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HI content in galaxies in loose groups
Gas deficiency in cluster spirals is well known and ram-pressurestripping is considered the main gas removal mechanism. In some compactgroups too gas deficiency is reported. However, gas deficiency in loosegroups is not yet well established. Lower dispersion of the membervelocities and the lower density of the intragroup medium in small loosegroups favour tidal stripping as the main gas removal process in them.Recent releases of data from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) andcatalogues of nearby loose groups with associated diffuse X-ray emissionhave allowed us to test this notion. In this paper, we address thefollowing questions: (i) do galaxies in groups with diffuse X-rayemission statistically have lower gas content compared to the ones ingroups without diffuse X-ray emission? (ii) does HI deficiency vary withthe X-ray luminosity, LX, of the loose group in a systematicway? We find that (i) galaxies in groups with diffuse X-ray emission, onaverage, are HI deficient, and have lost more gas compared to those ingroups without X-ray emission; the latter are found not to havesignificant HI deficiency; (ii) no systematic dependence of the HIdeficiency with LX is found. Ram-pressure-assisted tidalstripping and evaporation by thermal conduction are the two possiblemechanisms to account for this excess gas loss.

Multiwavelength Star Formation Indicators: Observations
We present a compilation of multiwavelength data on different starformation indicators for a sample of nearby star forming galaxies. Herewe discuss the observations, reductions and measurements of ultravioletimages obtained with STIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST),ground-based Hα, and VLA 8.46 GHz radio images. These observationsare complemented with infrared fluxes, as well as large-apertureoptical, radio, and ultraviolet data from the literature. This databasewill be used in a forthcoming paper to compare star formation rates atdifferent wave bands. We also present spectral energy distributions(SEDs) for those galaxies with at least one far-infrared measurementsfrom ISO, longward of 100 μm. These SEDs are divided in two groups,those that are dominated by the far-infrared emission, and those forwhich the contribution from the far-infrared and optical emission iscomparable. These SEDs are useful tools to study the properties ofhigh-redshift galaxies.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 mtelescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical ResearchConsortium.

Kinematics of Interstellar Gas in Nearby UV-selected Galaxies Measured with HST STIS Spectroscopy
We measure Doppler shifts of interstellar absorption lines in HST STISspectra of individual star clusters in nearby UV-selected galaxies.Values for systemic velocities, which are needed to quantify outflowspeeds, are taken from the literature and verified with stellar lines.We detect outflowing gas in 8 of 17 galaxies via low-ionization lines(e.g., C II, Si II, Al II), which trace cold and/or warm gas. Thestarbursts in our sample are intermediate in luminosity (and mass) todwarf galaxies and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), and we confirmthat their outflow speeds (ranging from -100 to nearly -520 kms-1, with an accuracy of ~80 km s-1) areintermediate to those previously measured in dwarf starbursts and LIRGs.We do not detect the outflow in high-ionization lines (such as C IV orSi IV); higher quality data will be needed to empirically establish howvelocities vary with the ionization state of the outflow. We do verifythat the low-ionization UV lines and optical Na I doublet give roughlyconsistent outflow velocities, solidifying an important link betweenstudies of galactic winds at low and high redshift. To obtain a highersignal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we create a local average compositespectrum and compare it to the high-z Lyman break composite spectrum. Itis surprising that the low-ionization lines show similar outflowvelocities in the two samples. We attribute this to a combination ofweighting toward higher luminosities in the local composite, as well asboth samples being, on average, brighter than the ``turnover''luminosity in the v-SFR relation.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations areassociated with program GO-9036.

Mid-Infrared Spectral Diagnostics of Nuclear and Extranuclear Regions in Nearby Galaxies
Mid-infrared diagnostics are presented for a large portion of theSpitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample plus archivaldata from ISO and Spitzer. The SINGS data set includes low- andhigh-resolution spectral maps and broadband imaging in the infrared forover 160 nuclear and extranuclear regions within 75 nearby galaxiesspanning a wide range of morphologies, metallicities, luminosities, andstar formation rates. Our main result is that these mid-infrareddiagnostics effectively constrain a target's dominant power source. Thecombination of a high-ionization line index and PAH strength serves asan efficient discriminant between AGNs and star-forming nuclei,confirming progress made with ISO spectroscopy on starbursting andultraluminous infrared galaxies. The sensitivity of Spitzer allows us toprobe fainter nuclear and star-forming regions within galaxy disks. Wefind that both star-forming nuclei and extranuclear regions stand apartfrom nuclei that are powered by Seyfert or LINER activity. In fact, weidentify areas within four diagnostic diagrams containing >90%Seyfert/LINER nuclei or >90% H II regions/H II nuclei. We also findthat, compared to starbursting nuclei, extranuclear regions typicallyseparate even further from AGNs, especially for low-metallicityextranuclear environments. In addition, instead of the traditionalmid-infrared approach to differentiating between AGNs and star-formingsources that utilizes relatively weak high-ionization lines, we showthat strong low-ionization cooling lines of X-ray-dominated regions like[Si II] 34.82 μm can alternatively be used as excellentdiscriminants. Finally, the typical target in this sample showsrelatively modest interstellar electron density (~400 cm-3)and obscuration (AV~1.0 mag for a foreground screen),consistent with a lack of dense clumps of highly obscured gas and dustresiding in the emitting regions.

Constraining Dark Matter Halo Profiles and Galaxy Formation Models Using Spiral Arm Morphology. I. Method Outline
We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of diskgalaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral armpitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in diskgalaxy rotation curves by using a much larger sample (51 galaxies) thanused previously (17 galaxies). We use this correlation to argue thatimaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic massdistributions out to large look-back times. In contrast to previouswork, we show that observed spiral arm pitch angles are similar whenmeasured in the optical (at 0.4 μm) and the near-infrared (at 2.1μm) with a mean difference of 2.3d+/-2.7d. This is then used tostrengthen the known correlation between P and S using B-band images. Wethen use two example galaxies to demonstrate how an inferred shear ratecoupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derivedvelocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy'sbaryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. We show that ESO 582-G12,a galaxy with a high shear rate (slightly declining rotation curve) at~10 kpc, favors an adiabatically contracted halo, with high initial NFWconcentration (cvir>16) and a high fraction of halobaryons in the form of stars (~15%-40%). In contrast, IC 2522 has a lowshear rate (rising rotation curve) at ~10 kpc and favorsnonadiabatically contracted models with low NFW concentrations(cvir~=2-8) and a low stellar baryon fraction <10%.

Magnetic Fields in Starburst Galaxies and the Origin of the FIR-Radio Correlation
We estimate minimum energy magnetic fields (Bmin) for asample of galaxies with measured gas surface densities, spanning morethan four orders of magnitude in surface density, from normal spirals toluminous starbursts. We show that the ratio of the minimum energymagnetic pressure to the total pressure in the ISM decreasessubstantially with increasing surface density. For the ultraluminousinfrared galaxy Arp 220, this ratio is ~10-4. Therefore, ifthe minimum energy estimate is applicable, magnetic fields in starburstsare dynamically weak compared to gravity, in contrast to normalstar-forming spiral galaxies. We argue, however, that rapid cooling ofrelativistic electrons in starbursts invalidates the minimum energyestimate. We assess a number of independent constraints on the magneticfield strength in starburst galaxies. In particular, we argue that theexistence of the FIR-radio correlation implies that the synchrotroncooling timescale for cosmic-ray electrons is much shorter than theirescape time from the galactic disk; this in turn implies that the truemagnetic field in starbursts is significantly larger thanBmin. The strongest argument against such large fields isthat one might expect starbursts to have steep radio spectra indicativeof strong synchrotron cooling, which is not observed. However, we showthat ionization and bremsstrahlung losses can flatten the nonthermalspectra of starburst galaxies even in the presence of rapid cooling,providing much better agreement with observed spectra. We furtherdemonstrate that ionization and bremsstrahlung losses are likely to beimportant in shaping the radio spectra of most starbursts at GHzfrequencies, thereby preserving the linearity of the FIR-radiocorrelation. We thus conclude that magnetic fields in starbursts aresignificantly larger than Bmin. We highlight severalobservations that can test this conclusion.

Ultraviolet-to-Far-Infrared Properties of Local Star-forming Galaxies
We present the results of a multiwavelength study of nearby galaxiesaimed at understanding the relation between the ultraviolet andfar-infrared emission in star-forming galaxies. The data set comprisesnew ultraviolet (from HST STIS), ground-based Hα, and radiocontinuum observations, together with archival infrared data (from IRASand ISO). The local galaxies are used as benchmarks for comparison ofthe infrared-to-ultraviolet properties with two populations ofhigh-redshift galaxies: the submillimeter star-forming galaxies detectedby SCUBA and the ultraviolet-selected Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). Inaddition, the long wavelength baseline covered by the present dataenables us to compare the star formation rates (SFRs) derived from theobserved ultraviolet, Hα, infrared, and radio luminosities and togauge the impact of dust opacity in the local galaxies. We also derive anew calibration for the nonthermal part of the radio SFR estimator,based on the comparison of 1.4 GHz measurements with a new estimator ofthe bolometric luminosity of the star-forming regions. We find that moreactively star-forming galaxies show higher dust opacities, which is inline with previous results. We find that the local star-forming galaxieshave a lower Fλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV)ratio by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the submillimeter-selectedgalaxies and may have a similar or somewhat higherFλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV) ratio thanLBGs. The Fλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV) ratioof the local galaxy population may be influenced by the cool dustemission in the far-infrared heated by nonionizing stellar populations,which may be reduced or absent in the LBGs.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 mtelescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical ResearchConsortium.

New giant HII regions in the southern sky
We present results of a search for giant HII regions in southerngalaxies. Using high-resolution spectra, obtained with the MagellanInamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) at the Las Campanas Magellan IItelescope, we were able to resolve the emission-line profiles anddetermine the intrinsic velocity dispersion of the ionized gas. Out offour observed regions, selected from previous CCD narrow-bandphotometry, we detected three HII regions showing supersonic velocitydispersion, characteristic of giant HII regions, and their location indiagnostic diagrams suggests that a powerful starburst is the source ofionization energy.

Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Galaxies from ROSAT High Resolution Imager Observations I. Data Analysis
X-ray observations have revealed in other galaxies a class ofextranuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities of1039-1041 ergs s-1, exceeding theEddington luminosity for stellar mass X-ray binaries. Theseultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be powered by intermediate-massblack holes of a few thousand Msolar or stellar mass blackholes with special radiation processes. In this paper, we present asurvey of ULXs in 313 nearby galaxies withD25>1' within 40 Mpc with 467 ROSAT HighResolution Imager (HRI) archival observations. The HRI observations arereduced with uniform procedures, refined by simulations that help definethe point source detection algorithm employed in this survey. A sampleof 562 extragalactic X-ray point sources withLX=1038-1043 ergs s-1 isextracted from 173 survey galaxies, including 106 ULX candidates withinthe D25 isophotes of 63 galaxies and 110 ULX candidatesbetween 1D25 and 2D25 of 64 galaxies, from which aclean sample of 109 ULXs is constructed to minimize the contaminationfrom foreground or background objects. The strong connection betweenULXs and star formation is confirmed based on the striking preference ofULXs to occur in late-type galaxies, especially in star-forming regionssuch as spiral arms. ULXs are variable on timescales over days to yearsand exhibit a variety of long term variability patterns. Theidentifications of ULXs in the clean sample show some ULXs identified assupernovae (remnants), H II regions/nebulae, or young massive stars instar-forming regions, and a few other ULXs identified as old globularclusters. In a subsequent paper, the statistic properties of the surveywill be studied to calculate the occurrence frequencies and luminosityfunctions for ULXs in different types of galaxies to shed light on thenature of these enigmatic sources.

Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Galaxies
The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) is carrying out acomprehensive multiwavelength survey on a sample of 75 nearby galaxies.The 1-850 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are presented usingbroadband imaging data from Spitzer, 2MASS, ISO, IRAS, and SCUBA. Theinfrared colors derived from the globally integrated Spitzer data aregenerally consistent with the previous generation of models that weredeveloped using global data for normal star-forming galaxies, althoughsignificant deviations are observed. Spitzer's excellent sensitivity andresolution also allow a detailed investigation of the infrared SEDs forvarious locations within the three large, nearby galaxies NGC 3031(M81), NGC 5194 (M51), and NGC 7331. A wide variety of spectral shapesis found within each galaxy, especially for NGC 3031, the closest of thethree targets and thus the galaxy for which the smallest spatial scalescan be explored. Strong correlations exist between the local starformation rate and the infrared colors fν(70μm)/fν(160 μm) and fν(24μm)/fν(160 μm), suggesting that the 24 and 70 μmemission are useful tracers of the local star formation activity level.Preliminary evidence indicates that variations in the 24 μm emission,and not variations in the emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsat 8 μm, drive the variations in the fν(8.0μm)/fν(24 μm) colors within NGC 3031, NGC 5194, andNGC 7331. If the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in SEDs seen in our sampleare representative of the range present at high redshift, thenextrapolations of total infrared luminosities and star formation ratesfrom the observed 24 μm flux will be uncertain at the factor of 5level (total range). The corresponding uncertainties using theredshifted 8.0 μm flux (e.g., observed 24 μm flux for a z=2source) are factors of 10-20. Considerable caution should be used wheninterpreting such extrapolated infrared luminosities.

The Pattern Speeds of 38 Barred Galaxies
We estimate the pattern speeds of 38 barred galaxies by simulationmodeling. We construct the gravitational potentials of the galaxies fromnear-IR photometry by assuming that the mass-to-light ratio (M/L) isconstant in the H band and a single pattern speed dominates in thestellar disk. We use the response of gaseous and stellar particle disksto a rigidly rotating potential to determine the pattern speed. If ourassumptions are correct, then the pattern speed depends on themorphological type: the average value of the ratio of the corotationresonance radius to the bar radius, ℛ, increases from about 1.1 intype SB0/a to 1.4 in SBb and 1.7 in SBc. Within the error estimates, allthe bars in galaxies of type SBab or earlier are fast rotators, havingℛ<=1.4, whereas late-type galaxies include both fast and slowrotators.

The Stellar Content of Nearby Star-forming Galaxies. III. Unravelling the Nature of the Diffuse Ultraviolet Light
We investigate the nature of the diffuse intracluster ultraviolet lightseen in 12 local starburst galaxies, using long-slit ultravioletspectroscopy obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph(STIS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We take this faintintracluster light to be the field in each galaxy and compare itsspectroscopic signature with Starburst99 evolutionary synthesis modelsand with neighboring star clusters. Our main result is that the diffuseultraviolet light in 11 of the 12 starbursts lacks the strong O starwind features that are clearly visible in spectra of luminous clustersin the same galaxies. The difference in stellar features dominatingcluster and field spectra indicates that the field light comes primarilyfrom a different stellar population and not from scattering of UVphotons originating in the massive clusters. A cut along the spatialdirection of the UV spectra establishes that the field light is notsmooth but rather shows numerous ``bumps and wiggles.'' Roughly 30%-60%of these faint peaks seen in field regions of the closest (<4 Mpc)starbursts appear to be resolved, suggesting a contribution fromsuperpositions of stars and/or faint star clusters. Complementary WFPC2UVI imaging for the three nearest target galaxies, NGC 4214, NGC 4449,and NGC 5253, is used to obtain a broader picture and establish that allthree galaxies have a dispersed population of unresolved, luminous bluesources. Because the field spectra are dominated by B stars, we suggestthat the individual sources observed in the WFPC2 images are individualB stars (rather than O stars) or small star clusters. We considerseveral scenarios to understand the lack of observed massive stars inthe field and their implications for the origin of the field stellarpopulation. If the field stellar populations formed in situ, the fieldmust have either an IMF that is steeper than Salpeter (α~-3.0 to-3.5) or a Salpeter slope with an upper mass cutoff of 30-50Msolar. If star formation occurs primarily in star clusters,the field could be composed of older, faded clusters and/or a populationthat is coeval with the luminous clusters but lower in mass. We usethese benchmark populations to place constraints on the field stellarpopulation origin. Although the field probably includes stars ofdifferent ages, the UV light is dominated by the youngest stellarpopulations in the field. If the field is composed of older, dissolvingclusters, we estimate that star clusters (regardless of mass) need todissolve on timescales 7-10 Myr to create the field. If the field iscomposed of young clusters that fall below the detection limit ofindividual sources in our spectroscopy, they would have to be severalhundred solar masses or less, in order to be deficient in O stars,despite their extreme youth.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

Evidence of a Starburst within 9 Parsecs of the Active Nucleus of NGC 1097
We report evidence of a recent burst of star formation located within 9pc of the active nucleus of NGC 1097. The observational signatures ofthe starburst include UV absorption lines and continuum emission fromyoung stars observed in a small-aperture Hubble Space Telescopespectrum. The burst is <= a few × 106 yr old, has amass of ~106 Msolar, an observed luminosity of1.5×107 Lsolar, and is obscured byAV~3 mag. The importance of this finding is twofold: (1) theproximity of the starburst to the active nucleus and thus its possibleassociation with it, and (2) its obscuration by and apparent associationwith a dusty absorbing medium, while the broad emission lines appearunobscured, suggesting that the starburst could be embedded in acircumnuclear torus as predicted in the unified model of active galacticnuclei.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at theSpace Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contractNAS5-26555.

On the Maximum Luminosity of Galaxies and Their Central Black Holes: Feedback from Momentum-driven Winds
We investigate large-scale galactic winds driven by momentum deposition.Momentum injection is provided by (1) radiation pressure produced by thecontinuum absorption and scattering of photons on dust grains and (2)supernovae (momentum injection by supernovae is important even if thesupernova energy is radiated away). Radiation can be produced by astarburst or active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We argue thatmomentum-driven winds are an efficient mechanism for feedback during theformation of galaxies. We show that above a limiting luminosity,momentum deposition from star formation can expel a significant fractionof the gas in a galaxy. The limiting, Eddington-like luminosity isLM~=(4fgc/G)σ4, where σ isthe galaxy velocity dispersion and fg is the gas fraction;the subscript M refers to momentum driving. A starburst that attainsLM moderates its star formation rate and its luminosity doesnot increase significantly further. We argue that elliptical galaxiesattain this limit during their growth at z>~1 and that this is theorigin of the Faber-Jackson relation. We show that Lyman break galaxiesand ultraluminous infrared galaxies have luminosities nearLM. Since these starbursting galaxies account for asignificant fraction of the star formation at z>~1, this supports ourhypothesis that much of the observed stellar mass in early-type galaxieswas formed during Eddington-limited star formation. Star formation isunlikely to efficiently remove gas from very small scales in galacticnuclei, i.e., scales much smaller than that of a nuclear starburst. Thisgas is available to fuel a central black hole (BH). We argue that a BHclears gas out of its galactic nucleus when the luminosity of the BHitself reaches ~LM. This shuts off the fuel supply to the BHand may also terminate star formation in the surrounding galaxy. As aresult, the BH mass is fixed to beMBH~=(fgκes/πG2)σ4,where κes is the electron scattering opacity. Thislimit is in accord with the observed MBH-σ relation.

The Distribution of Bar and Spiral Arm Strengths in Disk Galaxies
The distribution of bar strengths in disk galaxies is a fundamentalproperty of the galaxy population that has only begun to be explored. Wehave applied the bar-spiral separation method of Buta and coworkers toderive the distribution of maximum relative gravitational bar torques,Qb, for 147 spiral galaxies in the statistically well-definedOhio State University Bright Galaxy Survey (OSUBGS) sample. Our goal isto examine the properties of bars as independently as possible of theirassociated spirals. We find that the distribution of bar strengthdeclines smoothly with increasing Qb, with more than 40% ofthe sample having Qb<=0.1. In the context of recurrent barformation, this suggests that strongly barred states are relativelyshort-lived compared to weakly barred or nonbarred states. We do notfind compelling evidence for a bimodal distribution of bar strengths.Instead, the distribution is fairly smooth in the range0.0<=Qb<0.8. Our analysis also provides a first look atspiral strengths Qs in the OSUBGS sample, based on the sametorque indicator. We are able to verify a possible weak correlationbetween Qs and Qb, in the sense that galaxies withthe strongest bars tend to also have strong spirals.

Hα Imaging of Early-Type Sa-Sab Spiral Galaxies. II. Global Properties
New results, based on one of the most comprehensive Hα imagingsurveys of nearby Sa-Sab spirals completed to date, reveals early-typespirals to be a diverse group of galaxies that span a wide range inmassive star formation rates. While the majority of Sa-Sab galaxies inour sample are forming stars at a modest rate, a significant fraction(~29%) exhibit star formation rates greater than 1 Msolaryr-1, rivaling the most prolifically star-forming late-typespirals. A similar diversity is apparent in the star formation historyof Sa-Sab spirals as measured by their Hα equivalent widths.Consistent with our preliminary results presented in the first paper inthis series, we find giant H II regions [L(Hα)>=1039ergs s-1] in the disks of ~37% of early-type spirals. Wesuspect that recent minor mergers or past interactions are responsiblefor the elevated levels of Hα emission and, perhaps, for thepresence of giant H II regions in these galaxies. Our results, however,are not in total agreement with the Hα study of Kennicutt &Kent, who did not find any early-type spirals with Hα equivalentwidths >14 Å. A close examination of the morphologicalclassification of galaxies, however, suggests that systematicdifferences between the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog and the SecondReference Catalogue may be responsible for the contrasting results.Based on observations obtained with the 3.5 m telescope at Apache PointObservatory (APO) and the 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak NationalObservatory (KPNO). The APO 3.5 m telescope is owned and operated by theAstrophysical Research Consortium.

Magnetic fields in barred galaxies. IV. NGC 1097 and NGC 1365
We present λ3.5 cm and λ6.2 cm radio continuum maps intotal and polarized intensity of the barred galaxies NGC 1097 (at2´´-15´´ resolution) and NGC 1365 (at9´´-25´´ resolution). A previously unknown radiogalaxy southwest of NGC 1097 is reported. Apart from a smooth faintenvelope and a bright central region, both galaxies exhibit radio ridgesroughly overlapping with the massive dust lanes in the bar region. Thecontrast in total intensity across the radio ridges is compatible withcompression and shear of an isotropic random magnetic field, where thegas density compression ratio is approximately equal to 4 and the cosmicray density is constant across the ridges. The contrast in polarizedintensity is significantly smaller than that expected from compressionand shearing of the regular magnetic field; this could be the result ofdecoupling of the regular field from the dense molecular clouds. Theregular field in the ridge is probably strong enough to reducesignificantly shear in the diffuse gas (to which it is coupled) andhence to reduce magnetic field amplification by shearing. Thiscontributes to the misalignment of the observed field orientation withrespect to the velocity vectors of the dense gas. Our observations, forthe first time, indicate that magnetic forces can control the flow ofthe diffuse interstellar gas at kiloparsec scales. The total radiointensity reaches its maximum in the circumnuclear starburst regions,where the equipartition field strength is about 60 μG, amongst thestrongest fields detected in spiral galaxies so far. The regular fieldin the inner region has a spiral shape with large pitch angle,indicating the action of a dynamo. Magnetic stress leads to mass inflowtowards the centre, sufficient to feed the active nucleus in NGC 1097. -We detected diffuse X-ray emission, possibly forming a halo of hot gasaround NGC 1097.

BeppoSAX/PDS serendipitous detections at high galactic latitudes
At a flux limit of 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1in the 20-100 keV band, the PDS instrument on-board BeppoSAX offers theopportunity to study the extragalactic sky with an unprecedentedsensitivity. In this work we report on the results of a search in theBeppoSAX archive for serendipitous high energy sources at high galacticlatitudes (\vert b \vert≥13°). We have defined a set of twelveregions in which the PDS/MECS cross-calibration constant is higher thanthe nominal value. We attribute this mismatch to the presence of aserendipitous source in the PDS field of view. In four cases the likelyhigh energy emitter is also present in the MECS field of view. In thesecases, we have performed a broad band spectral analysis (1.5-100 keV) tounderstand the source spectral behaviour and compare it with previousBeppoSAX observations when available. In eight cases the identificationof the source likely to provide the PDS spectrum is based on indirectevidence (extrapolation to lower energies and/or comparison withprevious observations). This approach led to the discovery of six newhard X-ray emitting objects (PKS 2356-611, 2MASX J14585116-1652223, NGC1566, NGC 7319, PKS 0101-649 and ESO 025-G002) and to the presentationthe PDS spectrum of NGC 3227 for the first time. In the remaining fivecases we provide extra BeppoSAX observations that can be compared withmeasurements already published and/or in the archive.

Exceptional H2 emission in the Antennae galaxies: Pre-starburst shocks from the galaxy collision
The collision of gas-rich galaxies is believed to produce strong shocksbetween their gas clouds which cause the onset of the observed bursts ofextended star formation. However, the so far observed shock signaturesin colliding galaxies can be explained essentially by winds from alreadyexisting massive stars and supernovae and thus do not give any evidencefor an outstanding pre-starburst phase. Either pre-starburst gas shocksare too short-lived to be detected or one has to modify our perceptionof colliding galaxies. A dedicated analysis of ISOCAM-CVF mid-infraredspectral maps led us to the discovery of exceptional H2 v = 0-0 S(3)λ = 9.66 μm line emission from the “Antennae”galaxy pair, which is at an early stage of galaxy collision. Its H2 lineluminosity, normalized by the far-infrared luminosity, exceeds that ofall other known galaxies and the strongest H2 emission is spatiallydisplaced from the known starbursts regions. This implies that most ofthe excited H2 gas in the Antennae must be shocked due to the collisionof the two galaxies. These observations indicate that the outstandingphase of pre-starburst shocks exists, and that they might be a key toour understanding of the formation of the first proto-galaxies.Based onobservations with the Infrared Space ObservatoryISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) andwith the participation of ISAS and NASA.

Intergalactic neutral hydrogen gas in the Grus quartet of galaxies
Australia Telescope Compact Array multi-configuration mosaicing of theGrus quartet of galaxies reveals the presence of spectacular tidalstructures. 2.1×109 Mȯ of neutralatomic hydrogen (H I) gas, i.e. 11% of all H I in the group, are foundto be dragged from NGC 7582 into intergalactic space. About1.34×109 Mȯ of H I gas are contained ina tidal tail emanating from the north-western disk of NGC 7582, with aprojected length of about 85 kpc and width of up to 32 kpc and arelative velocity with respect to the centre of NGC 7582 of 130-140 kms-1. 7.7×108 Mȯ of H Ireside in an intergalactic H I cloud 48 kpc West of NGC 7582, whichmight originate from the disk of NGC 7582 as well and has no opticalcounterpart in a red Digital Sky Survey (DSS) image. These observationsprove that tidal stripping is occurring in the Grus quartet and thattidal features in compact groups can be potentially importantcontributors of metal-enriched matter to the intergalactic medium. Thetidal features around NGC 7582 cover an area of about 2000kpc2, almost doubling the group's cross-section forLyman-α absorption of light from background sources compared tothe optical extent of the member galaxies.

Bar-induced perturbation strengths of the galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey - I
Bar-induced perturbation strengths are calculated for a well-definedmagnitude-limited sample of 180 spiral galaxies, based on the Ohio StateUniversity Bright Galaxy Survey. We use a gravitational torque method,the ratio of the maximal tangential force to the mean axisymmetricradial force, as a quantitative measure of the bar strength. Thegravitational potential is inferred from an H-band light distribution byassuming that the M/L ratio is constant throughout the disc. Galaxiesare deprojected using orientation parameters based on B-band images. Inorder to eliminate artificial stretching of the bulge, two-dimensionalbar-bulge-disc decomposition has been used to derive a reliable bulgemodel. This bulge model is subtracted from an image, the disc isdeprojected assuming it is thin, and then the bulge is added back byassuming that its mass distribution is spherically symmetric. We findthat removing the artificial bulge stretch is important especially forgalaxies having bars inside large bulges. We also find that the massesof the bulges can be significantly overestimated if bars are not takeninto account in the decomposition.Bars are identified using Fourier methods by requiring that the phasesof the main modes (m= 2, m= 4) are maintained nearly constant in the barregion. With such methods, bars are found in 65 per cent of the galaxiesin our sample, most of them being classified as SB-type systems in thenear-infrared by Eskridge and co-workers. We also suggest that as muchas ~70 per cent of the galaxies classified as SAB-types in thenear-infrared might actually be non-barred systems, many of them havingcentral ovals. It is also possible that a small fraction of the SAB-typegalaxies have weak non-classical bars with spiral-like morphologies.

Implications for the formation of star clusters from extragalactic star formation rates
Observations indicate that young massive star clusters in spiral anddwarf galaxies follow a relation between luminosity of the brightestyoung cluster and the star formation rate (SFR) of the host galaxy, inthe sense that higher SFRs lead to the formation of brighter clusters.Assuming that the empirical relation between maximum cluster luminosityand SFR reflects an underlying similar relation between maximum clustermass (Mecl,max) and SFR, we compare the resultingSFR(Mecl,max) relation with different theoretical models. Theempirical correlation is found to suggest that individual star clustersform on a free-fall time-scale with their pre-clustermolecular-cloud-core radii typically being a few parsecs independent ofmass. The cloud cores contract by factors of 5-10 while building up theembedded cluster. A theoretical SFR(Mecl,max) relation invery good agreement with the empirical correlation is obtained if theCMF of a young population has a Salpeter exponent of β~ 2.35 and ifthis cluster population forms within a characteristic time-scale of a1-10 Myr. This short time-scale can be understood if the interstellarmedium is pressurized, thus precipitating rapid local fragmentation andcollapse on a galactic scale. Such triggered star formation on agalactic scale is observed to occur in interacting galaxies. With aglobal SFR of 3-5 Msolar yr-1, the Milky Wayappears to lie on the empirical SFR(Mecl,max) relation, giventhe recent detections of very young clusters with masses near105 Msolar in the Galactic disc. The observedproperties of the stellar population of very massive young clusterssuggests that there may exist a fundamental maximum cluster mass,106 < Mecl,max*/ Msolar<107.

Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S Database
We have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tracer of Star Formation?
Infrared (IR) emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μmare generally attributed to IR fluorescence from (mainly)far-ultraviolet (FUV) pumped large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)molecules. As such, these features trace the FUV stellar flux and arethus a measure of star formation. We examined the IR spectralcharacteristics of Galactic massive star-forming regions and of normaland starburst galaxies, as well as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) andultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The goal of this study is toanalyze whether PAH features are a good qualitative and/or quantitativetracer of star formation, and hence to evaluate the application of PAHemission as a diagnostic tool in order to identify the dominantprocesses contributing to the infrared emission from Seyfert galaxiesand ULIRGs. We develop a new mid-infrared (MIR)/far-infrared (FIR)diagnostic diagram based on our Galactic sample and compare it to thediagnostic tools of Genzel and coworkers and Laurent and coworkers, withthese diagnostic tools also applied to our Galactic sample. This MIR/FIRdiagnostic is derived from the FIR normalized 6.2 μm PAH flux and theFIR normalized 6.2 μm continuum flux. Within this diagram, theGalactic sources form a sequence spanning a range of 3 orders ofmagnitude in these ratios, ranging from embedded compact H II regions toexposed photodissociation regions (PDRs) and the (diffuse) interstellarmedium (ISM). However, the variation in the 6.2 μm PAHfeature-to-continuum ratio is relative small. Comparison of ourextragalactic sample with our Galactic sources revealed an excellentresemblance of normal and starburst galaxies to exposed PDRs. WhileSeyfert 2 galaxies coincide with the starburst trend, Seyfert 1 galaxiesare displaced by at least a factor of 10 in 6.2 μm continuum flux, inaccordance with general orientation-dependent unification schemes forAGNs. ULIRGs show a diverse spectral appearance. Some show a typical AGNhot dust continuum. More, however, either are starburst-like or showsigns of strong dust obscuration in the nucleus. One characteristic ofthe ULIRGs also seems to be the presence of more prominent FIR emissionthan either starburst galaxies or AGNs. We discuss the observedvariation in the Galactic sample in view of the evolutionary state andthe PAH/dust abundance and discuss the use of PAHs as quantitativetracers of star formation activity. Based on these investigations, wefind that PAHs may be better suited as a tracer of B stars, whichdominate the Galactic stellar energy budget, than as a tracer of massivestar formation (O stars).

Comparison of Bar Strengths and Fractions of Bars in Active and Nonactive Galaxies
Gravitational perturbation strengths and bar fractions in active andnonactive galaxies are compared using the Ohio State University BrightGalaxy Survey, which forms a statistically well defined sample of 180disk galaxies. Bar fractions are studied using (1) the optical andnear-IR classification of bars made by Eskridge and coworkers in 2002and (2) our own bar classification based on Fourier decomposition ofnear-IR images (Fourier bars). The gravitational perturbation strengthsare calculated using the bar torque method, taking the maximum ratioQg of the tangential force to the mean background radialforce as a measure of the nonaxisymmetric perturbation. In addition,two-dimensional bulge-disk-bar decomposition is used to study theproperties of bulges of the sample galaxies. In the near-IR, Seyfertgalaxies, LINERs, and H II/starburst galaxies were found to have asimilar fraction, 72%, of Fourier bars (or SB-type bars), compared to55% in the nonactive galaxies. However, if SAB-type bars are alsoincluded, practically all (95%) H II/starburst galaxies have bars. Inaddition, a large fraction (34%) of bars in LINERs are obscured by dustin the optical region. We find that bars in early-type galaxies are atthe same time long and massive and have weak perturbation strengths.Weak perturbation strengths can be explained by dilution of thenonaxisymmetric forces by the massive bulges: for a bulge-to-disk massratio B/D ranging from 0 to 1, the dilution may reduce Qgfrom as high as 0.6 to as low as 0.1. On the other hand, bar length(relative to disk scale length) is not correlated with B/D, contrary toexpectation. Seyfert- or LINER-type nuclear activity is present in mostgalaxies that have thin and thick planar bar components, whereas nuclearactivity does not appear in those late-type galaxies that have extremelymassive bars and strong perturbation strengths.

Missing Massive Stars in Starbursts: Stellar Temperature Diagnostics and the Initial Mass Function
Determining the properties of starbursts requires spectral diagnosticsof their ultraviolet radiation fields, to test whether very massivestars are present. We test several such diagnostics, using new models ofline ratio behavior combining CLOUDY, Starburst99, and up-to-datespectral atlases. For six galaxies we obtain new measurements of He I1.7 μm/Br10, a difficult to measure but physically simple (andtherefore reliable) diagnostic. We obtain new measurements of He I 2.06μm/Brγ in five galaxies. We find that He I 2.06 μm/Brγand [O III]/Hβ are generally unreliable diagnostics in starbursts.The heteronuclear and homonuclear mid-infrared line ratios (notably [NeIII] 15.6 μm/[Ne II] 12.8 μm) consistently agree with each otherand with He I 1.7 μm/Br10 this argues that the mid-infrared lineratios are reliable diagnostics of spectral hardness. In a sample of 27starbursts, [Ne III]/[Ne II] is significantly lower than modelpredictions for a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) extending to 100Msolar. Plausible model alterations strengthen thisconclusion. By contrast, the low-mass and low-metallicity galaxies II Zw40 and NGC 5253 show relatively high neon line ratios, compatible with aSalpeter slope extending to at least ~40-60 Msolar. Onesolution for the low neon line ratios in the high-metallicity starburstswould be that they are deficient in >~40 Msolar starscompared to a Salpeter IMF. An alternative explanation, which we prefer,is that massive stars in high-metallicity starbursts spend much of theirlives embedded within ultracompact H II regions that prevent the near-and mid-infrared nebular lines from forming and escaping. Thishypothesis has important consequences for starburst modeling andinterpretation.

NGC 3125-1: The Most Extreme Wolf-Rayet Star Cluster Known in the Local Universe
We use Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph long-slit ultravioletspectroscopy of local starburst galaxies to study the massive starcontent of a representative sample of super-star clusters, with aprimary focus on their Wolf-Rayet (W-R) content as measured from the HeII λ1640 emission feature. The goals of this work are threefold.First, we quantify the W-R and O-star content for selected massive youngstar clusters. These results are compared with similar estimates madefrom optical spectroscopy available in the literature. We conclude thatthe He II λ4686 equivalent width is a poor diagnostic measure ofthe true W-R content. Second, we present the strongest known He IIλ1640 emission feature in a local starburst galaxy. This featureis clearly of stellar origin in the massive cluster NGC 3125-1, as it isbroadened (~1000 km s-1). Strong N IV λ1488 and N Vλ1720 emission lines commonly found in the spectra of individualW-R stars of WN subtype are also observed in the spectrum of NGC 3125-1.Finally, we create empirical spectral templates to gain a basicunderstanding of the recently observed strong He II λ1640 featureseen in Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at redshifts z~3. The UV fieldobserved in local starbursts provides a good overall match to thecontinuum and weak photospheric features in LBGs in the spectral rangeλλ1300-1700 but cannot reproduce the He II λ1640emission seen in the composite LBG sample of Shapley et al. Anadditional (ad hoc) 10%-15% contribution from ``extreme'' W-R clusterssimilar to NGC 3125-1 on top of the field provides a good match to thestrength of this feature.Based on observations with the NASA ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

An IRAS High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) Atlas of All Interacting Galaxies in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
The importance of far-infrared observations for our understanding ofextreme activity in interacting and merging galaxies has beenillustrated by many studies. Even though two decades have passed sinceits launch, the most complete all-sky survey to date from which far-IRselected galaxy samples can be chosen is still that of the InfraredAstronomical Satellite (IRAS). However, the spatial resolution of theIRAS all-sky survey is insufficient to resolve the emission fromindividual galaxies in most interacting galaxy pairs, and hence previousstudies of their far-IR properties have had to concentrate either onglobal system properties or on the properties of very widely separatedand weakly interacting pairs. Using the HIRES image reconstructiontechnique, it is possible to achieve a spatial resolution ranging from30" to 1.5m (depending on wavelength and detector coverage), whichis a fourfold improvement over the normal resolution of IRAS. This issufficient to resolve the far-IR emission from the individual galaxiesin many interacting systems detected by IRAS, which is very importantfor meaningful comparisons with single, isolated galaxies. We presenthigh-resolution 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm images of 106 interactinggalaxy systems contained in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS,Sanders et al.), a complete sample of all galaxies having a 60 μmflux density greater than 5.24 Jy. These systems were selected to haveat least two distinguishable galaxies separated by less than threeaverage galactic diameters, and thus we have excluded very widelyseparated systems and very advanced mergers. Additionally, some systemshave been included that are more than three galactic diameters apart,yet have separations less than 4' and are thus likely to suffer fromconfusion in the RBGS. The new complete survey has the same propertiesas the prototype survey of Surace et al. We find no increased tendencyfor infrared-bright galaxies to be associated with other infrared-brightgalaxies among the widely separated pairs studied here. We find smallenhancements in far-IR activity in multiple galaxy systems relative toRBGS noninteracting galaxies with the same blue luminosity distribution.We also find no differences in infrared activity (as measured byinfrared color and luminosity) between late- and early-type spiralgalaxies.

The ISOPHOT 170 μm Serendipity Survey II. The catalog of optically identified galaxies%
The ISOPHOT Serendipity Sky Survey strip-scanning measurements covering≈15% of the far-infrared (FIR) sky at 170 μm were searched forcompact sources associated with optically identified galaxies. CompactSerendipity Survey sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in at leasttwo ISOPHOT C200 detector pixels were selected that have a positionalassociation with a galaxy identification in the NED and/or Simbaddatabases and a galaxy counterpart visible on the Digitized Sky Surveyplates. A catalog with 170 μm fluxes for more than 1900 galaxies hasbeen established, 200 of which were measured several times. The faintest170 μm fluxes reach values just below 0.5 Jy, while the brightest,already somewhat extended galaxies have fluxes up to ≈600 Jy. For thevast majority of listed galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes were measured forthe first time. While most of the galaxies are spirals, about 70 of thesources are classified as ellipticals or lenticulars. This is the onlycurrently available large-scale galaxy catalog containing a sufficientnumber of sources with 170 μm fluxes to allow further statisticalstudies of various FIR properties.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (CISS) areMPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca, AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena,Imperial College London.Full Table 4 and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/39

Deprojecting spiral galaxies using Fourier analysis. Application to the Ohio sample
We use two new methods developed recently (Barberàet al.\cite{bar03}, A&A, 415, 849), as well as information obtained fromthe literature, to calculate the orientation parameters of the spiralgalaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey. We comparethe results of these methods with data from the literature, and find ingeneral good agreement. We provide a homogeneous set of mean orientationparameters which can be used to approximately deproject the disks of thegalaxies and facilitate a number of statistical studies of galaxyproperties.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/421/595

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Right ascension:23h16m10.80s
Aparent dimensions:4.074′ × 3.236′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 7552
ICIC 5294

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