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Local and Large-Scale Environment of Seyfert Galaxies
We present a three-dimensional study of the local (<=100h-1 kpc) and the large-scale (<=1 h-1 Mpc)environment of the two main types of Seyfert AGN galaxies. For thispurpose we use 48 Seyfert 1 galaxies (with redshifts in the range0.007<=z<=0.036) and 56 Seyfert 2 galaxies (with0.004<=z<=0.020), located at high galactic latitudes, as well astwo control samples of nonactive galaxies having the same morphological,redshift, and diameter size distributions as the corresponding Seyfertsamples. Using the Center for Astrophysics (CfA2) and Southern SkyRedshift Survey (SSRS) galaxy catalogs (mB~15.5) and our ownspectroscopic observations (mB~18.5), we find that within aprojected distance of 100 h-1 kpc and a radial velocityseparation of δv<~600 km s-1 around each of ourAGNs, the fraction of Seyfert 2 galaxies with a close neighbor issignificantly higher than that of their control (especially within 75h-1 kpc) and Seyfert 1 galaxy samples, confirming a previoustwo-dimensional analysis of Dultzin-Hacyan et al. We also find that thelarge-scale environment around the two types of Seyfert galaxies doesnot vary with respect to their control sample galaxies. However, theSeyfert 2 and control galaxy samples do differ significantly whencompared to the corresponding Seyfert 1 samples. Since the maindifference between these samples is their morphological typedistribution, we argue that the large-scale environmental differencecannot be attributed to differences in nuclear activity but rather totheir different type of host galaxies.

Massive star formation in the central regions of spiral galaxies
Context: . The morphology of massive star formation in the centralregions of galaxies is an important tracer of the dynamical processesthat govern the evolution of disk, bulge, and nuclear activity. Aims. Wepresent optical imaging of the central regions of a sample of 73 spiralgalaxies in the Hα line and in optical broad bands, and deriveinformation on the morphology of massive star formation. Methods. Weobtained images with the William Herschel Telescope, mostly at a spatialresolution of below one second of arc. For most galaxies, no Hαimaging is available in the literature. We outline the observing anddata reduction procedures, list basic properties, and present the I-bandand continuum-subtracted Hα images. We classify the morphology ofthe nuclear and circumnuclear Hα emission and explore trends withhost galaxy parameters. Results. We confirm that late-type galaxies havea patchy circumnuclear appearance in Hα, and that nuclear ringsoccur primarily in spiral types Sa-Sbc. We identify a number ofpreviously unknown nuclear rings, and confirm that nuclear rings arepredominantly hosted by barred galaxies. Conclusions. Other than instimulating nuclear rings, bars do not influence the relative strengthof the nuclear Hα peak, nor the circumnuclear Hα morphology.Even considering that our selection criteria led to an over-abundance ofgalaxies with close massive companions, we do not find any significantinfluence of the presence or absence of a close companion on therelative strength of the nuclear Hα peak, nor on the Hαmorphology around the nucleus.

The ISOPHOT 170 μm Serendipity Survey II. The catalog of optically identified galaxies%
The ISOPHOT Serendipity Sky Survey strip-scanning measurements covering≈15% of the far-infrared (FIR) sky at 170 μm were searched forcompact sources associated with optically identified galaxies. CompactSerendipity Survey sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in at leasttwo ISOPHOT C200 detector pixels were selected that have a positionalassociation with a galaxy identification in the NED and/or Simbaddatabases and a galaxy counterpart visible on the Digitized Sky Surveyplates. A catalog with 170 μm fluxes for more than 1900 galaxies hasbeen established, 200 of which were measured several times. The faintest170 μm fluxes reach values just below 0.5 Jy, while the brightest,already somewhat extended galaxies have fluxes up to ≈600 Jy. For thevast majority of listed galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes were measured forthe first time. While most of the galaxies are spirals, about 70 of thesources are classified as ellipticals or lenticulars. This is the onlycurrently available large-scale galaxy catalog containing a sufficientnumber of sources with 170 μm fluxes to allow further statisticalstudies of various FIR properties.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (CISS) areMPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca, AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena,Imperial College London.Full Table 4 and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/39

A Possible Signature of Connection between Blazars and Seyfert Galaxies
The accretion rates (dot{M}) and their correlation with cosmologicalredshifts for a sample of blazars and Seyfert galaxies are presented.The sample includes 77 blazars (28 FSRQs, 26 LBLs, and 23 HBLs) and 60Seyfert galaxies, of which the extended spectral energy distributioninformation and redshifts are available. Within the framework ofaccreting black holes, the accretion rates for these sources wereestimated based on their bolometric luminosities. The result shows thatthe accretion rates are significantly different for each subclass of theblazars and Seyfert galaxies. Their averages are, respectively, 50.2,17.0, 1.0, 0.1Modot yr-1 for the FSRQs, LBLs, HBLs, and theSeyfert galaxies, exhibiting a well descending sequence ofFSRQs-LBLs-HBLs-Seyfert galaxies. They are strongly correlated with theredshifts for both blazars and Seyfert galaxies. The linear correlationcoefficients are 0.81 and 0.68 with a chance probab ility of p <0.0001, respectively. A plot of dot{M} - z shows that the blazars andthe Seyfert galaxies distribute in a distinguishable regions with aconnection at z ˜ 0.7 and almost all the sources lie in a narrowregion of z1.40 ≤ dot{M} ≤ 250 z1.40,illustrating a strong correlation between the two quantities for thewhole sample. The regression line is dot{M} = (14.5 ± 1.2)z1.40±0.06 Modot yr-1 with a linearcoefficient of 0.93 and a chance probability of p < 0.0001,suggesting a connection between blazars and Seyfert galaxies. Thisconnection might imply that the two classes are on the same evolutionarysequence. Although the correlations of the data are formally solid, theconclusion may be affected by one source of considerable uncertainty atthe data level, which is also discussed.

A Fundamental Plane of black hole activity
We examine the disc-jet connection in stellar mass and supermassiveblack holes by investigating the properties of their compact emission inthe X-ray and radio bands. We compile a sample of ~100 active galacticnuclei with measured masses, 5-GHz core emission, and 2-10 keVluminosities, together with eight galactic black holes with a total of~50 simultaneous observations in the radio and X-ray bands. Using thissample, we study the correlations between the radio (LR) andthe X-ray (LX) luminosity and the black hole mass (M). Wefind that the radio luminosity is correlated with bothM andLX, at a highly significant level. In particular, we showthat the sources define a `Fundamental Plane' in the three-dimensional(logLR, logLX, logM) space, given bylogLR= (0.60+0.11-0.11)logLX+ (0.78+0.11-0.09) logM+7.33+4.05-4.07, with a substantial scatter ofσR= 0.88. We compare our results to the theoreticalrelations between radio flux, black hole mass, and accretion ratederived by Heinz & Sunyaev. Such relations depend only on theassumed accretion model and on the observed radio spectral index.Therefore, we are able to show that the X-ray emission from black holesaccreting at less than a few per cent of the Eddington rate is unlikelyto be produced by radiatively efficient accretion, and is marginallyconsistent with optically thin synchrotron emission from the jet. On theother hand, models for radiatively inefficient accretion flows seem toagree well with the data.

Physical Coupling of Kazarian Galaxies with Surrounding Galaxies
Results from a statistical study of Kazarian galaxies and the objectssurrounding them are presented. It is shown that: (1) the sample ofKazarian galaxies up to 16m.0 is complete. (2) Roughly 35.7% of theKazarian galaxies are members of clusters, 14.0% of groups, and 13.6% ofbinary systems, while 36.7% are single galaxies. (3) Of the 580 Kazariangalaxies, roughly 61.2% are infrared, 8.8% radio, and 2.8% x-raysources. (4) The relative numbers of Kazarian galaxies for completesamples of I, R, and X in the different groups are systematically higherthan the corresponding numbers for samples of all Kazarian galaxies.

``Hidden'' Seyfert 2 Galaxies and the X-Ray Background
Obscured active galactic nuclei, which are classified optically as type2 (narrow line) Seyfert galaxies in the local universe, are by far themost promising candidates for the origin of the hard (2-10 keV) X-raybackground radiation. However, optical follow-up observations of faintX-ray sources in deep Chandra images have revealed surprising numbers ofapparently normal galaxies at modest redshift. Such objects represent~40%-60% of the sources classified in deep Chandra surveys, raising thepossibility that the X-ray galaxy population has evolved with cosmictime. Alternatively, most of the faint X-ray galaxies in question are sodistant that their angular diameters are comparable to the slit widthsused in ground-based spectroscopic observations; thus, their nuclearspectral features may be overwhelmed (``hidden'') by host galaxy light.To test this hypothesis, we have obtained integrated spectra of a sampleof nearby, well-studied Seyfert 2 galaxies. The data, which accuratelysimulate observations of distant Chandra sources, demonstrateconvincingly that the defining spectral signatures of Seyfert 2s can behidden by light from their host galaxies. In fact, 60% of the observedobjects would not be classified as Seyfert 2s on the basis of theirintegrated spectra, similar to the fraction of faint X-ray sourcesidentified with ``normal'' galaxies. Thus, the numbers of narrow-lineactive galaxies in deep Chandra surveys (and perhaps all ground-basedspectroscopic surveys of distant galaxies) are likely to have beenunderestimated.

Active Galactic Nucleus Black Hole Masses and Bolometric Luminosities
Black hole mass, along with mass accretion rate, is a fundamentalproperty of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Black hole mass sets anapproximate upper limit to AGN energetics via the Eddington limit. Wecollect and compare all AGN black hole mass estimates from theliterature; these 177 masses are mostly based on the virial assumptionfor the broad emission lines, with the broad-line region size determinedfrom either reverberation mapping or optical luminosity. We introduce200 additional black hole mass estimates based on properties of the hostgalaxy bulges, using either the observed stellar velocity dispersion orthe fundamental plane relation to infer σ these methods assumethat AGN hosts are normal galaxies. We compare 36 cases for which blackhole mass has been generated by different methods and find, forindividual objects, a scatter as high as a couple of orders ofmagnitude. The less direct the method, the larger the discrepancy withother estimates, probably due to the large scatter in the underlyingcorrelations assumed. Using published fluxes, we calculate bolometricluminosities for 234 AGNs and investigate the relation between blackhole mass and luminosity. In contrast to other studies, we find nosignificant correlation of black hole mass with luminosity, other thanthose induced by circular reasoning in the estimation of black holemass. The Eddington limit defines an approximate upper envelope to thedistribution of luminosities, but the lower envelope depends entirely onthe sample of AGNs included. For any given black hole mass, there is arange in Eddington ratio of up to 3 orders of magnitude.

Seyfert 2 Galaxies with Spectropolarimetric Observations
We present a compilation of radio, infrared, optical, and hard X-ray(2-10 keV) data for a sample of 90 Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s) withspectropolarimetric observations (41 Sy2s with detection of polarizedbroad lines [PBLs] and 49 without PBLs). Compared to Sy2s without PBLs,Sy2s with PBLs tend to be earlier type spirals and show warmermidinfrared color and significant excess of emissions (including thehard X-ray [2-10 keV], [O III] λ5007, infrared [25 μm], andradio). Our analyses indicate that the majority of Sy2s without PBLs arethose sources having less powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN)activities, most likely caused by a low accretion rate. It implies thatthe detectability of the polarized broad emission lines in Sy2s maydepend on their central AGN activities in most cases. Based on theavailable data, we find no compelling evidence for the presence of twotypes of Sy2s; one of which has been proposed to be intrinsicallydifferent from Sy2s claimed in the unification model.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Seyfert Galaxies with Circumnuclear/Nuclear Starbursts
In this paper, we present our preliminary results on Seyfert galaxieswith circumnuclear/nuclear starburst (SB) activity. We have searched therecent available literature and found 76 active galaxies with clearevidence of nuclear SB activity, among which 16 are Seyfert 1s, 51Seyfert 2s, and 9 LINERs. After studying the 51 Seyfert 2s, we find thatthose Seyfert 2s with hidden Seyfert 1 nuclei, have similarInfrared-Radio properties as Seyfert 1 galaxies, and are different from``real'' Seyfert 2s without a hidden Seyfert 1 nucleus. The later aresimilar to starburst galaxies.

A Composite Seyfert 2 X-Ray Spectrum: Implications for the Origin of the Cosmic X-Ray Background
We present a composite 1-10 keV Seyfert 2 X-ray spectrum derived fromASCA observations of a distance-limited sample of nearby galaxies. All29 observed objects were detected. Above ~3 keV, the composite spectrumis inverted, confirming that Seyfert 2 galaxies as a class have thespectral properties necessary to explain the flat shape of the cosmicX-ray background spectrum. Integrating the composite spectrum overredshift, we find that the total emission from Seyfert 2 galaxies,combined with the expected contribution from unabsorbed type 1 objects,provides an excellent match to the spectrum and intensity of the hardX-ray background. The principal uncertainty in this procedure is thecosmic evolution of the Seyfert 2 X-ray luminosity function. Separatecomposite spectra for objects in our sample with and without polarizedbroad optical emission lines are also presented.

Jet Directions in Seyfert Galaxies: B and I Imaging Data
We present the results of broadband B and I imaging observations for asample of 88 Seyfert galaxies (29 Seyfert 1s and 59 Seyfert 2s),selected from a mostly isotropic property, the flux at 60 μm. We alsopresent the B and I imaging results for an additional sample of 20Seyfert galaxies (7 Seyfert 1s and 13 Seyfert 2s), selected from theliterature and known to have extended radio emission. The I-band imagesare fitted with ellipses to determine the position angle and ellipticityof the host galaxy major axis. This information will be used in a futurepaper, combined with information from radio observations, to study theorientation of radio jets relative to the planes of their host galaxies.Here we present surface brightness profiles and magnitudes in the B andI bands, as well as mean ellipticities and major axis position angles.

Jet Directions in Seyfert Galaxies
Here we present the study of the relative angle between the accretiondisk (or radio jet) and the galaxy disk for a sample of Seyfert galaxiesselected from a mostly isotropic property, the 60 μm flux, and warminfrared colors. We used VLA A-array 3.6 cm continuum data andground-based optical imaging, homogeneously observed and reduced tominimize selection effects. For parts of the analysis we enlarged thesample by including galaxies serendipitously selected from theliterature. For each galaxy we have a pair of points (i, δ), whichare the inclination of the galaxy relative to the line of sight and theangle between the jet projected into the plane of the sky and the hostgalaxy major axis, respectively. For some galaxies we also hadinformation about which side of the minor axis is closer to Earth. Thisdata is combined with a statistical technique, developed by us, todetermine the distribution of β angles in three dimensions, theangle between the jet and the host galaxy plane axis. We found from aninitial analysis of the data of the 60 μm sample, where Seyfert 1 and2 galaxies were not differentiated, that the observed distribution of iand δ values can be well represented either by a homogeneoussinβ distribution in the range0deg<=β<=90deg or in0deg<=β<=65deg, but not by anequatorial ring. A more general model, which tested β-distributionsin the range β1<=β<=β2, fordifferent ranges of β1 and β2 values,required β2 to be larger than 65° and gavepreference for β1 smaller than 40°-50°. Animportant result from our analysis was obtained when we determinedwhether the jet was projected against the near or the far side of thegalaxy and differentiated between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies,which showed that the model could not represent Seyfert 1 galaxiesadequately. We found that the inclusion of viewing angle restrictionsfor Seyfert 1 galaxies, namely, that a galaxy can be recognized as aSeyfert 1 only if the angle between the jet and the line of sight(|φ|) is smaller than a given angle φc and that thegalaxy inclination i is smaller than an angle ic, gave riseto statistically acceptable models. This indication that there is adifference in viewing angle to the central engine between Seyfert 1galaxies and Seyfert 2 galaxies is a direct and independent confirmationof the underlying concepts of the unified model. We discuss possibleexplanations for the misalignment between the accretion disk and thehost galaxy disk: warping of the accretion disk by self-irradiationinstability, by the Bardeen-Petterson effect, or by a misalignedgravitational potential of a nuclear star cluster surrounding the blackhole, as well as feeding of the accretion disk by a misaligned inflow ofgas from minor mergers, capture of individual stars or gas from thenuclear star cluster, and the capture of individual molecular cloudsfrom the host galaxy.

The Relative Orientation of Nuclear Accretion and Galaxy Stellar Disks in Seyfert Galaxies
We use the difference (delta) between the position angles of the nuclearradio emission and the host galaxy major axis to investigate thedistribution of the angle (beta) between the axes of the nuclearaccretion disk and the host galaxy disk in Seyfert galaxies. We providea critical appraisal of the quality of all measurements, and find thatthe data are limited by observational uncertainties and biases, such asthe well known deficiency of Seyfert galaxies of high inclination. Thereis weak evidence that the distribution of delta for Seyfert 2 galaxiesmay be different (at the 90% confidence level) from a uniformdistribution, while the Seyfert 1 delta distribution is notsignificantly different from a uniform distribution or from the Seyfert2 delta distribution. The cause of the possible nonuniformity in thedistribution of delta for Seyfert 2 galaxies is discussed. Seyfertnuclei in late-type spiral galaxies may favor large values of delta (atthe ~96% confidence level), while those in early-type galaxies show amore or less random distribution of delta. This may imply that thenuclear accretion disk in noninteracting late-type spirals tends toalign with the stellar disk, while that in early-type galaxies is morerandomly oriented, perhaps as a result of accretion following a galaxymerger. We point out that biases in the distribution of inclinationtranslate to biased estimates of beta in the context of the unifiedscheme. When this effect is taken into account, the distributions ofbeta for all Seyferts together, and of Seyfert 1s and 2s separately,agree with the hypothesis that the radio jets are randomly oriented withrespect to the galaxy disk. The data are consistent with theexpectations of the unified scheme, but do not demand it.

Radio continuum morphology of southern Seyfert galaxies
We present radio observations for 29 southern Seyfert galaxies selectedfrom a volume limited sample with cz<3600 km s(-1) , and declinationdelta <0{(deg} ) r. Objects with declination -30{(deg} }r

CO Survey of a Distance-limited Seyfert Sample. I. The Data
We present the data of ^12CO (J = 1-0) observations of the centralregions of a sample of 43 nearby Seyfert galaxies (cz <= 5000 kms^-1) with the NRO 45 m telescope. The general properties of this sampleare also discussed, but a more detailed analysis is deferred to PaperII. The CO detection rate of this sample (i.e., almost 50%) iscomparable to that of other spiral galaxy surveys in similar redshiftranges made with that telescope. There seems to be no difference in thedetection rates of Seyfert galaxies types 1 and 2. Since we observed asingle point centered at the nucleus, and the average ratio of the beamHPBW of the 45 m telescope to the apparent optical diameter of theseobjects was 0.13, only a small fraction of the total molecular gas isrecovered. However, a clear correlation of the CO contents with the IRASFIR luminosities is also seen, and there seems to be a tendency forSeyfert galaxies to be closer to normal galaxies than to starbursts. Theradial distribution of the molecular gas in these galaxies is compatiblein most cases with a steeply decreasing function. Our high spatialresolution observations trace the interface region between the largescale properties of the disks of the host galaxies and the activenuclear regions. This interface region is the one most directlyassociated to the fuelling of the nuclear energy source in these objectsand can be thus compared with data on samples of nonactive galaxies atsimilar spatial scales to deduce the possible relation of thecircumnuclear gas contents and dynamics with nuclear activity (see PaperII).

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

A Survey for H 2O Megamasers in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Comparison of Detected and Undetected Galaxies
A survey for H2O megamaser emission from 354 active galaxies hasresulted in the detection of 10 new sources, making 16 known altogether.The galaxies surveyed include a distance-limited sample (coveringSeyferts and LINERs with recession velocities less than 7000 km s-1) anda magnitude-limited sample (covering Seyferts and LINERs with mB <=14.5). In order to determine whether the H2O-detected galaxies are"typical" active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or have special properties thatfacilitate the production of powerful masers, we have accumulated adatabase of physical, morphological, and spectroscopic properties of theobserved galaxies. The most significant finding is that H2O megamasersare detected only in Seyfert 2 and LINER galaxies, not Seyfert 1's. Thislack of detection in Seyfert 1's indicates either that they do not havemolecular gas in their nuclei with physical conditions appropriate toproduce 1.3 cm H2O masers or that the masers are beamed away from Earth,presumably in the plane of the putative molecular torus that hides theSeyfert 1 nucleus in Seyfert 2's. LINERs are detected at a similar rateto Seyfert 2's, which constitutes a strong argument that at least somenuclear LINERs are AGNs rather than starbursts, since starbursts havenot been detected as H2O megamasers. We preferentially detect H2Oemission from the nearer galaxies and from those that are apparentlybrighter at mid- and far-infrared and centimeter radio wavelengths.There is also a possible trend for the H2O-detected galaxies to be moreintrinsically luminous in nuclear 6 cm radio emission than theundetected ones, though these data are incomplete. We find evidence thatSeyfert 2's with very high (NH > 1024 cm-2) X-ray--absorbing columnsof gas are more often detected as H2O maser emitters than Seyfert 2'swith lower columns. It may be that the probability of detecting H2Omaser emission in Seyfert galaxies increases with increasing column ofcool gas to the nucleus, from Seyfert 1's through narrow-line X-raygalaxies to Seyfert 2's.

H II Region Population in a Sample of Nearby Galaxies with Nuclear Activity. I. Data and General Results
This paper presents the distribution of ionized gas in the disk andcircumnuclear region of a sample of 55 galaxies with active nuclei,Seyfert galaxies of type 1 and 2, and low-ionization nuclear emissionline regions (LINERs). We use CCD narrow-band H alpha + [N II] images tomap the distribution of H II regions and the morphology of thecircumnuclear extended emission associated with the active nucleus. Wealso present [O III] images for a few of the galaxies. An analysis ofthe presence of extended emission and of H II regions is carried outtwofold, as a function of the level of nuclear activity and of theHubble type. In this sample, the extended emission is more common inSeyfert type 1 than in type 2; however, disk star formation is morecommon in Seyfert type 2. One-third of the galaxies have circumnuclear HII regions, but only 8% of these are Seyfert 1. The number surfacedensity of H II regions and the location of the brightest H II regionindicate that in Seyfert 2 the star formation is more important in theinner disk, as defined by the radius that contains half the total blueluminosity. In Seyfert 1 the distribution of H II regions is moreuniform with distance, and the H II regions are farther away from thenucleus than in Seyfert 2. We discuss the possible connection betweenthe dynamical properties of the galaxy, particularly in the inner parts,and the differences found in Seyfert types 1 and 2.

A Comparison of Radio Axis with Host Galaxy Plane Axis in Seyfert Galaxies
We use the radio axis as an indicator of the orientation of theobscuring torus in Seyfert galaxies and analyze the difference betweenthe position angles of extended radio structures and host galaxy majoraxis of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies. We find that Seyfert 1's areless likely to have extended radio structures along the host galaxymajor axis while Seyfert 2's have these structures distributed in mostdirections. We also find a zone of avoidance in the distribution ofposition angles: both Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's seem to avoid closealignment between the radio axis and the host galaxy plane axis. Theseresults are analyzed from the point of view of a model in which Seyfert1's have their obscuring torus axis aligned preferentially along thehost galaxy disk axis and Seyfert 2's have their torus axis lying at anintermediate angle between the galaxy disk and its axis.

Forbidden Fe^+ emission from active galaxies
We present intermediate-resolution (~400 km s^-1) near-infrared spectrafor eight Seyfert and three starburst galaxies, covering the [FeII]1.257-μm and Pabeta lines. We combine these data with those in theliterature to investigate the origin of the forbidden Fe^+ emission inactive galaxies, which is still under debate. In a study of 26 activegalaxies, Forbes & Ward provided evidence that [FeII] emission instarburst galaxies is shock-excited by supernova remnants.Interestingly, the Seyfert galaxies in their sample also appeared tohave shock-excited [FeII] emission, although the radio jets werebelieved to be responsible. Analysis of our sample of 46 objectsprovides some support for the finding by Forbes & Ward that [FeII]is more tightly correlated with radio power than the hydrogenrecombination emission. However, we argue that the observed line ratiosare inconsistent with the substantial grain destruction that is aninevitable consequence of shocks. Together with the fact that thedispersion in the [FeII]-radio correlation is still fairly large, wededuce that photoionization of material with normal ISM abundances mustbe the dominant excitation mechanism, although we suggest that asignificant contribution (~20 per cent) of the [FeII] emission may beshock-excited.

A Multiwavelength Catalog of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Observed in the 2--10 keV Energy Band
This paper is a catalog of Seyfert 2 galaxies observed in the 2-10 keVband (339 flux entries). In total, it contains data on 150 objects; for76 objects, a positive detection is reported, while for the remainingsources, 2 σ upper limits to the X-ray emission are given. Most ofthe data have been collected from the literature over a period startingfrom 1974 up to the middle of 1995. Accurate searches of literature anddatabases were performed for all objects, and frequently spectral fitswere reevaluated in order to make the data in the catalog uniform andcomplete. Some unpublished data are also included. For six objects,EXOSAT/ME date have been extracted from the satellite database andanalyzed; the 13 fluxes obtained have been added to the present catalog.The compilation of hard X-ray data has been complemented with data inthe soft (0.1-3 keV) X-ray band, as well as in ultraviolet (1450 A),optical (5500 A), infrared (3.5, 12, 25, 60, 100 micron), and radio (6cm) bands. Fluxes of the [O II] λ5007 and Hβ emission linesas well as the Balmer decrement Hα/Hβ, and axial ratio a/bare also given. The present database is meant to be a useful tool forthe study of the Seyfert 2 phenomenon in its various aspects.

A Survey for H 2O Megamasers in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Observations
We report an extensive search for 22 GHz H_2_O maser emission fromnearby active galaxies. Our sample includes all Seyfert and LINERgalaxies listed in the Huchra catalog or the Veron-Cetty & Veroncatalog with recessional velocities less than 7000 km s^-1^, and allSeyfert galaxies and LINERs in Huchra's catalog with m_b_ <= 14. Inaddition to these distance- and magnitude-limited samples, we have alsoobserved a number of active galaxies, including radio galaxies, athigher redshift; In all, some 354 galaxies have been surveyed. Ten newH_2_O megamaser sources have been detected, resulting in 16 galaxiesthat are currently known to contain H_2_O masers with isotropicluminosities greater than 20 L_sun_. Of the observed active galaxieswith cz < 7000 km s^-1^, 5.4% have detectable H_2_O megamaseremission. This fraction increases to 11% for those sources with cz <2000 km s^-1^. The newly discovered megamaser sources were monitored onsubsequent observing runs. The strength of the maser features varies forthese sources, as they do for Galactic masers. Three of the galaxieshave sufficient data to test for velocity changes of narrow masercomponents comparable in magnitude to those of the well-studied systemicfeatures in NGC 4258. The maser line in one of these galaxies-NGC2639-is found to have a systematic redward velocity drift of 6.6 +/- 0.4km s^-1^ yr^-1^. No systematic velocity drifts are found for the othertwo sources. We also report large apparent velocity changes in theunusual broad H_2_O emission feature in NGC 1052.

Morphological classification of new galaxies with a UV excess
The results of a morphological classification of 580 galaxies with a UVexcess, included in the lists in [M. A. Kazarian, Astrofizika,15, 5(1979); ibid.,15, 193 (1979); M. A. Kazarian and É. S. Kazarian,ibid.,16, 17 (1980); ibid.,18, 512 (1982); ibid.,19, 213 (1983)], arepresented. For this we have developed a set of symbols, using the typesE, S, and Ir introduced by Hubble, as well as symbols introduced byother authors and us. This set enabled us to make the morphologicalclassification. Direct photographs obtained on the 2.6-m and 6-mtelescopes were used to classify 141 of the galaxies (over 24%), whilePalomar Atlas charts were used for the remaining 439 galaxies. Thesegalaxies were divided into two groups based on classificationconditions, and data on each group are given in Tables 1 and 2,respectively. The results for each group, given in Table 3, show thatwith the transition from early types, such as C and E, to later types,such as S and Ir, the relative number of galaxies going into one group(Table 1), in which the classification was based on direct photographs,increases in comparison with the number going into the other group(Table 2).

Photoelectric UBV Photometry of Galaxies in the Clusters Pegasus I, Pegasus II, Abell 262, Abell 1367, and Abell 2197-9
This paper presents photoelectric UBV multiaperture photometry of 144galaxies, 139 of which are associated with six nearby bright clusters.The observations were made at the McDonald Observatory from 1986September to 1987 November and were part of the production of the ThirdReference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3). The observations were usedto compute total magnitudes and color indices published in RC3. Theobservations can also be used to calibrate CCD images.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Stellar and Gaseous Kinematics of Seyfert Galaxies. I. Spectroscopic Data
In order to study the relationship between the gravitational potentialand the properties of active galaxies, we have measured nuclear stellarand gaseous kinematics for a large sample of Seyfert galaxies. In thispaper we present moderate-resolution data (80-230 km s^-1^ FWHM) fromtwo spectral regions, one in the near-infrared containing the Ca IItriplet absorption features at ~8550 A and the [S III] 9069 A emissionline, and the other in the visual including the Mg b absorption lines at~5175 A and the [O III] 5007 A emission line. Nuclear stellarvelocities, V_*_,and velocity dispersions, σ_*_, were measuredusing the cross- correlation method. Complications for the kinematicanalysis associated with the featureless continua and strong emissionlines in Seyfert galaxies are briefly discussed. Emission-linevelocities and widths were also measured from our spectra. The finalsample contains 85 objects (22 type 1 Seyfert galaxies, 51 type 2Seyferts, nine LINERs, and three normal galaxies). We provide asupplement to the database of narrow-line region and host galaxyproperties compiled by Whittle (1992a) for 20 Seyfert galaxies notoriginally included. We plan to use our measurements in conjunction withthis database to investigate the relationship between the nucleargravitational potential and other properties of Seyfert galaxies.

The Nature of Seyfert 2 Galaxies with Obscured Broad-Line Regions. I. Observations
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...440..565T&db_key=AST

On the excess of physical companions among Seyfert galaxies
The results of a search for close companions in two magnitude limitedsamples (mB less than or equal to 15.5) of 99 Seyfert 1 and98 Seyfert 2 galaxies are presented. It is found that there is an excessof physical companions in both samples of galaxies, compared with twocontrol samples of normal field spiral galaxies. The calculated lowerlimit percentages of physical companions are (12 +/- 3)% and (12 +/- 4)%for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2, respectively, while the upper limits on thepercentage of galaxies with physical companions are in the range (0%-5%)in both control samples. The excess is confirmed by analysis of theredshifts for all pairs found in the complete, magnitude limited (B(O)less than or equal to 14.5) CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:23h27m31.50s
Aparent dimensions:0.851′ × 0.631′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 7672

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