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|Tidally Triggered Star Formation in Close Pairs of Galaxies. II. Constraints on Burst Strengths and Ages|
Galaxy-galaxy interactions rearrange the baryons in galaxies and triggersubstantial star formation; the aggregate effects of these interactionson the evolutionary histories of galaxies in the universe are poorlyunderstood. We combine B- and R-band photometry and optical spectroscopyto estimate the strengths and timescales of bursts of triggered starformation in the centers of 190 galaxies in pairs and compact groups.Based on an analysis of the measured colors and EW(Hα), wecharacterize the preexisting and triggered populations separately. Thebest-fitting burst scenarios assume stronger reddening corrections forline emission than for the continuum and continuous star formationlasting for >~100 Myr. The most realistic scenarios require aninitial mass function that is deficient in the highest mass stars. Thecolor of the preexisting stellar population is the most significantsource of uncertainty. Triggered star formation contributessubstantially (probably >~50%) to the R-band flux in the centralregions of several galaxies; tidal tails do not necessarily accompanythis star formation. Many of the galaxies in our sample have bluercenters than outskirts, suggesting that pre- or nonmerger interactionsmay lead to evolution along the Hubble sequence. These objects wouldappear blue and compact at higher redshifts; the older, redder outskirtsof the disks would be difficult to detect. Our data indicate thatgalaxies with larger separations on the sky contain weaker, and probablyolder, bursts of star formation on average. However, confirmation ofthese trends requires further constraints on the colors of the olderstellar populations and on the reddening for individual galaxies.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|The Arizona-New Mexico Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxies. I. Data for the Western End of the Perseus Supercluster|
We present new optical spectroscopic data for 347 galaxies in the regionof the Perseus supercluster. The new data were obtained using theSteward Observatory 2.3 m telescope and cover the whole optical window.Included are redshifts (for 345 objects), absorption-line equivalentwidths, a continuum index measuring the 4000 Å break, andemission-line flux ratios. After 11 objects are rejected for being toofaint and redshifts for 26 objects are added from the literature, wearrive at a complete sample of 361 galaxies. The distribution ofredshifts for the whole sample is examined, and we show the relationshipof the continuum index to morphology.
|Parameters of bulges and disks of interacting galaxies|
The photometric structure of 23 interacting galaxies is analyzed. It isshown that equivalent photometric profiles, if used for statisticalanalyses of the global structure of the disks of spiral galaxies, yieldthe same results as major-axis profiles. When analyzing nonaxisymmetricand faint objects, the equivalent profiles should be preferred to boththe major-axis and elliptically averaged profiles. The studies ofintegral characteristics of bulges of interacting spiral galaxies showedthat the parameters of these objects obey the mu_e-gamma_e relation fornormal spirals over a wide range of surface-brightness (~ 10 mag) andlinear-dimension (~ 3x10^2) values. This fact may imply that stronggravitational perturbations have little effect on dense central galaxyregions, leaving the bulges in a state that is very close toequilibrium. The central parts of disks in interacting spirals are, onthe average, ~ 1 mag brighter than the corresponding regions in isolatedgalaxies, which is probably attributable to enhanced star-formationprocess. Integrated photometric parameters of the disks of localinteracting galaxies are similar to those of spiral galaxies ofcomparable size observed at z ~ 1. The latter are also characterized byhigh surface brightness. Among them, interacting or disturbed objectscomprise a sizable fraction. It may be assumed that gravitationalperturbations and external accretion contribute significantly to theobserved evolution of disk parameters in large spiral galaxies, when z ~1.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Molecular Gas in Strongly Interacting Galaxies. I. CO (1-0) Observations|
We present observations of the CO (1-0) line in 80 interacting galaxiesas part of a program to study the role of interactions and mergers intriggering starbursts. The sample, which only includes obviouslyinteracting pairs of galaxies, is the largest such sample observed inCO. The observations were carried out at the NRAO 12 m and IRAM 30 mtelescopes. CO emission was detected in 56 galaxies (of which 32 are newdetections), corresponding to a detection rate of 70%. Because mostgalaxies are slightly larger than the telescope beam, correction factorswere applied to include CO emission outside the beam. The correctionfactors were derived by fitting a Gaussian function or an exponential CObrightness distribution to galaxies with multiple pointings and byassuming an exponential model for galaxies with single pointing. Wecompared the global CO fluxes of 10 galaxies observed by us at bothtelescopes. We also compared the measured fluxes for another 10 galaxiesobserved by us with those by other authors using the NRAO 12 m and FCRAO14 m telescopes. These comparisons provide an estimate of the accuracyof our derived global fluxes, which is ~40%. Mapping observations of twoclose pairs of galaxies, UGC 594 (NGC 317) and UGC 11175 (NGC 6621), arealso presented. In subsequent papers we will report the statisticalanalyses of the molecular properties in our sample galaxies and makecomparisons between isolated spirals and interacting galaxies.
|On the integrated color indices of interacting galaxies.|
|Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.|
|Galaxy Alignments in the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Revisited|
A search for preferential galaxy alignments in the Pisces-PerseusSupercluster (PPS) is made using the Minnesota Automated Plate ScannerPisces-Perseus Survey (MAPS-PP). The MAPS-PP is a catalog of ~1400galaxies with a (roughly) isophotal diameter greater than 30"constructed from digitized scans of the blue and red plates of thePalomar Observatory Sky Survey covering the PPS. This is the largestsample of galaxies applied to a search of galaxy alignments in thissupercluster, and it has been used in combination with previouslypublished redshifts to construct the deepest PPS galaxy luminosityfunction to date. While previous studies have relied extensively oncatalogs with visually estimated parameters for both sample selectionand determination of galaxy orientation, the MAPS-PP uses selectioncriteria and measurements that are entirely machine and computer based.Therefore, it is not susceptible to some of the biases, such as thediameter inclination effect, known to exist in some other galaxycatalogs. The presence of anisotropic galaxy distributions is determinedby use of the Kuiper statistic, a robust alternative to the chi^2statistic more traditionally used in these studies. Three statisticallysignificant anisotropic distributions are observed. The reddest galaxiesare observed to be oriented preferentially perpendicular to the locallarge-scale structure. The bluest galaxies near the supercluster planeare observed to have an anisotropic position angle distribution.Finally, a weak trend for the median position angle of color-selectedgalaxy subsamples to ``twist'' with increasing distance from the PPSplane is observed. These position angle distribution anisotropies areweak and are not consistent with any single primordial or modern-eragalaxy alignment mechanism, although a mixture of such mechanisms is notruled out.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|Tidally-triggered disk thickening. II. Results and interpretations.|
We have reported in a previous paper (Paper I, Reshetnikov and Combes,1996A&AS..116..417R) B,V and I band photometric data for a sample of24 edge-on interacting spiral galaxies, together with a control sampleof 7 edge-on isolated galaxies. We discuss here the main result found inthis study: the ratio h/z_0_ of the radial exponential scalelength h tothe constant scaleheight z_0_ is about twice smaller for interactinggalaxies. This is found to be due both to a thickening of the plane, andto a radial stripping or shrinking of the stellar disk. If we believethat any galaxy experienced a tidal interaction in the past, we mustconclude that continuous gas accretion and subsequent star formation canbring back the ratio h/z_0_ to higher values, in a time scale of 1Gyr.
|Photometric Signatures of Starbursts in Interacting Galaxies and the Butcher-Oemler Effect|
This paper presents new and synthetic narrowband photometry ofellipticals, spirals, Seyferts, and interacting galaxies in an attemptto identify the cause of the unusually high fraction of blue clustergalaxies in distance clusters (Butcher-Oemler effect). The propertiesand distribution of the low-redshift sample specifically points tostarbursts as the origin of the blue narrowband colors in interactingArp galaxies. Comparison between theoretical models and multicolordiagrams, particularly 4000 A break colors, indicates a photometricsignature that differs from both normal disk galaxy star formation andnonthermal components. This photometric signature is absent for theButcher-Oemler galaxies whose general color distribution, compared topresent-day clusters, is consistent with a majority of the bluepopulation involved in normal star formation rates (spiral-like) withthe addition of a small fraction of bright, blue interacting/mergersystems. This photometric picture of the Butcher-Oemler galaxies is inagreement with the morphological evidence from Hubble Space Telescopeimaging.
|On the question of radio emission of spiral galaxies in groups of galaxies|
It has been shown that the radio emission properties of spiral galaxies,if the other conditions are the same, are determined rather by thepresence of the close neighbours than by space density of galaxiesaround them. The rate of occurence of radio sources and their radioluminosities among the spiral members of groups of galaxies depend onthe projected seperation between them and their nearest neighbour. Theshorter this seperation the higher the probability of radio emission.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Tidally-triggered disk thickening. I. Observations.|
As part of an investigation on what effect galaxy interactions have onthe z-structure of the disks of involved galaxies, we present here newphotometric data in the B, V, I passbands for a sample of 24 interactingsystems and 7 non-interacting galaxies. Isophotes, total magnitudes andcolours of all sample galaxies (67) are determined. Our estimates andthe comparison with the published results show that the accuracy of ourphotometry is about 0.15mag.
|Interaction, star formation, and H I deficiency in E + S pairs|
We use a sample of mixed morphology (ellictical + spiral) pairs ofgalaxies to make a new study of star formation enhancement in spiralgalaxies. The approach makes use of the fact that only the spiralcomponent in each pair is likely to be a significant source of (FIR) orH I emission. We find at least a twofold enhanced FIR emission fromabout one-half of the late-type components in close pairs. There isevidence that a typical burst duration may be as short as 2-3 x108 yr. The total H I masses of the spiral components arenear normal. Little or no H I depletion in star formation-enhancedgalaxies implies one or more of the following: (1) a bimodal IMF for theinteraction-induced starburst activity; (2) a duration for the activephase of enhanced star formation of no more than 1-2 x 109yr; or (3) a continuous source of gas replenishment. We find someevidence for an H I deficit in the currently most active star formingspiral. This argues for an transient phase change in up to 50% of theneutral gas during a burst event. We conclude that the InterstellarMatter (ISM) in our sample of pairs is clearly not predominantlymolecular gas.
|CO observations of Arp's interacting galaxies|
We performed a (C-12)O (J= 1-0) line survey involving fifty fourinteracting galaxies from the Arp's Catalogue of Peculiar Galaxies, andcompared our results with various other data. The far infraredluminosities, as normalized by the CO luminosities, are much greater forinteracting galaxies than for normal galaxies. From correlations withthe interaction class we found that the molecular gas concentration inthe central few kpc is not necessarily enhanced by interaction. However,the efficiency of star formation from the molecular gas increasessignificantly with the interaction class, which results in an apparentincrease in the star-formation rate with the interaction class.
|A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field|
A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias.
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|Effects of Interactions on the Nuclear Near Infrared Properties of Spiral Galaxies|
Using JHKL photometric measures available in the literature, we havecompared the near-infrared colour indices and central luminosities ofsamples of relatively isolated spiral galaxies with LINER and H IIregion-like nuclei (hereafter called L and H) with corresponding samplesof interacting galaxies, in order to explore the effects of interactionson their near-infrared properties. We have found that the L galaxies andthe isolated H galaxies have, in general, normal near-infrared colourswhich are fully explainable in terms of emission from late-type evolvedstars. On the other hand, the sample of interacting H galaxies displays,on average, somewhat peculiar near-infrared colours (specifically,normal J - H colours, but redward H - K and, especially, K - Lexcesses), which very probably indicate the presence of thermal emissionfrom hot dust, presumably related to intense star formation activityinduced by the interactions. Furthermore, for the same galaxy samplethere is some evidence that the emission at λ ~ 2.2 microns issomewhat more centrally concentrated than that at shorter wavelengths.Interestingly, the L galaxies appear to have greater centralnear-infrared luminosities than the H galaxies, for the samemorphological-type interval.
|Models and observations of starbursts. II - Starbursts in interacting galaxies|
Evolutionary models are applied here to starburst galaxies in a sampleof 30 interacting or merged systems in order to determine the durationof the starbursts. The time delay between bursts in both components ofinteracting pairs of disk galaxies is investigated and it is found thatstarbursts in the minor galaxies of these pairs started earlier thanthose in the major galaxies. While strong starbursts are found to beactive for only about 2 x 10 exp 7 yrs, the time delay between thebursts in both components of the interacting pairs can be significantlylarger. Delays of up to 2 x 10 exp 8 yrs are found in the sample. Modelfits show that the mass-to-luminosity ratios of strong centralstarbursts indicate a deficiency of low-mass stars in the starburstinitial mass function. The required low-mass-star deficiency is smallerthan previously believed.
|A near-infrared imaging survey of interacting galaxies - The small angular-size ARP systems|
Near-IR images of a large sample of interacting galaxies selected fromthe Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies by Arp (1966) have been obtained.Approximately 180 systems have been imaged in at least two, and usuallythree of the standard JHK bands. The survey and the observing and datareduction procedures, are described, and contour plots and aperturephotometry are presented. Future papers will analyze the imaging data bygroupings based on interaction type, stage, and progenitors. The goalsof the analysis are to explore the relationships between galaxyinteractions, activity, and morphology by studying the structure of thenear-IR luminosity distribution, where extinction effects are muchreduced relative to the optical and the major stellar mass component ofgalaxies dominates the observed light.
|Effects of Interactions on the Radio Properties of Non-Seyfert Galaxies|
On the basis of radio surveys published in the literature we havecompared the radio properties of samples of relatively isolated spiralgalaxies with LINER- and H II- region-like nuclei (hereafter called Land H galaxies) with corresponding samples of non-Seyfert interactinggalaxies, in order to explore the effects of interactions on their radioproperties. Basically, we have found enhanced total and central radioemission (per light unit) in interacting H galaxies (compared with theirrelatively isolated counterparts) and enhanced central radio emission(per light unit) in interacting L galaxies. Analogous enhancements inthe strength of the total and nuclear Hα emission lines areobserved in interacting galaxies. Furthermore, within a sample ofinteracting galaxies, there appears to be evidence of enhanced total andcentral radio emission (per light unit) in strongly interacting galaxieswhich are likely to have H II-region-like nuclei, compared withmoderately interacting objects of the same nuclear type. Interacting Hgalaxies contain more extended central radio sources than isolatedgalaxies, whereas no difference in this sense is observed in the case ofL galaxies. L galaxies which contain, on average, weaker total andcentral radio sources than the H galaxies have, on average, smallercentral radio sources (of greater radio surface brightness) than the Hgalaxies and follow a less-steep logarithmic radio power-radio sizerelation. As regards the Seyfert galaxies, which are known to becharacterized by powerful central radio emission, we have found thatthey contain, on average, central radio sources of intermediate size,which obey a power-size relation of intermediate steepness (with respectto the L and H galaxies). Thus our statistical study reveals basicstructural differences between the radio properties of the L, H andSeyfert galaxies, and between the effects of interactions on the radioproperties of the three classes of galaxies.
|An extragalactic database. I - The Catalogue of Principal Galaxies|
The Catalogue of Principal Galaxies is described, which lists equatorialcoordinates (for the equinoxes 1950 and 2000) and cross-identificationsfor 73,197 galaxies. The 40,932 coordinates have standard deviationssmaller than 10 arcsec. A total of 131,601 names from the 38 most commonsources are listed. In addition, mean data for each object are givenwhen available: 49,102 morphological descriptions, 52,954 apparent majorand minor axes, 67,116 apparent magnitudes, 20,046 radial velocities and24,361 position angles. This information was used for facilitatingproper identification. Finally, distribution options are explained.
|IRAS observations of an optically selected sample of interacting galaxies|
IRAS observations of a large, morphologically selected sample ofstrongly interacting disk-type galaxies have demonstrated thatgalaxy-galaxy collisions can lead to enhanced infrared emission, but notin all cases. Infrared luminosities of the interacting galaxies span alarge range, but are about a factor of 2 higher, on average, than thoseof isolated disk galaxies. The data suggest the existence of a cutoff inblue luminosity, below which no galaxies show markedly enhanced infraredemission. Only the most strongly interacting systems in the sample showextreme values of infrared excess, suggesting that deep,interpenetrating collisions are necessary to drive infrared emission toextreme levels. Comparisons with optical indicators of star formationshow that infrared excess and color temperatures correlate with thelevel of star-formation activity in the interacting galaxies. Allinteracting galaxies in our sample that exhibit an infrared excess andhave higher than normal color temperatures also have optical indicatorsof high levels of star formation. It is not necessary to invokeprocesses other than star formation to account for the enhanced infraredluminosity in this sample of interacting galaxies.
|Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - Binaries|
A new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass.
|Global properties of interacting disk-type galaxies|
Optical, far-IR, and radio observations of global properties arepresented for a sample of strongly interacting disk-type galaxies.Global star formation rates (SFRs) for the galaxies span a large rangeand are, on average, a factor of 2.5 higher than similarly determinedglobal SFRs for isolated spiral galaxies. New star formation occurspreferentially in or near the nuclear regions. H I 21 cm emission-lineprofiles indicate the presence of anomalous velocity material andchaotic patterns of gas motion in many interacting systems. Few systemsshow evidence for the presence of a well-organized rotating H I disksuch as are seen in isolated spiral galaxies. Neutral hydrogen gasmass-to-blue luminosity ratios are not atypical when compared withisolated spirals. The evidence indicates that local rather than globalproperties of these galaxies govern the star-formation process. Theobservations generally support the notion that enhanced SFRs are causedby increased cloud collision rates and dissipative flows of gas to thenucleus.
|Star-formation rates in the nuclei of violently interacting galaxies|
It has now been recognized that galaxy-galaxy interactions represent animportant evolutionary process in many extragalactic systems, takinginto account large-scale star-formation bursts, Seyfert activity, andQSO phenomena. The present paper provides results of aspectrophotometric survey of the nuclear regions of a large sample ofviolently interacting galaxies. Attention is given to sample selection,observational procedures and data reduction, data analysis, aspects ofspectral classification, ionization mechanisms, emission-line strengths,correlations with integral properties, comparisons with other studies,and a comparison with theoretical models.
|Radio emission of isolated single and double galaxies|
The catalogs of Karachentsev (1972) and Karachentseva (1973) are used tocompare the properties of isolated single and double galaxies, andquantitative results are obtained. It is shown that spiral galaxieswhich are members of pairs have a radio luminosity exceeding that ofsingle galaxies by 2.5 times on the average. In addition, it is foundthat members of interacting pairs are more powerful emitters in theradio range and that spiral galaxies which are members of triplets haveradio luminosities on a par with those of pair members.
|The nuclear activity of interacting galaxies|
A search for active galactic nuclei among interacting galaxies isreported. A sample of 167 systems of interacting and asymmetric galaxieswas observed spectrophotometrically in the spectral range 4700-7100 A.The results are compared with a sample of isolated galaxies. It is foundthat (1) there are no Seyfert nuclei in elliptical or dwarf irregulargalaxies of the sample; (2) there is an excess of Seyfert nuclei amonginteracting spirals, but it is only at the 90 percent confidence level;(3) this excess becomes statistically significant (98 percent) when onlystrongly interacting spirals are included (four new Seyfert nuclei arepresented); (4) in the subgroup of galaxies with extreme tidaldistortions, no Seyfert nuclei were found.
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