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|BUDDA: A New Two-dimensional Bulge/Disk Decomposition Code for Detailed Structural Analysis of Galaxies|
We present BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis), a new code devotedto perform a two-dimensional bulge/disk decomposition directly from theimages of galaxies. The bulge component is fitted with a generalizedSérsic profile, whereas disks have an exponential profile. Noother components are included. Bars and other substructures, likelenses, rings, inner bars, and inner disks, are studied with theresidual images obtained through the subtraction of bulges and disksfrom the original images. This means that a detailed structural analysisof galaxies may be performed with a small number of parameters, andsubstructures may be directly studied with no a priori assumptions. Ashas been already shown by several studies, two-dimensional fitting ismuch more reliable than one-dimensional profile fitting. Moreover, ourcode has been thoroughly tested with artificial data, and we demonstrateit to be an accurate tool for determining structural parameters ofgalaxies. We also show that our code is useful in various kinds ofstudies, including galaxies of, e.g., different morphological types, andinclinations, which also may be observed at different spatialresolutions. Thus, the code has a broader range of potentialapplications than most of the previous codes, which are developed totackle specific problems. To illustrate its usefulness, we present theresults obtained with a sample of 51 mostly early-type galaxies (butcovering the whole Hubble sequence). These results show some of theapplications in which the code may be used: the determination ofparameters for fundamental plane and structural studies, quantitativemorphological classification of galaxies, and the identification andstudy of hidden substructures. We have determined the structuralparameters of the galaxies in our sample and found many examples ofhidden inner disks in ellipticals, secondary bars, nuclear rings anddust lanes in lenticulars and spirals, and also wrong morphologicalclassification cases. We now make BUDDA generally available to theastronomical community.Based on observations made at the Pico dos Dias Observatory(PDO/LNA-CNPq), Brazil.
|The Durham/UKST Galaxy Redshift Survey - V. The catalogue|
We present the radial velocities and blue, optical magnitudes for all ofthe galaxies within the Durham/UKST Galaxy Redshift Survey. Thiscatalogue consists of ~2500 galaxy redshifts to a limiting apparentmagnitude of B_J⋍17 mag, covering a ~1500-deg^2 area around theSouth Galactic Pole. The galaxies in this survey were selected from theEdinburgh/Durham Southern Galaxy Catalogue and were sampled, in order ofapparent magnitude, at a rate of one galaxy in every three. Thespectroscopy was performed at the 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope inAustralia using the FLAIR multi-object spectrograph. We show that ourradial velocity measurements made with this instrument have an empiricalaccuracy of +/-150 km s^-1. The observational techniques and datareduction procedures used in the construction of this survey are alsodiscussed. This survey demonstrates that the UKST can be used to make athree-dimensional map of the large-scale galaxy distribution, via aredshift survey to b_J⋍17 mag, over a wide area of the sky.
|The Southern Sky Redshift Survey|
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.
|The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.|
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.
|Triaxiality in disk galaxies|
Thirty-two bulges of nearby spirals have been observed, to detectmisalignment between disk and bulge apparent major axes. Suchmisalignment is unequivocally present in the majority of observedobjects. This may be due to the triaxiality of disks, bulges, or both.The probability distribution function for the axial ratios is derivedunder the two extreme hypotheses, i.e., that either only disks (case I)or only bulges (case II) are triaxial: the observational data areequally well fitted by either one. Since dynamical evidence and theinternal twisting of isophotes show that bulges are triaxial, case I isunlikely, but an intermediate case cannot be ruled out. Thesedistribution functions are compared with available constraints; inparticular, that of case II is projected and compared with thedistribution of apparent ellipticities of minor-axis dust-laneellipticals and of all ellipticals. Both tests show that the observedand derived distributions are consistent.
|The plane W(Na I) X W(Mg I) - Effects of interstellar Na I in a sample of southern galaxies|
Galaxy spectra from a subsample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey databank were used to study the equivalent width plane for the lines Na Ilambda 5893 A vs Mg I lambda 5175 A. An estimate of how important thecontribution of the interstellar gas for the sodium line is compared tothat of the stellar population. The sample is made up of galaxies withmorphological types from E to Sc and are distributed up to radialvelocities of 25,000 km/s, most of them smaller than 15,000 km/s. Mostearly type galaxies with dust lanes, particularly nearly edge-on So's,present an enhancement of the Na I line. Inclined spiral galaxies tendto present enhanced Na I with respect to face-on spirals. This tendency,previously found in a smaller sample of galaxies limited to V equal toor less than 6000 km/s, is now confirmed for more distant ones. In thelarge velocity sample it shows the global bulge rather than the verynucleus; the persistence of the effect suggests that the scale height ofthe gas layer in the central disk can reach a considerable fraction ofthe bulge radius.
|The components of mid- and far-infrared emission from S0 and early-type shell galaxies|
The IRAS database has been used to study detections of about 150early-type elliptical and S0 galaxies exhibiting a shell structure. Nostrong evidence for the expected enhancement of either star formationrates or heating of the interstellar medium is found. It is suggestedthat for some of the sample galaxies either a contribution from warmdust surrounding evolved stars or emission from an active nucleus may besignificant.
|Spectra of shell ellipticals - Redshifts, velocity dispersions and evidence for recent nuclear star formation|
Nuclear spectra are presented for 100 of the galaxies in the Malin andCarter (1983) catalog. Redshifts and velocity dispersions are given forsome of the galaxies. It is found that about 10 percent of the samplegalaxies have colors, absolute magnitudes, and spectra characteristic ofthe poststarburst galaxies in high reshift clusters. It is suggestedthat the more distant poststarburst galaxies may have undergone mergeror accretion events.
|Radio emission from shell elliptical galaxies|
A subset of the Malin & Carter catalogue of 'shell ellipticalgalaxies' has been surveyed at 20 and 6 cm with the VLA. Forty-two percent of the galaxies were detected, down to a 6-cm flux density limit ofabout 0.6 mJy. This detection rate does not differ significantly from anormal population of mixed elliptical and S0 galaxies. Most of the radiodetections, which are sources coincident with the galaxy nuclei, areunresolved by the C-array and so have angular sizes of less than 3arcsec. The sample contains objects with a wide variety of opticalappearances, suggesting that shell galaxies are not a homogenoeus classwith uniform physical characteristics.
|Southern Galaxy Catalogue.|
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