalogue, andpublished radial velocity measurements are used to calculate theGalactic space motions (U, V, W) and to apply Eggen's kinematic criteriain order to determine the membership of the selected stars to thedifferent groups. Additional criteria using age-dating methods forlate-type stars will be applied in forthcoming papers of this series. Afurther study of the list of stars compiled here could lead to a betterunderstanding of the chromospheric activity and their age evolution, aswell as of the star formation history in the solar neighbourhood. Inaddition, these stars are also potential search targets for directimaging detection of substellar companions.

The central depth of the Ca II triplet lines as a discriminant of chromospheric activity in late type stars
Not Available

Diffraction-limited speckle-masking interferometry of the red supergiant VY CMa
We present the first diffraction-limited images of the mass-lossenvelope of the red supergiant star VY CMa. The two-dimensional opticaland NIR images were reconstructed from 3.6 m telescope speckle datausing bispectrum speckle interferometry. At the wavelengths ~ 0.8 mu m(RG 780 filter), 1.28 mu m, and 2.17 mu m the diffraction-limitedresolutions of 46 mas, 73 mas, and 124 mas were achieved. All imagesclearly show that the circumstellar envelope of VY CMa is non-spherical.The RG 780, 1.28 mu m, and 2.17 mu m FWHM Gaußfit diameters are 67masx83 mas, 80 masx116 mas and 138 masx205 mas, respectively, or 100AUx125 AU, 120 AUx174 AU and 207 AUx308 AU (for a distance of 1500 pc).We discuss several interpretations for the asymmetric morphology.Combining recent results about the angular momentum evolution of redsupergiants and their pulsational properties, we suggest thatVY CMa\xspace is an immediate progenitor ofIRC +10 420, a post red supergiant during itstransformation into a Wolf-Rayet star. Based on data collected at theEuropean Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile

Towards a fundamental calibration of stellar parameters of A, F, G, K dwarfs and giants
I report on the implementation of the empirical surface brightnesstechnique using the near-infrared Johnson broadband { (V-K)} colour assuitable sampling observable aimed at providing accurate effectivetemperatures of 537 dwarfs and giants of A-F-G-K spectral-type selectedfor a flux calibration of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Thesurface brightness-colour correlation is carefully calibrated using aset of high-precision angular diameters measured by moderninterferometry techniques. The stellar sizes predicted by thiscorrelation are then combined with the bolometric flux measurementsavailable for a subset of 327 ISO standard stars in order to determineone-dimensional { (T, V-K)} temperature scales of dwarfs and giants. Theresulting very tight relationships show an intrinsic scatter induced byobservational photometry and bolometric flux measurements well below thetarget accuracy of +/- 1 % required for temperature determinations ofthe ISO standards. Major improvements related to the actual directcalibration are the high-precision broadband { K} magnitudes obtainedfor this purpose and the use of Hipparcos parallaxes for dereddeningphotometric data. The temperature scale of F-G-K dwarfs shows thesmallest random errors closely consistent with those affecting theobservational photometry alone, indicating a negligible contributionfrom the component due to the bolometric flux measurements despite thewide range in metallicity for these stars. A more detailed analysisusing a subset of selected dwarfs with large metallicity gradientsstrongly supports the actual bolometric fluxes as being practicallyunaffected by the metallicity of field stars, in contrast with recentresults claiming somewhat significant effects. The temperature scale ofF-G-K giants is affected by random errors much larger than those ofdwarfs, indicating that most of the relevant component of the scattercomes from the bolometric flux measurements. Since the giants have smallmetallicities, only gravity effects become likely responsible for theincreased level of scatter. The empirical stellar temperatures withsmall model-dependent corrections are compared with the semiempiricaldata by the Infrared Flux Method (IRFM) using the large sample of 327comparison stars. One major achievement is that all empirical andsemiempirical temperature estimates of F-G-K giants and dwarfs are foundto be closely consistent between each other to within +/- 1 %. However,there is also evidence for somewhat significant differential effects.These include an average systematic shift of (2.33 +/- 0.13) % affectingthe A-type stars, the semiempirical estimates being too low by thisamount, and an additional component of scatter as significant as +/- 1 %affecting all the comparison stars. The systematic effect confirms theresults from other investigations and indicates that previousdiscrepancies in applying the IRFM to A-type stars are not yet removedby using new LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres along with the updatedabsolute flux calibration, whereas the additional random component isfound to disappear in a broadband version of the IRFM using an infraredreference flux derived from wide rather than narrow band photometricdata. Table 1 and 2 are only available in the electronic form of thispaper

Quantitative spectral classification of galactic disc K-M stars from spectrophotometric measurements
New spectral observations for 47 southern galactic red supergiantsobtained with the new RUBIKON spectrophotometer (developed at theAstronomisches Institut der Ruhr-Universitat Bochum) at the Bochum 61-cmtelescope on La Silla are presented. The spectra range from 4800 to 7700A and their resolution is 10 A. The mean error of absolute fluxes is0.028 mag and that of relative fluxes 0.021 mag. The spectra will beavailable at the Strasbourg Stellar Database (CDS). Together with datataken from recently published spectral catalogues, the new observationshave been used to define spectral indices as measures of the strengthsof the following features: Fe i+TiOalpha_1, Mgb+TiOalpha_0,NaD+TiOgamma'_1, TiOgamma'_0 and TiOgamma_1 systems. The indices havebeen checked against errors introduced by reductions, interstellarreddening and different resolutions of different spectral catalogues,and have been found to be very insensitive to all these effects.Therefore, different catalogues may be combined without any loss ofaccuracy and homogeneity. The mean error of a single index has beenfound to be 0.011 mag. For stars from K4 to M7, a strong temperaturedependence is found for all indices. For the Fe i+TiO and especially theMgb+TiO features, a strong dependence on luminosity has also beenobserved. These indices therefore have been combined to form aluminosity index, while the others together form a spectral index. Thecombined indices have been calibrated in terms of MK data using thestepwise linear regression technique, and may be used for quantitativetwo- dimensional spectral classification of late K- and M-type stars.The mean error of the classification is 0.6 of spectral subtype and 0.8of luminosity class, which is much higher than would be expected fromthe uncertainty of the indices alone (which, e.g., for an M4 giantcorrespond to an uncertainty of 0.1 of spectral subtype and 0.3 ofluminosity class). This may be explained by the uncertainty of theoriginal MK classifications and the variability of some programme stars.

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (, or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

SANTIAGO 91, a right ascension catalogue of 3387 stars (equinox J2000).
The positions in right ascension of 3387 stars belonging to the Santiago67 Catalogue, observed with the Repsold Meridian Circle at Cerro Calan,National Astronomical Observatory, during the period 1989 to 1994, aregiven. The average mean square error of a position, for the wholeCatalogue, is +/-0.009 s. The mean epoch of the catalogue is 1991.84.

Metal enrichment in elliptical galaxies and globular clusters through the study of iron and H-Beta spectral indices
Chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies and globular clusters isaddressed through a combined study of the iron indices at 5270 and 5335A, and of the H-Beta line strength. The observational database of 74standard stars (both dwarfs and giants) referred to in a previous paper(Buzzoni et al. (1992)) complemented with the data of Faber et al.(1985) and Gorgas et al. (1993) allowed us to explore here Fe and H-Betaindex dependence on stellar temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Thederived fitting functions were then included into Buzzoni's (1989) codefor population synthesis in order to derive expected integrated indicesfor simple stellar populations and compare with observations. Partitionof metals in the current chemical mix of galaxies and globulars has beenconstrained supporting the claim that light alpha elements might beenhanced in the globular cluster metal-poor population. An alternativeconclusion resting on the standard framework with (alpha/Fe) = 0 wouldrequire a systematically larger age, about 18-20 Gyr. Iron and magnesiumin ellipticals are found in average solar but a systematic trend of(Mg/Fe) vs global metallicity does exist with iron more deficient withrespect to magnesium at high Z. We conclude that this effect mightindicate that Fe abundance per unit mass in the galaxies is constant(suggesting a constant rate per unit mass of SN I events) while lightmetals supplied by SNe II should have been more effectively enrichedwith increasing galactic total mass.

The CA II triplet lines in cool stars
Observations of the infrared triplet lines of ionized calcium arepresented for 91 stars brighter than m_v_=+7.0 in the spectral rangeF8-M4 of all luminosity classes and over a range of metallicities [Fe/H]from -0.65 to +0.60. The above spectra have been obtained at a spectralresolution of 0.4 A with a coude echelle spectrograph using the ThomsonCCD as the detector. This study has been undertaken primarily toinvestigate the dependence of the Ca II triplet strengths over the broadrange of atmospheric parameters like luminosity, temperature andmetallicity. The Ca II triplet lines are a powerful diagnostic of thestellar populations in galaxies because of their sensitivity to theabove parameters. Our detailed analysis indicates a strong correlationbetween the equivalent width of the Ca II triplet lines and surfacegravity, much stronger in metal rich stars than in metal poor stars. TheCa II equivalent widths are fairly insensitive to temperature over therange of luminosity covered. However, they are found to be quitesensitive to metallicity, more conspicuously in supergiants than ingiants and dwarfs. Observations are compared with recent theoreticalcalculations of these lines in NLTE atmospheres.

CCD observations of the H-alpha line in late G and K supergiants and their interpretation
CCD echelle spectra of the H-alpha line at 6563 A have been obtained fora sample of 30 G and K supergiants with a spectral resolution of about0.24 A. The data clearly indicate that the observed H-alpha profile is adeep absorption, implying large optical depths in the chromosphere.Also, the line cores are blueshifted in all the stars which suggests thechromospheres are expanding outward. Detailed radiative transfercalculations of H-alpha have been carried out in a spherically symmetricatmosphere with outward-positive velocity and temperature gradients,including explicitly the effects of ionization. The H-alpha lineprofiles have been computed for a wide range of parameters in order toreproduce the observed features of the line. Within the framework of ourmodel, the calculations reinforce the idea that the nonthermalvelocities have to be as large as 25-30 km/s to explain the large widthsof the observed profiles. The rates of mass outflow have been calculatedto lie in the range 10 exp -8 to 10 exp -9 solar mass/yr.

The chemical composition of Magellanic Cloud Cepheids and nonvariable supergiants
Results of abundance analyses of 14 Cepheids and nonvariable supergiantsin the Magellanic Clouds are presented along with comparison data onfour Galactic objects. Elemental abundances derived include Li, C, N, O,the alpha-elements, the Fe peak, and limited data on the heavy elements.Only HV 5497 in the LMC shows any detectable Li among the Cloud objects.The present CNO data, when combined with previous results, suggest adisparity between the LMC and the SMC supergiants in that the SMC starshave an essentially constant O/Fe ratio, while the LMC stars do not. TheO/Fe ratios within both Clouds are lower than the ratio found inGalactic stars of similar metallicity, but are comparable to the O/Feratios found in Galactic supergiants. For heavier elements, previousresults which indicate the light s- and r-process elements (Sr, Y, Zr)show Galactic ratios with respect to Fe, but that the heavy s- andr-process elements (Ba-Sm) are enhanced in the Clouds, are confirmed.

The Hyades supercluster in the FK5
The members of the Hyades supercluster brighter than about M(V) = + 4mag and contained in the FK5, or having nearly FK5 quality propermotions, show a convergent point of (A,D) = (6h, + 6.5 deg). The Hyadescluster stars in the FK5 have a mean distance of 46.7 pc. Thesupercluster, as well as the Hyades and Praesepe cluster, populationsrepresent at least three age groups. Standard models indicate ages of 3to 4, 6, and 8 x 10 exp 8 yr, whereas model ages with convectiveovershoot are nearly twice this. Most of the Am and USPC stars in thesupercluster are of the same age. The Ap stars mark the onset of shellhydrogen burning. The photometry of the red giants confirms the agespread and indicates a weakening of CN strength with age. Attention iscalled to the need for further study of NGC 2423 as an effectiveprolusion to understanding the evolution of the supercluster.

Asymptotic giant branch stars near the sun
Available red and near-infrared photometry and apparent motions of M, S,and C asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Bright Star Catalogueare tabulated and discussed. It is shown that the red and near infraredindices normally used for late-type stars are interchangeable except forcarbon stars. The M-type giants are variable with visual amplitudegreater than 0.05 mag. The reddening-free parameter m2 from Genevaphotometry is essentially a temperature parameter for M giants, whilethe reddening-free parameter d is a sensitive detector of blue stellarcompanions. The space density of AGB stars near the sun decreases by afactor of 35 in a temperature range 3800 to 3400 K. Two of the S starsnear the sun were found to have nearly equal space motions and may becomembers of the Arcturus group.

The magnesium Mg2 index as an indicator of metallicity in elliptical galaxies
A quantitative calibration of the Mg2 index is attempted deriving ametallicity scale for elliptical galaxies. The dependence of the indexon stellar temperature, gravity, and metallicity has been studiedthrough spectroscopic observations of 87 standards applying the derivedcalibration to models for stellar population synthesis. Buzzoni's (1989)computational code has been used to explore the behavior of the indexversus age, IMF, and metallicity of simple stellar populations,inferring galactic metallicity for the Davies et al. (1987) extensiveobservational database. It appears that ellipticals are old metal-richsystems, with age about 15 Gyr and (Fe/H) = + 0.15. A large spread ofnearly one order of magnitude is, however, derived for metallicity amongsingle galaxies confirming that (Fe/H) is the driving parameter inducingthe color spread in the galaxy population. Evolutionary behavior of Mg2is briefly discussed giving its expected variations at early epochs forcomparison with high-redshift galaxies.

A catalogue of Fe/H determinations - 1991 edition
A revised version of the catalog of Fe/H determinations published by G.Cayrel et al. (1985) is presented. The catalog contains 3252 Fe/Hdeterminations for 1676 stars. The literature is complete up to December1990. The catalog includes only Fe/H determinations obtained from highresolution spectroscopic observations based on detailed spectroscopicanalyses, most of them carried out with model atmospheres. The catalogcontains a good number of Fe/H determinations for stars from open andglobular clusters and for some supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds.

First giant branch and asymptotic giant branch stars in nearby aggregates
The properties of the brightest red stars in several aggregates in theGalaxy are compared with theoretical models. 22 asymptotic giant branch(AGB) stars are identified, four of which are in the thermally pulsingAGB (TPAGB) phase and four of which are TPAGB carbon stars. Also, fourcases of RGB stars are identified which have accreted substantial massfrom the carbon-rich TPAGB precursor of a current white dwarf companion.There is general agreement between the observed and theoretical slopesof the RGB and early AGB branches, and quantitative differences betweenthe positioning of observed sequences can be understood in terms ofdifferences in metallicity and mass predicted by the theory.

JHKLM standard stars in the ESO system
A list of 199 standard stars suitable for the ESO standard photometricsystem at JHKLM is given. Faint stars (although brighter than K = 7.7)to be used on larger telescopes are included. This list is based on ananalysis of all infrared photometric observations carried out at LaSilla from 1979 until 1989 inclusive. The accuracy of the data (about0.02 mag. at J, H, K, L, and M) is similar to the one achieved at SAAOand CTIO. Comparisons with these systems, as well as with the AAO andMSSO systems, are made: it is shown that the ESO system is very close tothe other ones, with the exception of CTIOs.

Southern JHKL standards
The basis for the current SAAO standard photometric system at JHKL isgiven. This depends on an extensive investigation involving 230 starsdistributed around the sky. The accuracy is estimated at + or - 0.02 magfor J, H and K and + or - 0.05 mag for L.

Mass-losing M supergiants in the solar neighborhood
A list of the 21 mass-losing red supergiants (20 M type, one G type; Lgreater than 100,000 solar luminosities) within 2.5 kpc of the sun iscompiled. These supergiants are highly evolved descendants ofmain-sequence stars with initial masses larger than 20 solar masses. Thesurface density is between about 1 and 2/sq kpc. As found previously,these stars are much less concentrated toward the Galactic center thanW-R stars, which are also highly evolved massive stars. Although withconsiderable uncertainty, it is estimated that the mass return by the Msupergiants is somewhere between 0.00001 and 0.00003 solar mass/sq kpcyr. In the hemisphere facing the Galactic center there is much less massloss from M supergiants than from W-R stars, but, in the anticenterdirection, the M supergiants return more mass than do the W-R stars. Theduration of the M supergiant phase appears to be between 200,000 and400,000 yr. During this phase, a star of initially at least 20 solarmasses returns perhaps 3-10 solar masses into the interstellar medium.

Einstein Observatory magnitude-limited X-ray survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars
Results are presented of an extensive X-ray survey of 380 giant andsupergiant stars of spectral types from F to M, carried out with theEinstein Observatory. It was found that the observed F giants orsubgiants (slightly evolved stars with a mass M less than about 2 solarmasses) are X-ray emitters at the same level of main-sequence stars ofsimilar spectral type. The G giants show a range of emissions more than3 orders of magnitude wide; some single G giants exist with X-rayluminosities comparable to RS CVn systems, while some nearby large Ggiants have upper limits on the X-ray emission below typical solarvalues. The K giants have an observed X-ray emission level significantlylower than F and F giants. None of the 29 M giants were detected, exceptfor one spectroscopic binary.

Supergiants and the Galactic metallicity gradient. II - Spectroscopic abundances for 64 distant F- to M-type supergiants
The metallicity gradient in the Galactic disk from in situ stars withvisual magnitude ranging from 6 to 10 is analyzed. Atmosphericparameters and detailed chemical abundances for 64 Population Isupergiants of spectral types F through M and luminosity classes Iathrough II have been determined. The derived Fe/H ratios ranging from-0.5 to + 0.7 show a mean value of +0.13 with an estimated uncertaintyof + or - 0.2. A subset of 25 supergiants fainter than 7th magnitudelying in the direction of the Galactic center shows a Fe/H mean of +0.18+ or - 0.04, while a similar sample of 15 faint supergiants lying in thedirection of the Galactic anticenter shows a lower Fe/H mean of +0.07 +or - 0.06. For a sample of bright supergiants analyzed by Luck andLambert (1985), the mean abundance pattern for all 64 stars showed thefollowing: deficient C and O along with enhancement of N, indicatingmixing of CNO-cycled material to the stellar surfaces; an apparent Srenhancement attributed to departures from LTE; and an essentially solarpattern of other chemical elements.

A search for lithium-rich giant stars
Lithium abundances or upper limits have been determined for 644 brightG-K giant stars selected from the DDO photometric catalog. Two of thesegiants possess surface lithium abundances approaching the 'cosmic' valueof the interstellar medium and young main-sequence stars, and eight moregiants have Li contents far in excess of standard predictions. At leastsome of these Li-rich giants are shown to be evolved to the stage ofhaving convectively mixed envelopes, either from the direct evidence oflow surface carbon isotope ratios, or from the indirect evidence oftheir H-R diagram positions. Suggestions are given for the uniqueconditions that might have allowed these stars to produce or accrete newlithium for their surface layers, or simply to preserve from destructiontheir initial lithium contents. The lithium abundance of the remainingstars demonstrates that giants only very rarely meet the expectations ofstandard first dredge-up theories; the average extra Li destructionrequired is about 1.5 dex. The evolutionary states of these giants andtheir average masses are discussed briefly, and the Li distribution ofthe giants is compared to predictions of Galactic chemical evolution.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:07h43m32.40s
Apparent magnitude:4.59
Distance:299.401 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0
Proper motion Dec:0
B-T magnitude:6.769
V-T magnitude:4.803

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Flamsteed1 Pup
HD 1989HD 62576
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 6552-3227-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0600-07347614
BSC 1991HR 2993
HIPHIP 37648

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