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|Ages, Metallicities, and α-Element Enhancement for Galaxies in Hickson Compact Groups|
Central velocity dispersions and eight line-strength Lick indices havebeen determined from 1.3 Å resolution long-slit spectra of 16elliptical galaxies in Hickson compact groups. These data were used todetermine galaxy properties (ages, metallicities, and α-elementenhancements) and allowed a comparison with the parameters determinedfor a sample of galaxies in lower density environments studied byGonzález. The stellar population parameters were derived bycomparison to single stellar population models of Thomas et al. and to anew set of simple stellar population models for the indicesMg2, Fe5270, and Fe5335 based on synthetic spectra. Thesemodels, based on an updated version of the fitting functions presentedin Barbuy et al., are fully described here. Our main results are (1) thetwo samples have similar mean values for the metallicities and[α/Fe] ratios and (2) the majority of the galaxies in compactgroups seem to be old (median age of 14 Gyr for eight galaxies for whichages could be derived), in agreement with recent work by Proctor et al.These findings support two possible scenarios: compact groups are eitheryoung systems whose members have recently assembled and had not enoughtime to experience any merging yet, or they are old systems that haveavoided merging since their time of formation.
|The Relation between Galaxy Activity and the Dynamics of Compact Groups of Galaxies|
Using a sample of 91 galaxies distributed over 27 compact groups (CGs)of galaxies, we define an index that allows us to quantify their levelof activity due to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or star formation.By combining the mean activity index with the mean morphological type ofthe galaxies in a group, we are able to quantify the evolutionary stateof the groups. We find that they span an evolutionary sequence thatcorrelates with the spatial configuration of the galaxies in the CG. Wedistinguish three main configuration types: A, B, and C. Type A CGs showpredominantly low velocity dispersions and are rich in late-type spiralsthat show active star formation or harbor an AGN. Type B groups haveintermediate velocity dispersions and contain a large fraction ofinteracting or merging galaxies. Type C comprises CGs with high velocitydispersions, which are dominated by elliptical galaxies that show noactivity. We suggest that evolution proceeds A==>B==>C. Mappingthe groups with different evolution levels in a diagram of radius versusvelocity dispersion does not reveal the pattern expected based on theconventional fast merger model for CGs, which predicts a direct relationbetween these two parameters. Instead, we observe a trend contrary toexpectation: the evolutionary state of a group increases with velocitydispersion. This trend seems to be related to the masses of thestructures in which CGs are embedded. In general, the evolutionary stateof a group increases with the mass of the structure. This suggestseither that galaxies evolve more rapidly in massive structures or thatthe formation of CGs embedded in massive structures predated theformation of CGs associated with lower mass systems. Our observationsare consistent with the structure formation predicted by the CDM model(or ΛCDM), only if the formation of galaxies is a biased process.
|The Hamburg/RASS Catalogue of optical identifications. Northern high-galactic latitude ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue X-ray sources|
We present the Hamburg/RASS Catalogue (HRC) of optical identificationsof X-ray sources at high-galactic latitude. The HRC includes all X-raysources from the ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) with galacticlatitude |b| >=30degr and declination delta >=0degr . In thispart of the sky covering ~ 10 000 deg2 the RASS-BSC contains5341 X-ray sources. For the optical identification we used blue Schmidtprism and direct plates taken for the northern hemisphere Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) which are now available in digitized form. The limitingmagnitudes are 18.5 and 20, respectively. For 82% of the selectedRASS-BSC an identification could be given. For the rest either nocounterpart was visible in the error circle or a plausibleidentification was not possible. With ~ 42% AGN represent the largestgroup of X-ray emitters, ~ 31% have a stellar counterpart, whereasgalaxies and cluster of galaxies comprise only ~ 4% and ~ 5%,respectively. In ~ 3% of the RASS-BSC sources no object was visible onour blue direct plates within 40\arcsec around the X-ray sourceposition. The catalogue is used as a source for the selection of(nearly) complete samples of the various classes of X-ray emitters.
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|An Arecibo Search for Broad 21 Centimeter Lines of Atomic Hydrogen in Clusters of Galaxies|
We present the results of sensitive observations of the inner3.3′ (~100 kpc) of 21 clusters of galaxies with the Arecibotelescope utilizing the autocorrelation spectrometer in complex-samplingmode to obtain a total bandwidth of 40 MHz, which corresponds to avelocity coverage of ~7000-8000 km s^-1. These are the most sensitiveobservations capable of detecting H i with line widths expected for gasin the intracluster medium (ICM). We did not detect any significantemission features with 500 km s^-1 <= FWHM <= 4000 km s^-1 throughthe centers of these clusters. Limits on optically thin H i from``narrow'' galaxy-type features are typically ~5 x 10^8 M_ȯ, whilefrom broad cluster-type features they are about an order of magnitudehigher. We derive constraints on the covering factor of any opticallythick H i within the Arecibo beam. We obtain upper limits c_f ~ 3 x10^-3 assuming that the temperature of the H i is 10 K. This correspondsto a limited range of parameter space for the clouds in which the cloudtemperature is typically less than a few tens of kelvins and the numberof clouds along the line of sight is less than a few tens of clouds.Cloud temperatures this low are probably inconsistent with cloud heatingdue to X-rays from the ICM; however, this is uncertain. The very smallrange of parameter space that is allowed by the observations makes itunlikely that there is very much atomic hydrogen in the ICM of theseclusters. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy andIonosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.|
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.
|A 2572 and HCG 94 - galaxy clusters but not as we know them: an X-ray case study of optical misclassifications|
We present the results of a spectral-imaging analysis of X-ray dataobtained with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter aboard theROSAT Observatory in a 32-ks pointed observation of Hickson's CompactGroup (HCG) £94. Besides HCG 94, A2572, a richness class 0Abell cluster, is also contained in the central region of the field ofview. Both systems are at a redshift of z~0.04 and are falling towardeach other at a velocity of about 1000 km s^-1. Their three-dimensionalspatial separation is probably of the order of an Abell radius; however,as yet, no clear signs of dynamical interaction are discernible in theX-ray data. We find HCG 94's gas temperature and unabsorbed X-rayluminosity to be far too high for a galaxy group, thereby confirming theclaim of Ebeling, Voges & Bohringer that HCG 94 should be classifiedas a galaxy cluster. The opposite is true for the Abell cluster A2572,the optical richness of which has been overestimated due to theinclusion of HCG 94. In the X-ray, A2572 appears at first sight like atypical binary cluster with two equally massive and X-ray-brightsubclusters in the process of merging. However, the available X-ray,optical, and radio data strongly suggest that A2572 proper is, in fact,merely a loose group of galaxies, while the second component is a muchricher and more distant cluster seen in superposition. A deprojectionanalysis shows HCG 94 to host a moderate cooling flow; this picture issupported by a radial increase in the column density of absorbingmaterial and a decrease in the gas temperature toward the clustercentre. HCG 94's total gravitating mass is much higher than what couldbe anticipated from its appearance in the optical. Our findings henceunderline the need for X-ray-selected cluster samples. For all threeclusters studied in this paper we find the baryon fraction to rise withradius and reach values of 15 to 30 per cent at the outer edge of ourstudy regions. If any of these values is to be taken as representativeof the overall baryon fraction of the Universe, then this resultrequires the latter to be open with Omega_0<0.35 if a conflict withthe baryon density derived from nucleosynthesis calculations is to beavoided.
|A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update|
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.
|Deep Optical Observations of Compact Groups of Galaxies|
Compact groups of galaxies appear to be extremely dense, making themlikely sites of intense galaxy interaction, while their smallpopulations make them relatively simple to analyze. In order to searchfor optical interaction tracers such as diffuse light and galaxy tidalfeatures in Hickson compact groups (HCGs), we carried out deepphotometry in three filters on a sample of HCGs with ROSAT observations.Using a modeling procedure to subtract the light of bright early-typegalaxies, we found shell systems and extended envelopes around many, butnot all, of those galaxies. Only one group in our sample, HCG 94, hasdiffuse light in the group potential (with a luminosity of 7 L^*^); theother groups do not contain more than 113 L^*^ in diffuse light. Withthe exception of HCG 94 (which is the most x-ray-luminous HCG), we foundno correlation between the presence of shells or other tidal featuresand the x-ray luminosity of a group. Better predictors of detectablegroup x-ray emission are a low spiral fraction and belonging to a largergalaxy condensation-neither of which are correlated with opticaldisturbances in the group galaxies. No elliptical galaxies that areextremely optically luminous but x-ray faint are found to have shellsand very complex color structures. This is likely due to recent infallof gas-rich material into the galaxies, which would produce both thedisruption of stellar orbits and a significant amount of star formation.
|Morphology of galaxies in compact groups|
We present the results of an isophotal analysis of 140 early-typegalaxies and a visual inspection of images of an additional 202 galaxiesin compact groups. This is essentially the entire sample of galaxies inthe subset of 92 Hickson compact groups which have at least threeaccordant members. About 12% of the elliptical galaxies have largercharacteristic radii and shallower surface brightness profiles thangalaxies of the same luminosity in less dense environments. The averageellipticity of elliptical galaxies in compact groups is a slowlyincreasing function of the metric radius, as it is for field andloose-group galaxies. No alignment is found among the major axes of thegalaxies and the major axis of the group. When combined with previouslypublished morphological, kinematic, radio, infrared, and colorinformation on the same galaxies, our data show that 43% of the galaxiesin the compact group sample show morphological and/or kinematicaldistortions indicative of interactions and/or mergers. About 32% of thegroups have three or more galaxies which show some sign of interaction.This is a lower limit, since for the great majority of the galaxies inthe groups, only imaging and low-resolution spectra are available. Forthe subsample of 16 groups for which published detailed kinematical dataare also available, the fraction of groups with three or more galaxiesin interaction is 75%. No correlation is found between the number ofinteracting galaxies in a group and the group velocity dispersion orcrossing time. These observations strongly support the view that compactgroups are systems of physically associated galaxies and not chancealignments of field, loose-group, or cluster galaxies. They also confirmthe importance of compact groups for studies of interactions and galaxyevolution. While the lack of a good control sample makes it difficult tomake quantitative comparisons for some aspects of this study, it isclear that the fraction of galaxies showing evidence of interactions ismuch higher in compact groups than in other environments.
|A survey of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. VI - The declination zone +15.5 deg to 21.5 deg|
New results are presented of Arecibo observations in the 21 cm line of765 galaxies with declinations between 15.5 deg and 21.5 deg, in thePisces-Perseus supercluster zone. If considered independently on theneighboring parts of sky, this region, to the South of the superclusterridge, shows significantly less evidence of structure on large scales inexcess of 30 Mpc, contrasting substantially with the characteristics ofthe declination zones immediately to the North.
|Dynamical properties of compact groups of galaxies|
Radial velocities are presented for 457 galaxies in the 100 Hicksoncompact groups. More than 84 percent of the galaxies measured havevelocities within 1000 km/s of the median velocity in the group.Ninety-two groups have at least three accordant members, and 69 groupshave at least four. The radial velocities of these groups range from1380 to 42,731 km/s with a median of 8889 km/s, corresponding to amedian distance of 89/h Mpc. The apparent space density of these systemsranges from 300 to as much as 10 exp 8 sq h/sq Mpc, which exceeds thedensities in the centers of rich clusters. The median projectedseparation between galaxies is 39/h kpc, comparable to the sizes of thegalaxies themselves. A significant correlation is found between crossingtime and the fraction of gas-rich galaxies in the groups, and a weakanticorrelation is found between crossing time and the luminositycontrast of the first-ranked galaxy.
|The luminosity function of compact groups of galaxies|
An analysis of the luminosity function of 68 compact groups of galaxiescataloged by Hickson (1982) is presented. The luminosities of compactgroup galaxies are consistent with their being drawn from a Schechterluminosity function. Individual morphological-type luminosity functionsare also determined. Both the total and morphological-type specificluminosity functions of compact group galaxies are significantlydifferent from those of field, loose-group, and cluster galaxies. Inparticular, the luminosity function of HCG elliptical galaxies has amean magnitude which is significantly brighter than the mean magnitudeof Virgo cluster elliptical galaxies. The mean luminosity density ofgalaxies in compact groups is estimated. The obtained result isconsistent with the conventional scenario in which compact groups mergeto form elliptical galaxies on a relatively short time scale.
|Spectroscopic study of non-cluster early-type galaxies|
Data from long-slit spectroscopic observations of eight binary, triple,or merging groups containing early-type galaxies (Laurikainen and Moles,1989) are compiled in tables and graphs and analyzed in detail, with afocus on the older stellar populations. A clear distinction is foundbetween elliptical galaxies interacting in clusters and isolatedellipticals: the latter are redder and have lower surface brightness andstronger metal lines, suggesting a formation process involving mergers.A high degree of variation is found in the MgH and CN band strengths ofmetal-rich interacting galaxies, with strong values for 'metals'attributed to high Fe I (+ CN) values and increased CN abundance.
|A photometric catalog of compact groups of galaxies|
The paper presents astrometry, photometry, and morphological types,derived from CCD images, for 463 galaxies in the 100 compact groupsselected by Hickson. Some minor revisions to the membership of theoriginal catalog are made, based on these new images. The completenessof the catalog is considered as a function of group magnitude andGalactic latitude. At high Galactic latitude the catalog is estimated tobe 90 percent complete for groups with total B(T) magnitude 13.0 orless. It is less complete at lower Galactic latitude because ofobscuration and high stellar density.
|Star formation in a sample of interacting galaxies|
The star formation properties are analyzed for a sample of interactinggalaxies based on long-slit optical spectroscopy observations, and theresults are reported. A high frequency of LINERs is detected among thesample galaxies, many of which show only low-level activity and are notassociated with high infrared flux LINERs. Their global star-formationrates are higher than for field galaxies in most of the systems. Thestar-formation activity is mainly concentrated toward the central partsof the strongly interacting galaxies. Extended emission can appear ingalaxies of very spectral type when the activity level is very high, butit is not a general feature. The star formation in a galaxy in everygeneration of its 'ecologic cycle' of molecular cloud and star formationis found to be essentially produced with the same spatial distribution.
|Relative velocities of dumbbell galaxies|
A systematic study of a morphologically-selected sample of dumbbellgalaxies is presented. A dumbbell/multiple nuclei subclassificationscheme is introduced. The single-object velocity dispersion of dumbbellcomponents in Abell-type clusters is 436 + or - 88 km/sec, which issignificantly smaller than that of normal cluster galaxies and ofmultiple nuclei systems. A detailed analysis of this sample, taking intoaccount various projection effects, indicates that the two components ofdumbbell pairs are physically associated, and probably in circularorbits around a common center. A relative rotation velocity of 1200km/sec at a separation of 40 kpc is indicated. This translates into asingle-object velocity of 600 km, intermediate between the typicalrotation velocity in the central part of a cD galaxy and that in thecluster-at-large. Furthermore, the rotation curve appears to be risingin this radial range. The data provide direct evidence of the existenceof a dark intracluster medium on a scale of 20-50 kpc.
|Neutral hydrogen in compact groups of galaxies|
Integrated H I profiles were detected for 34 of 51 Hickson compactgroups (HCGs) of galaxies, and sensitive upper limits to the H I fluxdensity were measured for the other 17. About 60 percent of the galaxieswithin compact groups are spirals, and a significant tendency exists forthe fraction of elliptical galaxies to increase with group surfacebrightness. The amount of dark matter within the compact group region isnegligibly small. An HCG on average contains half as much neutralhydrogen as a loose group with a similar spectrum of galaxy luminositiesand morphological types, implying that compact groups are independentdynamical entities and not transient or projected configurations ofloose groups. The observed fraction of galaxies which are luminousenough to be possible merger products of compact groups is smallcompared with the fraction required by the theory of dynamical friction.A clear discrepancy thus exists between solid empirical evidence and astraightforward prediction of Newtonian dynamical theory in a settingwhich does not permit a dark matter explanation.
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