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The Chemical Composition of Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Regard to Inhomogeneity in the Gas Density in Their Envelopes
The results of a study of the chemical compositions of Galacticplanetary nebulae taking into account two types of inhomogeneity in thenebular gas density in their envelopes are reported. New analyticalexpressions for the ionization correction factors have been derived andare used to determine the chemical compositions of the nebular gas inGalactic planetary nebulae. The abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, and Arhave been found for 193 objects. The Y Z diagrams for various Heabundances are analyzed for type II planetary nebulae separately andjointly with HII regions. The primordial helium abundance Y p andenrichment ratio dY/dZ are determined, and the resulting values arecompared with the data of other authors. Radial abundance gradients inthe Galactic disk are studied using type II planetary nebulae.

Planetary nebula distances re-examined: an improved statistical scale
The distances of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still quite uncertain.Although observational estimates are available for a small proportion ofPNe, based on statistical parallax and the like, such distances are verypoorly determined for the majority of galactic PNe. In particular,estimates of so-called `statistical' distance appear to differ byfactors of ~2.7.We point out that there is a well-defined correlation between the 5-GHzluminosity of the sources, L5, and their brightnesstemperatures, TB. This represents a different trend to thoseinvestigated in previous statistical analyses, and permits us todetermine independent distances to a further 449 outflows. Thesedistances are shown to be closely comparable to those determined using aTB-R correlation, providing that the latter trend is taken tobe non-linear.This non-linearity in the TB-R plane has not been noted inprevious analyses, and is likely responsible for the broad (andconflicting) ranges of distance that have previously been published.Finally, we point out that there is a close accord between observedtrends within the L5-TB and TB-Rplanes, and the variation predicted through nebular evolutionarymodelling. This is used to suggest that observational biases areprobably modest, and that our revised distance scale is reasonablytrustworthy.

The relation between Zanstra temperature and morphology in planetary nebulae
We have created a master list of Zanstra temperatures for 373 galacticplanetary nebulae based upon a compilation of 1575 values taken from thepublished literature. These are used to evaluate mean trends intemperature for differing nebular morphologies. Among the most prominentresults of this analysis is the tendency forη=TZ(HeII)/TZ(HeI) to increase with nebularradius, a trend which is taken to arise from the evolution of shelloptical depths. We find that as many as 87 per cent of nebulae may beoptically thin to H ionizing radiation where radii exceed ~0.16 pc. Wealso note that the distributions of values η and TZ(HeII)are quite different for circular, elliptical and bipolar nebulae. Acomparison of observed temperatures with theoretical H-burning trackssuggests that elliptical and circular sources arise from progenitorswith mean mass ≅ 1 Msolar(although the elliptical progenitors are probably more massive).Higher-temperature elliptical sources are likely to derive fromprogenitors with mass ≅2 Msolar, however, implying thatthese nebulae (at least) are associated with a broad swathe ofprogenitor masses. Such a conclusion is also supported by trends in meangalactic latitude. It is found that higher-temperature ellipticalsources have much lower mean latitudes than those with smallerTZ(HeII), a trend which is explicable where there is anincrease in with increasing TZ(HeII).This latitude-temperature variation also applies for most other sources.Bipolar nebulae appear to have mean progenitor masses ≅2.5Msolar, whilst jets, Brets and other highly collimatedoutflows are associated with progenitors at the other end of the massrange (~ 1 Msolar). Indeed it ispossible, given their large mean latitudes and low peak temperatures,that the latter nebulae are associated with the lowest-mass progenitorsof all.The present results appear fully consistent with earlier analyses basedupon nebular scale heights, shell abundances and the relativeproportions of differing morphologies, and offer further evidence for alink between progenitor mass and morphology.

Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinates
We have used the 2nd generation of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC-II) asa reference astrometric catalogue to compile the positions of 1086Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) listed in the Strasbourg ESO Catalogue(SEC), its supplement and the version 2000 of the Catalogue of PlanetaryNebulae. This constitutes about 75% of all known PNe. For these PNe, theones with a known central star (CS) or with a small diameter, we havederived coordinates with an absolute accuracy of ~0\farcs35 in eachcoordinate, which is the intrinsic astrometric precision of the GSC-II.For another 226, mostly extended, objects without a GSC-II counterpartwe give coordinates based on the second epoch Digital Sky Survey(DSS-II). While these coordinates may have systematic offsets relativeto the GSC-II of up to 5 arcsecs, our new coordinates usually representa significant improvement over the previous catalogue values for theselarge objects. This is the first truly homogeneous compilation of PNepositions over the whole sky and the most accurate one available so far.The complete Table \ref{tab2} is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/1029}

The Correlations between Planetary Nebula Morphology and Central Star Evolution: Analysis of the Northern Galactic Sample
Northern Galactic planetary nebulae (PNs) are studied to disclosepossible correlations between the morphology of the nebulae and theevolution of the central stars (CSs). To this end, we have built thebest database available to date, accounting for homogeneity andcompleteness. We use updated statistical distances and an updatedmorphological classification scheme, and we calculate Zanstratemperatures for a large sample of PNs. With our study we confirm thatround, elliptical, and bipolar PNs have different spatial distributionswithin the Galaxy, with average absolute distances to the Galactic planeof 0.73, 0.38, and 0.21 kpc, respectively. We also find evidence thatthe distributions of the CS masses are different across thesemorphological groups, although we do not find that CSs hosted by bipolarPNs are hotter, on average, than CSs within round and elliptical PNs.Our results are in broad agreement with previous analyses, indicatingthat round, elliptical, and bipolar PNs evolve from progenitors indifferent mass ranges and might belong to different stellar populations,as also indicated by the helium and nitrogen abundances of PNs ofdifferent morphology.

Shaping Bipolar and Elliptical Planetary Nebulae: Effects of Stellar Rotation, Photoionization Heating, and Magnetic Fields
We present two-dimensional hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamicalsimulations of the evolution of planetary nebulae formed through theinteraction of two succeeding, time-independent stellar winds. Bothwinds are modeled according to a consistent physical prescription forthe latitudinal dependence of their properties. We propose that singlestars with initial masses above ~1.3 M_solar can achieve near-criticalrotation rates during their ``superwind'' phase at the tip of theasymptotic giant branch (AGB). We show that the resulting equatoriallyconfined winds and their subsequent inflation to a double lobe structureby the post-AGB wind leads to the typical hourglass shape found in manyplanetary nebulae, such as MyCn 18. Following Chevalier & Luo andRóżyczka & Franco, we then combine the effect of amagnetic field in the post-AGB wind with rotating AGB winds. We obtainhighly collimated bipolar nebula shapes, reminiscent of M2-9 or He2-437. For sufficiently strong fields, ansae and jets, similar to thoseobserved in IC 4593 are formed in the polar regions of the nebula.Weaker fields are found to be able to account for the shapes ofclassical elliptical nebulae, e.g., NGC 6905, in the case of sphericallysymmetric AGB winds, which we propose for single stars with initialmasses below ~1.3 M_solar. Photoionization, via instabilities in theionization-shock front, can generate irregularities in the shape of thesimulated nebulae. In particular, it leads to the formation of cometaryknots, similar to those seen in the Helix nebula (NGC 7293). This effectmay also be responsible for large-scale irregularities like those foundin Sh 2-71 or WeSb 4. We arrive at a scenario in which the majority ofthe planetary nebula with their diverse morphologies is obtained fromsingle stars. This scenario is consistent with the Galactic distributionof the different nebula types, since spherical and ellipticalnebulae-which have a distribution with a large scale height above theGalactic plane-are ascribed to progenitor masses below ~1.3 M_solar,with magnetic effects introducing ellipticities. Bipolar nebulae, on theother hand-which are on average closer to the Galactic plane-are foundto stem from progenitors with initial masses above ~1.3 M_solar.

The kinematics of 867 galactic planetary nebulae
We present a compilation of radial velocities of 867 galactic planetarynebulae. Almost 900 new measurements are included. Previously publishedkinematical data are compared with the new high-resolution data toassess their accuracies. One of the largest samples in the literatureshows evidence for a systematic velocity offset. We calculate weightedaverages between all available data. Of the final values in thecatalogue, 90% have accuracies better than 20 km s(-1) . We use thiscompilation to derive kinematical parameters of the galacticdifferential rotation obtained from least-square fitting and toestablish the Disk rotation curve; we find no significal trend for thepresence of an increasing external rotation curve. We examine also therotation of the bulge; the derived curve is consistent with a linearlyincreasing rotation velocity with l: we find V_b,r=(9.9+/-1.3)l -(6.7+/-8.5) km s(-1) . A possible steeper gradient in the innermostregion is indicated. Table 2 is available in electronic form only, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Planetary Nebulae in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey
The 1.4 GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) images and source catalog wereused to detect radio emission from the 885 planetary nebulae north ofJ2000 declination delta = -40 deg in the Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue ofGalactic Planetary Nebulae. We identified 680 radio sources brighterthan about S = 2.5 mJy beam-1 (equivalent to T ~ 0.8 K in the 45" FWHMNVSS beam) with planetary nebulae by coincidence with accurate opticalpositions measured from Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) images. Totalextinction coefficients c at lambda = 4861 Angstroms were calculated forthe 429 planetary nebulae with available H beta fluxes and low free-freeoptical depths at 1.4 GHz. The variation of c with Galactic latitude andlongitude is consistent with the extinction being primarily interstellarand not intrinsic.

A Morphological Study of Planetary Nebulae
We have produced simulated images of 110 planetary nebulae using theellipsoidal shell model. This process has allowed us to remove theprojection effects from the morphological classification of planetarynebulae and has provided quantitative measures of the intrinsicasymmetries of the nebulae. It is shown that the morphology of mostplanetary nebulae can be reproduced with pole-to-equator density ratiosof 0.1-1. Many planetary nebulae also show a modest departure from axialsymmetry. Contrary to previous findings by Khromov & Kohoutek, thesky orientation of planetary nebulae in this sample is consistent with apurely random distribution. Extremely bipolar nebulae (e.g., those ofbutterfly shape) point to a steep density profile in the AGB envelopeand are more likely to be type I (high helium and/or nitrogen abundance)nebulae. We found evidence that these nebulae are likely to have moremassive progenitors and are at a more advanced stage of dynamicalevolution.

A self-consistent determination of distances, physical parameters, and chemical composition for a large sample of galactic planetary nebulae: chemical composition
The relative abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Ar arepresented for, respectively, 185, 65, 212, 221, 180, 13, 41, 197, and205 Galactic planetary nebulae. The observed stages of ionization weretaken into account using the relations between the relative abundancesof different ions derived from a grid of photoionization models for thenebular emission. The chemical compositions of all the planetary nebulaewere determined using the same method and the same atomic data, so thatthe results have a high degree of uniformity; this is the first timethis has been done for such a large sample of Galactic planetary nebulae(221 objects).

A self-consistent determination of the distances, physical parameters, and chemical composition for a large sample of galactic planetary nebulae: The distances and parameters of central stars and the optical depths of envelopes
The distances and parameters of the central stars and the optical depthsof the envelopes in the Lyman limits of neutral hydrogen and neutralhelium were determined in a self-consistent way for 170 Galacticplanetary nebulae (PNe). The distance to each PN was so chosen that thetheoretically calculated evolutionary age of its nucleus was equal tothe dynamical age of its expanding envelope. The effective temperatureof the central star and its related parameters were determined either bythe generalized energy-balance method or, where appropriate, byZanstra's method. The derived distance estimates lend support to a`long' distance scale for PNe and are generally in agreement withcurrent individual and statistical estimates of the distances to PNeavailable in the literature. The mean distance to the bulge PNe is 7.9+/- 0.3 kpc, in agreement with the distance to the Galactic center. Themasses of the central stars of PNe corresponding to the deriveddistances are closely correlated with the nebular nitrogen-to-oxygenabundance ratio.

Properties That Cannot Be Explained by the Progenitors of Planetary Nebulae
I classify a large number of planetary nebulae (458) according to theprocess that caused their progenitors to blow axisymmetrical winds. Theclassification is based primarily on the morphologies of the differentplanetary nebulae, assuming that binary companions, stellar orsubstellar, are necessary in order to have axisymmetrical mass loss onthe asymptotic giant branch. I propose four evolutionary classes,according to the binary-model hypothesis: (1) Progenitors of planetarynebula that did not interact with any companion. These amount to ~10% ofall planetary nebulae. (2) Progenitors that interact with stellarcompanions that avoided a common envelope, 11^{+2}_{-3}% of all nebulae.(3) Progenitors that interact with stellar companions via a commonenvelope phase, 23^{+11}_{-5}% of all nebulae. (4) Progenitors thatinteract with substellar (i.e., planets and brown dwarfs) companions viaa common envelope phase, 56^{+5}_{-8}% of all nebulae. In order todefine and build the different classes, I start with clarifying somerelevant terms and processes related to binary evolution. I then discusskinematical and morphological properties of planetary nebulae thatappear to require the interaction of the planetary nebula progenitorsand/or their winds with companions, stellar or substellar.

Planetary nebulae morphologies, central star masses and nebular properties.
We have constituted a sample of about 80 PN with defined morphologiesand well observed basic parameters (fluxes, angular radii, expansionvelocities and magnitudes of the central stars). For these PN, we havederived the central star masses by comparing the observed set ofparameters with those predicted by a simple evolutionary model of a PN,expanding at the same velocity as the observed one. We have thenexamined the relations between the PN morphological types and otherproperties, linked to the central star mass. Bipolar PN are shown tohave a wider distribution of central star masses than the rest of PN,and shifted towards higher values. They lie closer to the Galactic planeand tend to have larger N/O ratios. Point symmetric PN, which have notbeen much studied so far, are found to constitute an outstanding class.They show an almost perfect M_*_-v_exp_ correlation. They correspond toa rather short evolutionary stage of PN. They lie, on average, furtherfrom the Galactic plane than bipolar PN and tend to have lower N/O.Globally, PN with higher central star masses are found closer to theGalactic plane, and the observed relation between N/O and M_*_ isroughly consistent with the predictions from evolutionary models for AGBstars.

H2 Emission from Planetary Nebulae: Signpost of Bipolar Structure
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...462..777K&db_key=AST

Radiation gasdynamics of planetary nebulae - VI. The evolution of aspherical planetary nebulae
This paper reports the results of the numerical study of the formationof aspherical planetary nebulae through the generalized interactingwinds model, taking into account the effects caused by the evolvingcentral star and fast wind. The results show for the first time thataspherical nebulae do form within the required time-scale. Considerationof the development of the nebula shows that in the early stages it isthe ionization of the aspherical AGB wind that contributes considerablyto the shaping of the nebula. Furthermore, the passing through of theionization front may modify the density distribution in the slow wind,leading to the formation of a surrounding envelope, and sometimes adifferent morphology for the nebula from that to be expected from theinitial conditions. I consider how the different phases of ionizationfronts and wind swept bubbles can be observationally distinguished.

A statistical distance scale for Galactic planetary nebulae
A statistical distance scale is proposed. It is based on the correlationbetween the ionized mass and the radius and the correlation between theradio continuum surface brightness temperature and the nebular radius.The proposed statistical distance scale is an average of the twodistances obtained while using the correlation. These correlations,calibrated based on the 1`32 planetary nebulae with well-determinedindividual distances by Zhang, can reproduce not only the averagedistance of a sample of Galactic Bulge planetary nebulae exactly at thedistance to the Galactic center, but also the expected Gaussiandistribution of their distances around the Galactic center. This newdistance scale is applied to 647 Galactic planetary nebulae. It isestimated that this distance scale can be accurate on average to35%-50%. Our statistical distance scale is in good agreement with theone recently proposed by Van de Steene and Zijlstra. The correlationsfound in this study can be attributed to the fact that the core mass ofthe central stars has a very sharp distribution, strongly peaked atapprox. 0.6 solar mass. We stress that the scatter seen in thestatistical distance scale is likely to be real. The scatter is causedby the fact that the core mass distribution, although narrow andstrongly peaked, has a finite width.

The gasdynamic evolution of spherical planetary nebulae. Radiation-gasdynamics of PNe III.
Using a radiation-gasdynamics code the evolution of spherical planetarynebulae is followed, while taking into account the evolution of centralstar and the fast wind. These models show the importance of ionizationfronts for the structure of planetary nebulae, especially for the socalled multiple shell nebulae (MSPN). It is shown that the outer shellis formed by the ionization front while the inner shell is swept-up bythe fast wind. These models explain the emission profiles of the outershells as well as their various kinematic properties. Because they areshaped by the ionization front these outer shells only give indirectinformation on the AGB mass loss history. The models indicate thattypical MSPN structures point to mass loss variations during the AGBphase. The ionization also leads to a stalling of the expansion of thenebula, leading to nebulae with expansion ages lower than theirevolutionary age. Values for ionized mass and Zanstra temperatures arederived from the models.

A catalogue HeII 4686 line intensities in Galactic planetary nebulae.
We have compiled the intensities of the HeII 4686 lines measured inGalactic planetary nebulae. We present a few observational diagramsrelated to this parameter, and discuss them with the help of theoreticaldiagrams obtained from simple model planetary nebulae surroundingevolving central stars of various masses. We determine the hydrogen andhelium Zanstra temperature for all the objects with accurate enoughdata. We argue that, for Galactic planetary nebulae as a whole, the maincause for the Zanstra discrepancy is leakage of stellar ionizing photonsfrom the nebulae.

Confrontation of theoretical tracks for post-AGB stars with observations of planetary nebulae
We have constructed a distance-independent diagram to test publishedtheoretical tracks for the evolution of post-AGB stars by comparing themwith the Galactic planetary nebulae data base. We have found noinconsistency between observations and the set of tracks computed bySchoenberner (1981, 1983) and Bloecker & Schoenberner (1990). On theother hand, observations do not seem support the large transition timesbetween the end of the AGB superwind and the beginning of the planetarynebula ionization phase adopted in the models of Vassiliadis & Wood(1994).

Ashes to ashes and dust to dust.
Not Available

Astrophysical gasdynamics confronts reality - The shaping of planetary nebulae
We present two-dimensional numerical simulations, which use techniquesof radiation gasdynamics to simulate the structures of planetary nebulae(PNs). Our model incorporates realistic volume emissivities in order tofully account for the conversion of mechanical and thermal energy intoradiation. The model also produces detailed predictions of observablessuch as projected structure (e.g., H-alpha and forbidden N II images)and kinematic patterns. Virtually the full range of PN morphologies areeasily reproduced, as are the basic kinematics, ionization structures,and temperatures.

The extinction constants for galactic planetary nebulae
The extinction constants are determined from Balmer decrementmeasurements for over 900 planetary nebulae. Comparison with publishedextinction constants shows that the results from ESO are fairlyreliable. An analysis of the extinction constants derived from theBalmer decrement and from the radio/Hβ flux ratio indicates thatthe latter tends to be systematically smaller than the former forincreasing extinction. We suggest that the radio measurements ofPottasch's group probably underestimate the radio fluxes, at least forsome (faintest) objects.

A catalogue of absolute fluxes and distances of planetary nebulae
The paper presents a complete list of averaged recalibrated absoluteH-beta fluxes, global (where possible) relative He II lambda 4686fluxes, 5 GHz radio flux densities, and H-alpha/H-beta interstellarextinction constants for 778 Galactic planetary nebulae. The catalogprovides much of the fundamental data required to generate Zanstratemperatures. When data with the lowest errors are selected, the opticaland radio/optical extinctions show a peculiar correlation, with theradio values slightly high at low extinction and notably low at highextinction. The data are used, along with the best estimates of angulardiameters, to calculate Shklovsky distances according to the Daub schemeon the scale used earlier by Cahn and Kaler (1971). Use of this distancescale shows approximate equality of the death rates of optically thickand optically thin planetary nebulae. The method gives the correctdistances to the Magellanic Clouds.

Strasbourg - ESO catalogue of galactic planetary nebulae. Part 1; Part 2
Not Available

The absolute H-beta fluxes for galactic planetary nebulae
The absolute H-beta flux measurements from spectrophotometricobservations of about 880 galactic planetary nebulae are presented. Thegalactic coordinates of PNe and the adopted diameters for the nebulae inarcsec are given. The final values of the H-beta flux, corrected for thenebular extension, are presented and compared to the results of othermeasurements.

Excitation class of nebulae - an evolution criterion?
A principally new quantitative system of the classification of thespectra of planetary nebulae is proposed. Spectral class of excitationclass of the nebula p is determined according to the relativeintensities of forbidden mission lines (N1 + N2) O III/4686 He II and(N1 + N2) O III/H-beta. The excitation classes are obtained for 142planetary nebulae of all classes - low (p = 1-3), middle (p = 4-8), andhigh (p = 9-12/+/). An empirical relationship between excitation classp, as an independent parameter, admit an evolutionary interpretation. Itis shown that after reaching the highest class of excitation p = 12(+)the nebulae decrease their class of excitation with the furtherincreases of sizes.

Large planetary nebulae and their significance to the late stages of stellar evolution
Spectrophotometry of 75 large PNe with Shklovsky radii greater than 0.15pc is presented and used to calculate nebular parameters andcompositions, stellar Zanstra temperatures and luminosities, and coremasses. Nine new Peimbert type I nebulae are identified. About 40percent of the stars that are on cooling tracks are above 0.7 solarmass, and over 15 percent are above 0.8 solar mass. The largeplanetaries demonstrate a clear positive correlation between nitrogenenrichment and core mass. N/O is anticorrelated with O/H. The radii ofthe nebulae whose stars lie along specific cooling tracks increasemonotonically with decreasing central star temperature. For a givencentral temperature, the nebular radii also increase with increasingcore mass, showing that in this part of the log L-log T plane the highermass cores evolve more slowly in agreement with theoretical prediction.However, theoretical evolutionary rates for the large nebulae starsappear to be much too slow.

Dynamical evolution of planetary nebulae. II - Ionization of shells in planetary nebulae and the formation of low-ionization knots
The Ly-c photon emission rate of a planetary nebula (PN) nucleus variesconsiderably during the lifetime of the PN itself. The growth of thisrate is accompanied by the acceleration of the fast wind. The state ofionization of a momentum-driven shell and the subsequent expansion of anH II region are calculated. During the first 2000-3000 yr, the H IIregion can be the dominant feature of the PN, filling up to 80 percentof its volume. The model can account for many observed features, such asa bright inner ring, low-ionization knots, and a faint surrounding halo.Velocities are smaller during the momentum-driven phase of theexpansion, and the derived estimates for ages of PNe are systematicallyhigher than in a model where the fast wind starts up instantaneously.

The kinematic structure of NGC 7139
Spatio-kinematic data obtained using Taurus I on the Isaac NewtonTelescope, are presented for the northern Galactic planetary nebula NGC7139 in the emission lines 5007 and 6300 A. Additional low dispersion,long slit, spectra were also taken to obtain information on the centralstar and the nebular visual spectrum. A three-dimensional modelgeometrical structure for the nebula was deduced, from which modelTaurus cubes could be derived for comparison with the data. The best fitmodels have been obtained with a two-component structure to describe thePN, namely an optically thick toroidal part and an optically thin (inthe Lyman continuum) biconical section.

Kinematics in planetary nebulae - results from TAURUS.
Not Available

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:21h46m08.59s
Apparent magnitude:99.9

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NGC 2000.0NGC 7139

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