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|Distances to Galaxies from the Correlation between Luminosities and Line Widths. III. Cluster Template and Global Measurement of H0|
The correlation between the luminosities and rotation velocities ofgalaxies can be used to estimate distances to late-type galaxies. It isan appropriate moment to reevaluate this method given the great deal ofnew information available. The major improvements described hereinclude: (1) the template relations can now be defined by large,complete samples, (2) the samples are drawn from a wide range ofenvironments, (3) the relations are defined by photometric informationat the B, R, I, and K' bands, (4) the multiband information clarifiesproblems associated with internal reddening, (5) the template zeropoints are defined by 24 galaxies with accurately known distances, and(6) the relations are applied to 12 clusters scattered across the skyand out to velocities of 8000 km s-1. The biggest change fromearlier calibrations are associated with point 5. Roughly a 15% increasein the distance scale has come about with the fivefold increase in thenumber of zero-point calibrators. The overall increase in the distancescale from the luminosity-line width methodology is about 10% afterconsideration of all factors. Modulo an assumed distance to the LargeMagellanic Cloud of 50 kpc and no metallicity corrections to the Cepheidcalibration, the resulting value of the Hubble constant isH0=77+/-8 km s-1 Mpc-1, where the erroris the 95% probable statistical error. Cumulative systematic errorsinternal to this analysis should not exceed 10%. Uncertainties in thedistance scale ladder external to this analysis are estimated at ~10%.If the Cepheid calibration is shifted from the LMC to NGC 4258 with adistance established by observations of circumnuclear masers, thenH0 is larger by 12%.
|A Dynamical Study of Galaxies in the Hickson Compact Groups|
To investigate dynamical properties of spiral galaxies in the Hicksoncompact groups (HCGs), we present rotation curves of 30 galaxies in 20HCGs. We found as follows: (1) There is no significant relation betweendynamical peculiarity and morphological peculiarity in HCG spiralgalaxies. (2) There is no significant relation between the dynamicalproperties and the frequency distribution of nuclear activities in HCGspiral galaxies. (3) There are no significant correlations between thedynamical properties of HCG spiral galaxies and any group properties(i.e., size, velocity dispersion, galaxy number density, and crossingtime). (4) Asymmetric and peculiar rotation curves are more frequentlyseen in the HCG spiral galaxies than in field spiral galaxies or incluster ones. However, this tendency is more obviously seen in late-typeHCG spiral galaxies. These results suggest that the dynamical propertiesof HCG spiral galaxies do not strongly correlate with the morphology,the nuclear activity, and the group properties. Our results also suggestthat more frequent galaxy collisions occur in the HCGs than in the fieldand in the clusters.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|The intra-cluster medium influence on spiral galaxies|
We made a detailed analysis of the sample of 39 cluster spiral galaxiesof various types observed at Hα wavelength by Amram et al. (1992to 1996), with a scanning Fabry-Perot. We plotted the outer gradient oftheir rotation curves as a function of the deprojected cluster-centricdistance. The rotation curves of late type galaxies markedly rise farfrom the cluster center. This suggests evolutionary effects, since earlytypes show no special trend. We suggest that the evolution processwithin a cluster leads late type galaxies to exhibit flatter curves whenthey get closer to the center, on their way to evolving into early typegalaxies.
|Reexamination of the nonsymmetric gravitational theory with rotation curves of galaxies.|
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography|
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Homogeneous Velocity-Distance Data for Peculiar Velocity Analysis. III. The Mark III Catalog of Galaxy Peculiar Velocities|
This is the third in a series of papers in which we assemble and analyzea homogeneous catalog of peculiar velocity data. In Papers I and II, wedescribed the Tully-Fisher (TF) redshift-distance samples thatconstitute the bulk of the catalog and our methodology for obtainingmutually consistent TF calibrations for these samples. In this paper, wesupply further technical details of the treatment of the data andpresent a subset of the catalog in tabular form. The full catalog, knownas the Mark III Catalog of Galaxy Peculiar Velocities, is available inaccessible on-line databases, as described herein. The electroniccatalog incorporates not only the TF samples discussed in Papers I andII but also elliptical galaxy Dn- sigma samples originally presentedelsewhere. The relative zero pointing of the elliptical and spiral datasets is discussed here. The basic elements of the Mark III Catalog arethe observables for each object (redshift, magnitude, velocity width,etc.) and inferred distances derived from the TF or Dn- sigma relations.Distances obtained from both the forward and inverse TF relations aretabulated for the spirals. Malmquist bias--corrected distances arecomputed for each catalog object using density fields obtained from theIRAS 1.2 Jy redshift survey. Distances for both individual objects andgroups are provided. A variety of auxiliary data, including distancesand local densities predicted from the IRAS redshift surveyreconstruction method, are tabulated as well. We study the distributionsof TF residuals for three of our samples and conclude that they are wellapproximated as Gaussian. However, for the Mathewson et al. sample wedemonstrate a significant decrease in TF scatter with increasingvelocity width. We test for, but find no evidence of, a correlationbetween TF residuals and galaxy morphology. Finally, we derivetransformations that map the apparent magnitude and velocity width datafor each spiral sample onto a common system. This permits theapplication of analysis methods that assume that a unique TF relationdescribes the entire sample.
|Optical Rotation Curves and Linewidths for Tully-Fisher Applications|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.2402C&db_key=AST
|The I band Tully-Fisher relation for cluster galaxies: data presentation.|
Observational parameters which can be used for redshift-independentdistance determination using the Tully-Fisher (TF) technique are givenfor \ntot spiral galaxies in the fields of 24 clusters or groups. I bandphotometry for the full sample was either obtained by us or compiledfrom published literature. Rotational velocities are derived either from21 cm spectra or optical emission line long-slit spectra, and convertedto a homogeneous scale. In addition to presenting the data, a discussionof the various sources of error on TF parameters is introduced, and thecriteria for the assignment of membership to each cluster are given.
|The universal rotation curve of spiral galaxies - I. The dark matter connection|
We use a homogeneous sample of about 1100 optical and radio rotationcurves (RCs) and relative surface photometry to investigate the mainmass structure properties of spirals, over a range of 6 mag and out to<~1.5 and 2 optical radii (for the optical and radio data,respectively). We confirm the strong dependence on luminosity for boththe profile and the amplitude of RCs claimed by Persic & Salucci.Spiral RCs show the striking feature that a single global parameter,e.g. luminosity, dictates the rotational velocity at any radius for anyobject, so revealing the existence of a universal RC. At highluminosities, there is a slight discrepancy between the profiles of RCsand those predicted from the luminous matter (LM) distributions: thisimplies a small, yet detectable, amount of dark matter (DM). At lowluminosities, the failure of the LM prediction is much more severe, andthe DM is the only relevant mass component. We show that the universalRC implies a number of scaling properties between dark and luminousgalactic structure parameters: (i) the DM/LM mass ratio scales inverselywith luminosity; (ii) the central halo density scales as L^-0.7 (iii)the halo core radius is comparable to the optical radius, but shrinksfor low luminosities; (iv) the total halo mass scales as L^0.5. Suchscaling properties can be represented as a curve in the(luminosity)-(DM/LM mass ratio)-(DM core radius)-(DM central density)space, which provides a geometrical description of the tight couplingbetween the dark and the luminous matter in spiral galaxies.
|Parameters of 2447 Southern Spiral Galaxies for Use in the Tully-Fisher Relation|
I-band luminosities, rotational velocities, and redshifts of 1092 spiralgalaxies have been measured by CCD photometry and Hα spectroscopyusing the 1 m and 2.3 m telescopes at Siding Spring Observatory,respectively. The results are tabulated. Luminosity profiles andHα rotation curves are given for the galaxies. When these resultsare combined with similar data for 1355 spiral galaxies publishedpreviously (Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, hereafter Paper I), itprovides a large, uniform, and unique data set with which to measure,via the Tully-Fisher relation, the peculiar velocities of galaxies inthe local universe to a distance of 11,000 km s^-1^ (Mathewson &Ford). Taking advantage of the opportunity for publishing this data inmachine-readable form, in the CD-ROM, we have also included similar datafor the 1355 galaxies in Paper I.
|Photoelectric UBV Photometry of Galaxies in the Clusters Pegasus I, Pegasus II, Abell 262, Abell 1367, and Abell 2197-9|
This paper presents photoelectric UBV multiaperture photometry of 144galaxies, 139 of which are associated with six nearby bright clusters.The observations were made at the McDonald Observatory from 1986September to 1987 November and were part of the production of the ThirdReference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3). The observations were usedto compute total magnitudes and color indices published in RC3. Theobservations can also be used to calibrate CCD images.
|Rotation Curves of 967 Spiral Galaxies|
We present the rotation curves of 967 southern spiral galaxies, obtainedby deprojecting and folding the raw Hα data originally publishedby Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn (1992). For 900 objects, we alsopresent, in figures and tables, the rotation curves smoothed on scalescorresponding to 5%-20% of the optical size; of these, 80 meet objectiveexcellence criteria and are suitable for individual detailed massmodeling, while 820, individually less compelling mainly because of themoderate statistics and/or limited extension, are suitable forstatistical studies. The remaining 67 curves suffer from severeasymmetries, small statistics, and large internal scatter that maylargely limit their use in galaxy structure studies. The deprojectedfolded curves, the smoothed curves, and various related quantities areavailable via anonymous ftp at galileo.sissa.it in the directory/users/ftp/pub/psrot.
|Recalibration of the H-0.5 magnitudes of spiral galaxies|
The H-magnitude aperture data published by the Aaronson et al.collaboration over a 10 year period is collected into a homogeneous dataset of 1731 observations of 665 galaxies. Ninety-six percent of thesegalaxies have isophotal diameters and axial ratios determined by theThird Reference Cataloque of Bright Galaxies (RC3; de Vaucouleurs et al.1991), the most self-consistent set of optical data currently available.The precepts governing the optical data in the RC3 are systematicallydifferent from those of the Second Reference Catalogue (de Vaucouleurs,de Vaucouleurs, & Corwin 1976), which were used by Aaronson et al.for their original analyses of galaxy peculiar motions. This in turnleads to systematic differences in growth curves and fiducialH-magnitudes, prompting the present recalibration of the near-infraredTully-Fisher relationship. New optically normalized H-magnitude growthcurves are defined for galaxies of types SO to Im, from which new valuesof fiducial H-magnitudes, Hg-0.5, are measured forthe 665 galaxies. A series of internal tests show that these fourstandard growth curves are defined to an accuracy of 0.05 mag over theinterval -1.5 less than or equal to log (A/Dg) less than orequal to -0.2. Comparisons with the Aaronson et al. values of diameters,axial ratios, and fiducial H-magnitudes show the expected differences,given the different definitions of these parameters. The values ofHg-0.5 are assigned quality indices: a qualityvalue of 1 indicates an accuracy of less than 0.2 mag, quality 2indicates an accuracy of 0.2-0.35 mag, and quality 3 indicates anaccuracy of more than 0.35 mag. Revised values of corrected H I velocitywidths are also given, based on the new set of axial ratios defiend bythe RC3.
|Flat rotation curves: A result of the helical inverse cascade in turbulent media?|
We have modeled the rotation curves of 21 galaxies observed by Amram etal. (1992), by combining the effects of rigid rotation, gravity, andturbulence. The main motivation behind such modeling is to study theformation of coherent structures in turbulent media and explore its rolein the large-scale structures of the universe. The values of theparameters such as mass, turbulent velocity, and angular velocityderived from the rotation curve fits are in good agreement with thosederived from the prevalent models.
|Do rotation curves of spiral galaxies in clusters decline?|
Rotation curves for 21 spiral galaxies in five clusters have beenobtained in a search for possible effects of the cluster environment onindividual galaxy dynamics. We find no significant evidence for anythingmore than a small influence of the cluster environment. In particularusing 12 selected galaxies we do not confirm the strong correlationbetween slope of rotation curve and location within a cluster reportedby Whitmore et al. (1988).
|Peculiar motions in superclusters: Perseus--Pisces|
We discuss the near infrared observations obtained for a set of 81galaxies in the region of the Perseus--Pisces supercluster. From these,in conjunction with the 21 cm data of the Arecibo sample, we estimatethe peculiar velocities via the Tully-Fisher relation and the model ofthe local perturbations as derived by Han and Mould. From the datadiscussed we find that the supercluster main structure is shrinking. Toexplain the size and velocities observed the model requires, for thesupercluster, a mean overdensity of about delta rho/rho = 9 whichcorresponds to a total mass of 1016 solar masses to cover anextension of about 100 Mpc.
|Les courbes de rotation decroissantes existent-elles AU centre des amas de galaxies ?|
|A southern sky survey of the peculiar velocities of 1355 spiral galaxies|
The paper presents data from photometric and spectroscopic observationsof 1355 southern spiral galaxies and uses them to determine theirdistances and peculiar velocities via the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation.I-band CCD surface photometry was carried out using the 1-m and 3.9-mtelescopes at Siding Spring Observatory. H-alpha rotation curves for 965galaxies and 551 H I profiles are presented. The physical parameters,photometric and velocity data, distances, and peculiar velocities of thegalaxies are presented in tabular form. The mean distance, systemicvelocity, and average peculiar velocity of 24 clusters in the sample aregiven. TF diagrams are presented for each cluster.
|I-band CCD surface photometry of spiral galaxies in 16 nearby clusters|
Results of I-band CCD surface photometry for 284 spiral galaxies in 16clusters in the redshift range from 3000 to 11,000 km/s are presented.Various effects on surface photometry are discussed, and the relevantcorrections are outlined.
|H-alpha velocity fields and rotation curves of galaxies in clusters|
The paper presents the first set of data on 21 galaxies in fivedifferent clusters, obtained from 2D H-alpha observatons at theCanada-France-Hawaii Telescope equipped with a scanning Perot-Fabryinterferometer. These galaxies are from the following clusters: Abell539 (two galaxies), Cancer (six galaxies), Coma (six galaxies), Hercules(two galaxies), and Pegasus (five galaxies). Presented are H-alpha maps(continuum and line), velocity contour maps, and rotation curves of the21 galaxies, together with the table of galaxies' parameters.
|The Tully-Fisher relation in different environments|
The Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) in different environments wasinvestigated in 13 galaxy samples spanning a large range in galaxydensities, using two statistical tests to compare the TFR of differentsamples. Results of the analysis of TFR parameters in severalenvironments showed that, when samples of similar data-accuracy andmagnitude-range were compared, there was no significant differencebetween the galaxy samples. It is suggested that a comparison of sampleswith very different data accuracy or those biased by incompletenesseffects may lead to misleading results.
|The faint end of the Zwicky magnitude scale - CCD isophotal magnitudes versus Zwicky magnitudes|
Zwicky magnitudes are compared to blue isophotal magnitudes derived fromsurface photometry of digital galaxy images to study the isophotalnature of the Zwicky magnitude scale at the faint end. The approximateisophote that corresponds to the magnitude tabulated in the Catalog ofGroups and Clusters of Galaxies (Zwicky et al. 1961-1968). It is foundthat, in the mean, the Zwicky magnitude closely corresponds to the bluemagnitude measured with the B = 26.0 mag/sq arcsec isophote. The scatteris 0.31 mag and the distribution of isophotal surface brightness is verybroad, however, making the Zwicky magnitudes only accurate to about 30percent when used a luminosity indicator. It is shown that relativedifferences in Zwicky magnitude do not provide an accurate gage of thetrue relative luminosities of galaxies.
|KISO survey for ultraviolet-excess galaxies. X.|
Presented here are the tenth list and identification charts of theultraviolet-excess galaxies which have been detected on the multi-colorplates taken with the Kiso Schmidt telescope for 10 survey fields. Inthe sky area of some 300 square degrees 490 objects are catalogued downto the photographic magnitude of about 18.
|Isophotal diameters of cluster spirals|
The applicability of isophotal diameters for measuring the sizes ofgalaxies is examined by comparing diameters derived using surfacephotometry with those derived from the Uppsala General Catalogue ofGalaxies (UGC). The sample studied consisted of a subset of galaxiesfrom the CCD survey of Bothun (1981). The surface photometry techniqueused is described, and the surface brightness profiles were extractedfrom the data using the galaxy surface photometry package of Cawson(1983). Isophotal diameters were derived and compared with those fromthe UGC. The differences between the data are 2.4 arcsec for the galaxydiameter, 0.03 for the galaxy ellipticities, and 0.05 mag for the galaxymagnitudes; it is observed that the isophotal diameters determined bysurface photometry are more accurate than those tabulated by UGC. The21-cm line width/diameter relation and the absolute magnitude/surfacebrightness relation are analyzed using the isophotal diameter data.
|Cluster population incompleteness bias and the value of H(0) from the Tully-Fisher B0(T) relation|
Data on the Virgo cluster and ten more distant clusters are the basis ofan evaluation of the influence of the cluster population incompletenessbias on the B-band Tully-Fisher relation. The data are well fitted by atheoretical curve that is obtained for a Hubble constant value of 72 +or - 5 km/sec per Mpc in the de Vaucouleurs local scale, confirming theconstant's previous determination in light of a study of the Malmquistbias for field galaxies. The true value for the Hubble constant isconcluded to lie within the 50-75 range, depending on the primarycalibration.
|A catalog of radio, optical, and infrared observations of spiral galaxies in clusters|
The results of a major observational program on the luminosities,colors, and gas contents of spiral galaxies in clusters of galaxies arepresented. The data have been used as part of a detailed investigationinto the nature of cluster spirals and for revisions of the distancescale using the infrared Tully-Fisher relation. The observationalstrategies, reduction procedures, and sources or error are brieflydiscussed. The data include 21-cm H I observations, UBVR multiaperturephotometry, and H-band photometry of several hunderd spiral galaxies in10 clusters.
|Gas deficiency in cluster galaxies - A comparison of nine clusters|
The available 21 cm line data in the literature for galaxies in nineclusters is combined with new high-sensitivity observations of 51galaxies in five of the nine clusters in order to test fordiscriminating circumstances between those clusters which show H Ideficiency among their spiral population and those which do not. An H Ideficiency for the complete cluster sample is derived employing acomparison sample of galaxies chosen from the Catalog of IsolatedGalaxies. The deficiency and its radial dependence is summarized foreach cluster and a composite. A comparison of the environments indifferent clusters leads to the conclusion that the occurrence of H Ideficiency is correlated with the presence of a hot X-ray intraclustermedium, and that an ongoing interaction process is active through thecores of X-ray clusters.
|A possible relationship between metal abundance and luminosity for disk galaxies|
Near-infrared colors have been measured for a sample of 31 late-typegalaxies in the Pegasus I and Pisces clusters; system luminosities inthe sample cover the range of M(H) between -19 and -23.5. The colorindex (J - K) correlates strongly with the absolute H magnitude;lower-luminosity systems have bluer colors. These observations areconsistent with the assumption that the mean metal abundance of the olddisk population decreases systematically with luminosity. The systematicvariation (B - H) with absolute H magnitude reported recently by Tullyet al. (1982) derives in part from this proposed systematic change ofmetallicity with luminosity. However, a relative increase in the numberof newly formed stars and/or a systematic smaller age forlower-luminosity disks must still be posited in order to fully explainthe observed (B - H), H relation.
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