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Ages, Metallicities, and α-Element Enhancement for Galaxies in Hickson Compact Groups
Central velocity dispersions and eight line-strength Lick indices havebeen determined from 1.3 Å resolution long-slit spectra of 16elliptical galaxies in Hickson compact groups. These data were used todetermine galaxy properties (ages, metallicities, and α-elementenhancements) and allowed a comparison with the parameters determinedfor a sample of galaxies in lower density environments studied byGonzález. The stellar population parameters were derived bycomparison to single stellar population models of Thomas et al. and to anew set of simple stellar population models for the indicesMg2, Fe5270, and Fe5335 based on synthetic spectra. Thesemodels, based on an updated version of the fitting functions presentedin Barbuy et al., are fully described here. Our main results are (1) thetwo samples have similar mean values for the metallicities and[α/Fe] ratios and (2) the majority of the galaxies in compactgroups seem to be old (median age of 14 Gyr for eight galaxies for whichages could be derived), in agreement with recent work by Proctor et al.These findings support two possible scenarios: compact groups are eitheryoung systems whose members have recently assembled and had not enoughtime to experience any merging yet, or they are old systems that haveavoided merging since their time of formation.

A sample of X-ray emitting normal galaxies from the BMW-HRI Catalogue
We obtained a sample of 143 normal galaxies with X-ray luminosity in therange 1038{-}1043 erg s-1 from thecross-correlation of the ROSAT HRI Brera Multi-scale Wavelet (BMW-HRI)Catalogue with the Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database (LEDA). We findthat the average X-ray properties of this sample are in good agreementwith those of other samples of galaxies in the literature. We selected acomplete flux limited serendipitous sample of 32 galaxies from which wederived the log N-log S distribution of normal galaxies in the fluxrange 1.1{-} 110 × 10-14 erg cm-2s-1. The resulting distribution is consistent with theEuclidean -1.5 slope. Comparisons with other samples, such as theExtended Medium Sensitivity Survey, the ROSAT All Sky Survey, theXMM-Newton/2dF survey, and the Chandra Deep Field Survey indicate thatthe log N -log S distribution of normal galaxies is consistent with aEuclidean slope over a flux range of about 6 decades.

K-band Properties of Galaxy Clusters and Groups: Brightest Cluster Galaxies and Intracluster Light
We investigate the near-infrared K-band properties of the brightestcluster galaxies (BCGs) in a sample of 93 X-ray galaxy clusters andgroups, using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Our clustersample spans a factor of 70 in mass, making it sensitive to any clustermass-related trends. We derive the cumulative radial distribution forthe BCGs in the ensemble and find that 70% of the BCGs are centered inthe cluster to within 5% of the virial radius r200; thisquantifies earlier findings that BCG position coincides with the clustercenter as defined by the X-ray emission peak. We study the correlationsbetween the luminosity of the BCGs (Lb) and the mass and theluminosity of the host clusters, finding that BCGs in more massiveclusters are more luminous than their counterparts in less massivesystems and that the BCGs become less important in the overall clusterlight (L200) as cluster mass increases. By examining a largesample of optically selected groups, we find that these correlationshold for galactic systems less massive than our clusters(<3×1013 Msolar). From the differencesbetween luminosity functions in high- and low-mass clusters, we arguethat BCGs grow in luminosity mainly by merging with other luminousgalaxies as the host clusters grow hierarchically; the decreasing BCGluminosity fraction (Lb/L200) with cluster massindicates that the rate of luminosity growth in BCGs is slow compared tothe rate at which clusters acquire galaxy light from the field or othermerging clusters. Utilizing the observed correlation between the clusterluminosity and mass and a merger tree model for cluster formation, weestimate that the amount of intracluster light (ICL) increases withcluster mass; our calculations suggest that in 1015Msolar clusters more than 50% of total stellar mass is inICL, making the role of ICL very important in the evolution andthermodynamic history of clusters. The cluster baryon fractionaccounting for the ICL is in good agreement with the value derived fromcosmic microwave background observations. The inclusion of ICL reducesthe discrepancy between the observed cluster cold baryon fraction andthat found in hydrodynamical simulations. Based on the observed ironabundance in the intracluster medium, we find that the ICL predicted byour model, together with the observed galaxy light, match the ironmass-to-light ratio expected from simple stellar population models,provided that the Salpeter initial mass function is adopted. The ICLalso makes it easier to produce the ``iron excess'' found in the centralregions of cool-core clusters.

The Relation between Galaxy Activity and the Dynamics of Compact Groups of Galaxies
Using a sample of 91 galaxies distributed over 27 compact groups (CGs)of galaxies, we define an index that allows us to quantify their levelof activity due to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or star formation.By combining the mean activity index with the mean morphological type ofthe galaxies in a group, we are able to quantify the evolutionary stateof the groups. We find that they span an evolutionary sequence thatcorrelates with the spatial configuration of the galaxies in the CG. Wedistinguish three main configuration types: A, B, and C. Type A CGs showpredominantly low velocity dispersions and are rich in late-type spiralsthat show active star formation or harbor an AGN. Type B groups haveintermediate velocity dispersions and contain a large fraction ofinteracting or merging galaxies. Type C comprises CGs with high velocitydispersions, which are dominated by elliptical galaxies that show noactivity. We suggest that evolution proceeds A==>B==>C. Mappingthe groups with different evolution levels in a diagram of radius versusvelocity dispersion does not reveal the pattern expected based on theconventional fast merger model for CGs, which predicts a direct relationbetween these two parameters. Instead, we observe a trend contrary toexpectation: the evolutionary state of a group increases with velocitydispersion. This trend seems to be related to the masses of thestructures in which CGs are embedded. In general, the evolutionary stateof a group increases with the mass of the structure. This suggestseither that galaxies evolve more rapidly in massive structures or thatthe formation of CGs embedded in massive structures predated theformation of CGs associated with lower mass systems. Our observationsare consistent with the structure formation predicted by the CDM model(or ΛCDM), only if the formation of galaxies is a biased process.

Infrared Observations of Galaxies in the Local Universe. II. 391 Calibrated Images with Photometric and Structural Measurements
This paper presents empirical results from a deep imaging survey ofgalaxies in the local universe at the J and Ks wavelengths.Three hundred ninety-one images have been obtained and calibrated usingthe same camera and filter set with the Steward Observatory 1.6 m KuiperTelescope on Mount Bigelow and the 2.3 m Bok Telescope on Kitt Peak. Thelimiting magnitude is typically 22 mag arcsec-1 at J and 21mag arcsec-1 at Ks. The central surfacebrightness, apparent magnitudes, sizes, scale lengths, and inclinationsare tabulated from measurements made using these data. The purpose ofthis paper is to provide basic near-infrared data on a variety of galaxytypes.

Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Brightest Cluster Galaxies
We used the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 toobtain I-band images of the centers of 81 brightest cluster galaxies(BCGs), drawn from a volume-limited sample of nearby BCGs. The imagesshow a rich variety of morphological features, including multiple ordouble nuclei, dust, stellar disks, point-source nuclei, and centralsurface brightness depressions. High-resolution surface brightnessprofiles could be inferred for 60 galaxies. Of those, 88% havewell-resolved cores. The relationship between core size and galaxyluminosity for BCGs is indistinguishable from that of Faber et al.(published in 1997, hereafter F97) for galaxies within the sameluminosity range. However, the core sizes of the most luminous BCGs fallbelow the extrapolation of the F97 relationshiprb~L1.15V. A shallower relationship,rb~L0.72V, fits both the BCGs and thecore galaxies presented in F97. Twelve percent of the BCG sample lacks awell-resolved core; all but one of these BCGs have ``power law''profiles. Some of these galaxies have higher luminosities than anypower-law galaxy identified by F97 and have physical upper limits onrb well below the values observed for core galaxies of thesame luminosity. These results support the idea that the centralstructure of early-type galaxies is bimodal in its physical propertiesbut also suggest that there exist high-luminosity galaxies withpower-law profiles (or unusually small cores). The BCGs in the lattercategory tend to fall at the low end of the BCG luminosity function andtend to have low values of the quantity α (the logarithmic slopeof the metric luminosity as a function of radius, at 10 kpc). Sincetheoretical calculations have shown that the luminosities andα-values of BCGs grow with time as a result of accretion, thissuggests a scenario in which elliptical galaxies evolve from power-lawprofiles to core profiles through accretion and merging. This isconsistent with theoretical scenarios that invoke the formation ofmassive black hole binaries during merger events. More generally, theprevalence of large cores in the great majority of BCGs, which arelikely to have experienced several generations of galaxy merging,underscores the role of a mechanism that creates and preserves cores insuch merging events.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., underNASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated withproposal 8683.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Radio Emission of Shakhbazian Compact Galaxy Groups
We detect 353 radio sources from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and theFIRST Survey within the areas of 179 Shakhbazian compact groups (ShCGs)of galaxies. Ninety-three of them are identified with galaxies in 74ShCGs. Six radio sources have complex structure. The radio spectra of 22sources are determined. Radio luminosities of galaxies in ShCGs are ingeneral higher than those of galaxies in Hickson compact groups (HCGs).A comparison of radio (at 1.4 GHz) and FIR (at 60 μm) fluxes of ShCGgalaxies with those of HCG galaxies shows that galaxies in ShCGs arerelatively stronger emitters at radio wavelengths, while galaxies inHCGs have relatively stronger FIR emission. The reasons for suchdifferences are discussed.

Infrared Observations of Galaxies in the Local Universe. I. The Survey and Some Representative Results
This paper introduces a continuing survey of galaxies in the localuniverse. Consistent deep images are being acquired for a representativesample of 321 galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalogue down to 21.7 magarcsec-2 at Ks (2.16 mu m) and 22.4 mag arcsec-2 at J (1.25 mu m) usinga NICMOS camera with a 3.'8 x 3.'8 field of view attached to the 61 inch(1.5 m) telescope on Mount Bigelow. We provide some examples of theresults being obtained by employing 64 deep images of a subset of 44galaxies. Bulge-to-disk ratios are tabulated for 30 galaxies. Thebrightness of the central region of 44 galaxies declines approximately 5mag from Hubble type S0 to Sm. An exponential vertical scale height atKs is found to be 500 pc for the disk of UGC 5173. Arm amplitudes offour nearly face-on spiral galaxies are found to range between 11% and88% compared to the interarm region. There is some evidence that the armamplitude is larger at Ks than it is at J. Color gradients are measuredfor 15 galaxies with only one showing a significant nonzero result. Ameasurement of galactic symmetry applied to 64 deep images reveals anaverage asymmetry of 7.6% ( sigma = 4.6%) for these galaxies.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

A 2572 and HCG 94 - galaxy clusters but not as we know them: an X-ray case study of optical misclassifications
We present the results of a spectral-imaging analysis of X-ray dataobtained with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter aboard theROSAT Observatory in a 32-ks pointed observation of Hickson's CompactGroup (HCG) £94. Besides HCG 94, A2572, a richness class 0Abell cluster, is also contained in the central region of the field ofview. Both systems are at a redshift of z~0.04 and are falling towardeach other at a velocity of about 1000 km s^-1. Their three-dimensionalspatial separation is probably of the order of an Abell radius; however,as yet, no clear signs of dynamical interaction are discernible in theX-ray data. We find HCG 94's gas temperature and unabsorbed X-rayluminosity to be far too high for a galaxy group, thereby confirming theclaim of Ebeling, Voges & Bohringer that HCG 94 should be classifiedas a galaxy cluster. The opposite is true for the Abell cluster A2572,the optical richness of which has been overestimated due to theinclusion of HCG 94. In the X-ray, A2572 appears at first sight like atypical binary cluster with two equally massive and X-ray-brightsubclusters in the process of merging. However, the available X-ray,optical, and radio data strongly suggest that A2572 proper is, in fact,merely a loose group of galaxies, while the second component is a muchricher and more distant cluster seen in superposition. A deprojectionanalysis shows HCG 94 to host a moderate cooling flow; this picture issupported by a radial increase in the column density of absorbingmaterial and a decrease in the gas temperature toward the clustercentre. HCG 94's total gravitating mass is much higher than what couldbe anticipated from its appearance in the optical. Our findings henceunderline the need for X-ray-selected cluster samples. For all threeclusters studied in this paper we find the baryon fraction to rise withradius and reach values of 15 to 30 per cent at the outer edge of ourstudy regions. If any of these values is to be taken as representativeof the overall baryon fraction of the Universe, then this resultrequires the latter to be open with Omega_0<0.35 if a conflict withthe baryon density derived from nucleosynthesis calculations is to beavoided.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

Brightest cluster galaxies as standard candles
We investigate the use of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) as standardcandles for measuring galaxy peculiar velocities on large scales. Wehave obtained precise large-format CCD surface photometry and redshiftsfor an all-sky, volume-limited (z less than or = 0.05) sample of 199BCG. We reinvestigate the Hoessel (1980) relationship between the metricluminosity, Lm, within the central 10 kpc/h of the BCGs andthe logarithmic slope of the surface brightness profile, alpha. TheLm-alpha relationship reduces the cosmic scatter inLm from 0.327 mag to 0.244 mag, yielding a typical distanceaccuracy of 17% per BCG. Residuals about the Lm-alpharelationship are independent of BCG luminosity, BCG B - Rccolor, BCG location within the host cluster, and richness of the hostcluster. The metric luminosity is independent of cluster richness evenbefore correcting for its dependence on alpha, which provides furtherevidence for the unique nature of the BCG luminosity function. Indeed,the BCG luminosity function, both before and after application of thealpha-correction, is consistent with a single Gaussian distribution.Half the BCGs in the sample show some evidence of small color gradientsas a function of radius within their central 50 kpc/h regions but withalmost equal numbers becoming redder as becoming bluer. However, withthe central 10 kpc/h the colors are remarkably constant -- the mean B -Rc color is 1.51 with a dispersion of only 0.06 mag. Thenarrow photometric and color distributions of the BCGs, the lack of'second-parameter' effects, as well as the unique rich clusterenvironment of BCGs, argue that BCGs are the most homogeneous distanceindicators presently available for large-scale structure research.

Deep Optical Observations of Compact Groups of Galaxies
Compact groups of galaxies appear to be extremely dense, making themlikely sites of intense galaxy interaction, while their smallpopulations make them relatively simple to analyze. In order to searchfor optical interaction tracers such as diffuse light and galaxy tidalfeatures in Hickson compact groups (HCGs), we carried out deepphotometry in three filters on a sample of HCGs with ROSAT observations.Using a modeling procedure to subtract the light of bright early-typegalaxies, we found shell systems and extended envelopes around many, butnot all, of those galaxies. Only one group in our sample, HCG 94, hasdiffuse light in the group potential (with a luminosity of 7 L^*^); theother groups do not contain more than 113 L^*^ in diffuse light. Withthe exception of HCG 94 (which is the most x-ray-luminous HCG), we foundno correlation between the presence of shells or other tidal featuresand the x-ray luminosity of a group. Better predictors of detectablegroup x-ray emission are a low spiral fraction and belonging to a largergalaxy condensation-neither of which are correlated with opticaldisturbances in the group galaxies. No elliptical galaxies that areextremely optically luminous but x-ray faint are found to have shellsand very complex color structures. This is likely due to recent infallof gas-rich material into the galaxies, which would produce both thedisruption of stellar orbits and a significant amount of star formation.

Morphology of galaxies in compact groups
We present the results of an isophotal analysis of 140 early-typegalaxies and a visual inspection of images of an additional 202 galaxiesin compact groups. This is essentially the entire sample of galaxies inthe subset of 92 Hickson compact groups which have at least threeaccordant members. About 12% of the elliptical galaxies have largercharacteristic radii and shallower surface brightness profiles thangalaxies of the same luminosity in less dense environments. The averageellipticity of elliptical galaxies in compact groups is a slowlyincreasing function of the metric radius, as it is for field andloose-group galaxies. No alignment is found among the major axes of thegalaxies and the major axis of the group. When combined with previouslypublished morphological, kinematic, radio, infrared, and colorinformation on the same galaxies, our data show that 43% of the galaxiesin the compact group sample show morphological and/or kinematicaldistortions indicative of interactions and/or mergers. About 32% of thegroups have three or more galaxies which show some sign of interaction.This is a lower limit, since for the great majority of the galaxies inthe groups, only imaging and low-resolution spectra are available. Forthe subsample of 16 groups for which published detailed kinematical dataare also available, the fraction of groups with three or more galaxiesin interaction is 75%. No correlation is found between the number ofinteracting galaxies in a group and the group velocity dispersion orcrossing time. These observations strongly support the view that compactgroups are systems of physically associated galaxies and not chancealignments of field, loose-group, or cluster galaxies. They also confirmthe importance of compact groups for studies of interactions and galaxyevolution. While the lack of a good control sample makes it difficult tomake quantitative comparisons for some aspects of this study, it isclear that the fraction of galaxies showing evidence of interactions ismuch higher in compact groups than in other environments.

Star formation and merging in compact groups of galaxies
New UBV aperture photometry for 177 galaxies in Hickson compact groupsis presented. The analysis of the color-color diagram indicates that,contrary to what one naively would expect, only a slight enhancement intheir star formation rates is present. The results are confirmed by theanalysis of the IRAS data, taking in particular into account the 25μmdetections. Star formation in compact groups is not found to be higherthan in isolated pairs of galaxies. Earlier results on the absence ofclear candidates for merger products of late type galaxies are confirmedand strengthened. It is pointed out that the relation between velocitydispersion and morphological mixing found for Hickson groups could beone of the clues to understand the evolution of galaxies in them.

Compact groups of galaxies and large-scale structure
The relative orientation of a homogeneous sample of 92 compact groups ofgalaxies taken from Hickson's catalog is investigated. No evidence isfound for these groups of galaxies to be aligned with either theirnearest neighbors or with Abell clusters. However, a weak indication ofalignment is found for groups connected in large structures such as'chains' and/or 'filaments'. Two concentrations are found: one of 17groups extends for 93/h Mpc, the other of 15 groups for 83/h Mpc. Bothhave an average recession velocity of about 6300 km/s. The alignment ofthe groups in the concentrations may be suggestive of a real effect.This result supports the argument that group orientations reflect theirorigin in chainlike or filamentary protosuperclusters.

On actual presence of discordant-redshift galaxies in compact groups
Hickson's compact galaxy groups were classified using the statisticalcriterion which includes the radial velocities of galaxies as well astheir relative positions. These groups on the whole and their componentsare identified as the confident and probable non-chance ones as well asprobable and confident chance ones. All confident chance objects havethe discordant radial velocities with the differences of radialvelocities (DV) Epsilon between 1,000 km/s and 20,000 km/s. The specialclass of objects 'bright discordants' is selected. These galaxies havethe discordant radial velocities with DV Epsilon between 825 km/s and8440 km/s and have a strong tendency to be the brightest components oftheir groups. The lowest difference of radial velocities for the lastclass of objects mean value of DV = (1.0 +/- 0.2) x 103 km/sand we accept this value of DV as the lowest value of discordant radialvelocities. It is found that the biggest part of Hickson's compactgroups consist of non-chance aggregations of galaxies and some of thecases of discordant-redshifts require a special study in order toexplain their origin from a dynamic or some other point of view.

A survey of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. VI - The declination zone +15.5 deg to 21.5 deg
New results are presented of Arecibo observations in the 21 cm line of765 galaxies with declinations between 15.5 deg and 21.5 deg, in thePisces-Perseus supercluster zone. If considered independently on theneighboring parts of sky, this region, to the South of the superclusterridge, shows significantly less evidence of structure on large scales inexcess of 30 Mpc, contrasting substantially with the characteristics ofthe declination zones immediately to the North.

A near-infrared imaging survey of interacting galaxies - The small angular-size ARP systems
Near-IR images of a large sample of interacting galaxies selected fromthe Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies by Arp (1966) have been obtained.Approximately 180 systems have been imaged in at least two, and usuallythree of the standard JHK bands. The survey and the observing and datareduction procedures, are described, and contour plots and aperturephotometry are presented. Future papers will analyze the imaging data bygroupings based on interaction type, stage, and progenitors. The goalsof the analysis are to explore the relationships between galaxyinteractions, activity, and morphology by studying the structure of thenear-IR luminosity distribution, where extinction effects are muchreduced relative to the optical and the major stellar mass component ofgalaxies dominates the observed light.

Dynamical properties of compact groups of galaxies
Radial velocities are presented for 457 galaxies in the 100 Hicksoncompact groups. More than 84 percent of the galaxies measured havevelocities within 1000 km/s of the median velocity in the group.Ninety-two groups have at least three accordant members, and 69 groupshave at least four. The radial velocities of these groups range from1380 to 42,731 km/s with a median of 8889 km/s, corresponding to amedian distance of 89/h Mpc. The apparent space density of these systemsranges from 300 to as much as 10 exp 8 sq h/sq Mpc, which exceeds thedensities in the centers of rich clusters. The median projectedseparation between galaxies is 39/h kpc, comparable to the sizes of thegalaxies themselves. A significant correlation is found between crossingtime and the fraction of gas-rich galaxies in the groups, and a weakanticorrelation is found between crossing time and the luminositycontrast of the first-ranked galaxy.

The luminosity function of compact groups of galaxies
An analysis of the luminosity function of 68 compact groups of galaxiescataloged by Hickson (1982) is presented. The luminosities of compactgroup galaxies are consistent with their being drawn from a Schechterluminosity function. Individual morphological-type luminosity functionsare also determined. Both the total and morphological-type specificluminosity functions of compact group galaxies are significantlydifferent from those of field, loose-group, and cluster galaxies. Inparticular, the luminosity function of HCG elliptical galaxies has amean magnitude which is significantly brighter than the mean magnitudeof Virgo cluster elliptical galaxies. The mean luminosity density ofgalaxies in compact groups is estimated. The obtained result isconsistent with the conventional scenario in which compact groups mergeto form elliptical galaxies on a relatively short time scale.

A dynamical analysis of twelve clusters of galaxies
Four-hundred-twenty-eight new redshift measurements for galaxies in thevicinity of 12 Abell clusters are presented. The data are supplementedby previously published data with 3 deg of each cluster center. Thecluster selection, the variety of telescopes and instrumentation used toobtain the galaxy redshifts, and the available X-ray observations arediscussed. Each cluster is exmained in some detail, with the emphasisplaced on the nature of the observed velocity distributions. Robust andresistant estimators of the velocity location and scale are applied inorder to quantify these distributions. The offset in velocity space ofthe dominant galaxy in each cluster or subcluster is considered withrespect to the central location in the velocity space of the cluster asa whole, and the physical implications of significant offsets found inseveral clusters are discussed. Dynamical estimates of the masses ofclusters and/or subclusters are obtained; for clearly bimodal systems,two-body models are employed to specify their likely dynamical state.

A multicolor photometric study of the tidal features in interacting galaxies
Four-color surface photometry (BVri) is presented forlow-surface-brightness tidal features in interacting galaxies. Objectswere selected on the basis of visual morphology including a crosssection of tails, bridges, plumes, shells, and extended envelopes.Intensity cross sections and surface brightness suggests that plumes areface-on or near face-on sheets; tails and bridges are more nearlyone-dimensional, linear figures. In many cases the colors of tidalfeatures are similar to the outer regions of the primary galaxies,confirming the stripping origin hypothesis. However, large colorvariations are found among the morphological components within mostsystems, and within individual components. Blue colors in primaries andtidal features are most dramatic in B-V, not V-1, indicating that starformation, not metallicity or age, is the dominant component. There isclear evidence in the sample of a correlation between the magnitude ofthe color variation and the time. The color variations are largest ashort time after the beginning of the interaction, and they diminish toa very low level in merged systems. This correlation provides analternate estimator of interaction age in systems with ambiguousmorphologies.

Spectroscopic study of non-cluster early-type galaxies
Data from long-slit spectroscopic observations of eight binary, triple,or merging groups containing early-type galaxies (Laurikainen and Moles,1989) are compiled in tables and graphs and analyzed in detail, with afocus on the older stellar populations. A clear distinction is foundbetween elliptical galaxies interacting in clusters and isolatedellipticals: the latter are redder and have lower surface brightness andstronger metal lines, suggesting a formation process involving mergers.A high degree of variation is found in the MgH and CN band strengths ofmetal-rich interacting galaxies, with strong values for 'metals'attributed to high Fe I (+ CN) values and increased CN abundance.

A photometric catalog of compact groups of galaxies
The paper presents astrometry, photometry, and morphological types,derived from CCD images, for 463 galaxies in the 100 compact groupsselected by Hickson. Some minor revisions to the membership of theoriginal catalog are made, based on these new images. The completenessof the catalog is considered as a function of group magnitude andGalactic latitude. At high Galactic latitude the catalog is estimated tobe 90 percent complete for groups with total B(T) magnitude 13.0 orless. It is less complete at lower Galactic latitude because ofobscuration and high stellar density.

Star formation in a sample of interacting galaxies
The star formation properties are analyzed for a sample of interactinggalaxies based on long-slit optical spectroscopy observations, and theresults are reported. A high frequency of LINERs is detected among thesample galaxies, many of which show only low-level activity and are notassociated with high infrared flux LINERs. Their global star-formationrates are higher than for field galaxies in most of the systems. Thestar-formation activity is mainly concentrated toward the central partsof the strongly interacting galaxies. Extended emission can appear ingalaxies of very spectral type when the activity level is very high, butit is not a general feature. The star formation in a galaxy in everygeneration of its 'ecologic cycle' of molecular cloud and star formationis found to be essentially produced with the same spatial distribution.

The neighborhood of a compact group of galaxies
Complete and statistical samples of galaxies in well definedneighborhoods surrounding the 100 Hickson (1983) compact groups havebeen identified and structural properties estimated by visual inspectionof Palomar Sky Survey prints. Among these 100 neighborhoods, two-thirdsare statistically indistinguishable from superposed field galaxies, butone-third contain galaxies in the physical neighborhood of the compactgroup. The morphological types of the galaxies in these physicalneighborhoods are statistically later than the galaxy types in thecompact groups.

Morphological type correlation between nearest neighbor pairs of galaxies
The morphological-type correlation of 16,930 nearest-neighbor pairs ofgalaxies is analyzed using the CfA Redshift Catalog of Galaxies (Huchra,1987). There is a distinct tendency that the nearest-neighbor galaxypairs have the same morphological subtype. A list of twin galaxies fromthe Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies (Arp, 1966) is also presented. Twingalaxies are binary galaxies which have not only the same morphologicaltype but also very similar internal structure. Twin galaxies areregarded as the extreme case of the morphological-type correlation.Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of galaxyformation and evolution.

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Right ascension:23h17m13.50s
Aparent dimensions:1.66′ × 1.23′

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