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|The WSRT wide-field H I survey. I. The background galaxy sample|
We have used the Westerbork array to carry out an unbiased wide-fieldsurvey for H I emission features, achieving an RMS sensitivity of about18 mJy/Beam at a velocity resolution of 17 km s-1 over 1800deg2 and between -1000 < VHel <+6500 kms-1. The primary data consists of auto-correlation spectrawith an effective angular resolution of 49' FWHM, althoughcross-correlation data were also acquired. The survey region is centeredapproximately on the position of Messier 31 and is Nyquist-sampled over60x 30o in RA x Dec. More than 100 distinct features aredetected at high significance in each of the two velocity regimes(negative and positive LGSR velocities). In this paper we present theresults for our H I detections of external galaxies at positive LGSRvelocity. We detect 155 external galaxies in excess of 8sigma inintegrated H I flux density. Plausible optical associations are foundwithin a 30' search radius for all but one of our H I detections in DSSimages, although several are not previously cataloged or do not havepublished red-shift determinations. Our detection without a DSSassociation is at low galactic latitude. Twenty-three of our objects aredetected in H I for the first time. We classify almost half of ourdetections as ``confused'', since one or more companions is catalogedwithin a radius of 30' and a velocity interval of 400 km s-1.We identify a handful of instances of significant positional offsetsexceeding 10 kpc of unconfused optical galaxies with the associated H Icentroid, possibly indicative of severe tidal distortions or uncatalogedgas-rich companions. A possible trend is found for an excess of detectedH I flux in unconfused galaxies within our large survey beam relative tothat detected previously in smaller telescope beams, both as function ofincreasing distance and increasing gas mass. This may be an indicationfor a diffuse gaseous component on 100 kpc scales in the environment ofmassive galaxies or a population of uncataloged low mass companions. Weuse our galaxy sample to estimate the H I mass function from our surveyvolume. Good agreement is found with the HIPASS BGC results, but onlyafter explicit correction for galaxy density variations with distance.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/829 and Fig. 3 is onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org
|Evolution of Star-forming and Active Galaxies in Nearby Clusters|
We have used optical spectroscopy to investigate the active galaxypopulations in a sample of 20 nearby Abell clusters. The targets wereidentified on the basis of 1.4 GHz radio emission, which identifies themas either active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or galaxies forming stars atrates comparable to or greater than that of the Milky Way. The spectrawere used to characterize the galaxies via their emission and absorptionfeatures. The spectroscopy results reveal a significant population ofstar-forming galaxies with large amounts of nuclear dust extinction.This extinction eliminates bluer emission lines such as [O II] from thespectra of these galaxies, meaning their star formation could easily beoverlooked in studies that focus on such features. Around 20% of thecluster star-forming galaxies have spectra of this type. The radialdistributions of active galaxies in clusters show a strong segregationbetween star-forming galaxies and AGNs, with star-forming galaxiesbroadly distributed and AGNs preferentially in the cluster cores. Theradial distribution of the dusty star-forming galaxies is more centrallyconcentrated than the star-forming galaxies in general, which arguesthat they are a consequence of some cluster environmental effect.Furthermore, we note that such galaxies may be identified using their4000 Å break strengths. We find that discrepancies in reportedradio luminosity functions for AGNs are likely the result ofclassification differences. There exists a large population of clustergalaxies whose radio fluxes, far-infrared fluxes, and optical magnitudessuggest their radio emission may be powered by stars yet whose spectralack emission lines. Understanding the nature of these galaxies iscritical to assessing the importance of AGNs in the radio luminosityfunction at low luminosities. We also find that regardless of thispopulation, the crossover point where the radio luminosity function iscomposed equally of star-forming galaxies and AGNs occurs at lowerluminosities in clusters than in the field. This is likely a simpleconsequence of the reduction in star formation in cluster galaxies andthe morphological mix in clusters compared with the field.Based in part on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory(APO) 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the AstrophysicalResearch Consortium.
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|The Radio Galaxy Populations of Nearby Northern Abell Clusters|
We report on the use of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) to identify radiogalaxies in 18 nearby Abell clusters. The listings extend from the coresof the clusters out to radii of 3 h-175 Mpc, whichcorresponds to 1.5 Abell radii and approximately 4 orders of magnitudein galaxy density. To create a truly useful catalog, we have collectedoptical spectra for nearly all of the galaxies lacking public velocitymeasurements. Consequently, we are able to discriminate between thoseradio galaxies seen in projection on the cluster and those that are inactuality cluster members. The resulting catalog consists of 329 clusterradio galaxies plus 138 galaxies deemed foreground or backgroundobjects, and new velocity measurements are reported for 273 of theseradio galaxies. The motivation for the catalog is the study of galaxyevolution in the cluster environment. The radio luminosity function is apowerful tool in the identification of active galaxies, as it isdominated by star-forming galaxies at intermediate luminosities andactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) at higher luminosities. The flux limit ofthe NVSS allows us to identify AGNs and star-forming galaxies down tostar formation rates less than 1 Msolar yr-1. Thissensitivity, coupled with the all-sky nature of the NVSS, allows us toproduce a catalog of considerable depth and breadth. In addition tothese data, we report detected infrared fluxes and upper limits obtainedfrom IRAS data. It is hoped that this database will prove useful in anumber of potential studies of the effect of environment on galaxyevolution. Based in part on observations obtained with the Apache PointObservatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by theAstrophysical Research Consortium (ARC).
|An Hα survey of eight Abell clusters: the dependence of tidally induced star formation on cluster density|
We have undertaken a survey of Hα emission in a substantiallycomplete sample of CGCG galaxies of types Sa and later within 1.5 Abellradii of the centres of eight low-redshift Abell clusters (Abell 262,347, 400, 426, 569, 779, 1367 and 1656). Some 320 galaxies weresurveyed, of which 116 were detected in emission (39 per cent ofspirals, 75 per cent of peculiars). Here we present previouslyunpublished data for 243 galaxies in seven clusters. Detected emissionis classified as `compact' or `diffuse'. From an analysis of the fullsurvey sample, we confirm our previous identification of compact anddiffuse emission with circumnuclear starburst and disc emissionrespectively. The circumnuclear emission is associated either with thepresence of a bar, or with a disturbed galaxy morphology indicative ofongoing tidal interactions (whether galaxy-galaxy, galaxy-group, orgalaxy-cluster). The frequency of such tidally induced (circumnuclear)starburst emission in spirals increases from regions of lower to higherlocal galaxy surface density, and from clusters with lower to highercentral galaxy space density. The percentages of spirals classed asdisturbed and of galaxies classified as peculiar show a similar trend.These results suggest that tidal interactions for spirals are morefrequent in regions of higher local density and for clusters with highercentral galaxy density. The prevalence of such tidal interactions inclusters is expected from recent theoretical modelling of clusters witha non-static potential undergoing collapse and infall. Furthermore, inaccord with this picture, we suggest that peculiar galaxies arepredominantly ongoing mergers. We conclude that tidal interactions arelikely to be the main mechanism for the transformation of spirals to S0sin clusters. This mechanism operates more efficiently in higher densityenvironments, as is required by the morphological type-local surfacedensity (T-Σ) relation for galaxies in clusters. For regions ofcomparable local density, the frequency of tidally induced starburstemission is greater in clusters with higher central galaxy density. Thisimplies that, for a given local density, morphological transformation ofdisc galaxies proceeds more rapidly in clusters of higher central galaxydensity. This effect is considered to be the result of subclustermerging, and could account for the previously considered anomalousabsence of a significant T-Σ relation for irregular clusters atintermediate redshift.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Kinematics of the local universe. VII. New 21-cm line measurements of 2112 galaxies|
This paper presents 2112 new 21-cm neutral hydrogen line measurementscarried out with the meridian transit Nan\c cay radiotelescope. Amongthese data we give also 213 new radial velocities which complement thoselisted in three previous papers of this series. These new measurements,together with the HI data collected in LEDA, put to 6 700 the number ofgalaxies with 21-cm line width, radial velocity, and apparent diameterin the so-called KLUN sample. Figure 5 and Appendices A and B forcorresponding comments are available in electronic form at thehttp://www.edpsciences.com
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|The far-infrared-radio relation in cluster spiral galaxies|
We present a study of the far-infrared (FIR) and radio emission in asample of group and cluster spiral galaxies. Galaxies are separated intorich and poor cluster samples based the value of the galaxy-galaxycorrelation coeffiient (Andersen & Owen 1994) of their parentcluster. Galaxies in the rich clusters have lower-FIR-radio ratios thana radio selected sample of field galaxies, while galaxies in poorclusters do not. We find that the degree of radio enhancement withrespect to FIR emission is consistent with a model where the radioemitting interstellar medium (ISM) is compressed by the ram pressure asthe galaxy moves through the intracluster medium. We suggest thatgalaxy-galaxy tidal interactions are important in the poorer clusters,but in general of much less importance in richer clusters.
|A 20 CM VLA Survey of Abell clusters of galaxies. 4: The radio sample and cluster properties|
This is the fourth in a series of papers describing an in depth study ofa large statistical sample of radio galaxies in Abell clusters. Thissample forms the basis of a detailed optical and radio study of the hostgalaxy properties, environments, and evolutionary models for radiogalaxies as a class of objects. In this paper, we examine the radiodetection statistics as a function of cluster morphological type, galaxyrichness, and spatial location within the cluster distribution. Theserelationships are also parameterized as a funtion of radio power. Thespatial distributions of the radio sources as a function of distancefrom the cluster center indicate that radio galaxies are preferentiallylocated at small radii from the center of the cluster potential. This isobserved as a factor of 2-3 excess over that predicted by a King-modelsurface-density distribution. The excess is higher in the upper radiopower bin. This result is easily explained, however, from the spatialdistribution of the brightest galaxies and the relationship betweenradio and optical luminosity. The sample is divided into richnessclasses 0, 1, and 2, according to Abell's criterion. and in two radiopower ranges. While simple counting shows that richer clusters have moreradio galaxies in both radio power bins, when the detections are scaledto the number of galaxies surveyed in each cluster, no significantcorrelations are found. This result implies that the number of radiogalaxies detected simply scales with the number of galaxies surveyed.The higher galaxy density (and presumably higher ICM gas density) inricher clusters does not appear to affect the rate of radio sourceformation. The clusters are divided into Rood-Sastry and Bautz-Morganmorphological types. While it would appear that the more regularclusters have higher radio detection rates, when the classes arenormalized to the number of galaxies, the radio detection rates arefound to be identical regardless of cluster morphology. In conclusion,it is the optical properties of the host galaxy which most influenceboth the radio detection rate and the radio source properties. Thecluster properties, galaxy density, and spatial location of the galaxydo not significantly affect the observed radio statistics.
|Hydroxyl in galaxies. I - Surveys with the NRAO 300 FT telescope|
Results are presented of a search for 1667- and 1665-MHz mainline OHtransitions for 321 galaxies, which were observed during four separatesessions at the NRAO 300-ft telescope in the period 1984-1987. Threedetections of OH megamasers are reported, as well as detections of threenew OH absorption sources. The observational sample contains sourcesfrom a variety of catalogs and represents different criteria. Theresults for the whole sample confirm that FIR luminosity and colorcriteria used for these surveys are indeed optimized for findingmegamasers. The results also confirm that detecting distant highluminosity OH megamasers is considerably more successful than findingnearby weak masers.
|The QMW IRAS galaxy catalogue - A highly complete and reliable IRAS 60-micron galaxy catalogue|
This study presents a highly complete and reliable IRAS 60-micron galaxycatalog covering 82 percent of the sky. IRAS color conditions are usedto exclude galactic sources, including the remaining cirrus sources. Allsources flagged as extended, confused, or having a poor correlationcoefficient with a point-source template are examined with the raw IRASdata and accurate fluxes determined using mapping routines. Thecompleteness, reliability, and flux accuracy of the catalog arediscussed. Identifications are made with existing optical galaxycatalogs and with galaxy redshift surveys in the literature. It isestimated that redshifts are available for 79 percent of the galaxies inthe catalog with V less than 5000 km/s, and the 3D distribution of suchgalaxies is displayed. The dipole component of the surface-brightnessdistribution of galaxies in the catalog is discussed.
|A 20 CM VLA survey of Abell clusters of galaxies. I - Distance class of not greater than 3 clusters|
Nearby Abell clusters of distance class of not greater than 3 arestudied based on 20-cm VLA observations, Westerbork Synthesis RadioTelescope results, and Einstein Observatory X-ray data. No significantcorrelation is found between the 20-cm radio power and X-ray luminosity,and no evidence is found that regular-type clusters are statisticallymore likely to be radio loud than irregular-type clusters. A weakcorrelation is noted between X-ray-cooling mass-accretion rates andradio powers for central dominant galaxies in cooling-flow clusters,suggesting that either cooling accretion directly fuels the centralengine and/or cooling flows strongly interact with the radio plasma.
|An objective prism H-alpha survey of nearby clusters of galaxies. I - Abell 347 and Abell 1367|
The Burrell Schmidt telescope has been used to survey H-alpha emissionin 69 galaxies in the Abel 347 and Abell 1367 clusters. The survey hasrecovered 60-80 percent of the potentially detectable IRAS galaxies. Anapproximate flux threshold of about 10 to the -13th erg/sq cm per s andan equivalent width threshold of about 20 A have been found. GlobalH-alpha + forbidden N II line equivalent widths and fluxes were found tobe in good agreement with values obtained for a small subset of galaxiesmeasured using wide aperture photoelectric photometry. It is noted thatan approximate redshift estimate may be made with 1sigma accuracy ofabout 550 km/s by measuring the position of the H-alpha emission featurerelative to the peak of the continuum spectrum.
|Alignments of galaxies in the Perseus supercluster|
The relative orientations of the galaxies belonging to the Perseussupercluster are investigated. The result is a lack of alignment in anypreferred direction of the supercluster galaxies (ellipticals, spiralsand both), except in a selected region of the supercluster, whosesignificance is low. Moreover no evidence of anisotropy in the relativeorientations of neighboring galaxies has been found.
|408 MHz observations of clusters of galaxies. II - The Coma and Perseus superclusters|
Twenty-nine radio sources identified with CGCG galaxies brighter thanm(p) equals 15.7 were detected during a survey of the Perseus and Comasuperclusters; 9 of these radio galaxies were not previously detected.The survey, carried out with the Bologna Northern Cross Radiotelescope,covers large regions around the two superclusters with a limitingsensitivity of S(408) equals 0.07 Jy. Flux densities at severalfrequencies were found in the literature for 19 of the cluster galaxiesallowing the determination of their average spectral index. Contour mapsof the sources with interesting radio structure are presented.
|Radio and optical observations of 9 nearby Abell clusters - A262, A347, A569, A576, A779, A1213, A1228, A2162, A2666|
A survey is made of 61 Abell clusters included in the HEAO-2 satelliteobserving program at 1.4 GHz. Data are presented on the nine clusters ofdistance class 1 and 2. With a view to establishing galaxy morphologiesand extending the sample of the galaxies with known velocities, platesand spectra are obtained with a 152-cm telescope. The bivariate radioluminosity function of the cluster galaxies is determined for the threemorphological types, E, SO, and S plus Irr, dividing these into threedifferent classes of absolute optical magnitude. The radio luminosityfunctions of E and SO galaxies in present clusters do not differ fromthose of E and SO galaxies in clusters having higher richness. Someevidence exists that spiral galaxies in clusters have a lowerprobability of being radio sources than field ones. Also included is abrief discussion of the sizes of cluster radio sources and thecorrelation between radio emission and the presence of emission linesfrom a galaxy.
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