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 Neutral hydrogen gas in 7 high-inclination spiral galaxies. I. The dataHigh-sensitivity interferometric H i line observations of a small sampleof seven galaxies with limiting column densities of a few times1019 cm-2 are presented. A tilted ring modelfitting routine was used to determine some global characteristics of theH i distribution and kinematics in the galaxy disks. 4 of the 7 galaxieshave low maximum rotation velocities of 125 km s-1,indicating that they are low-mass systems. Visual inspection shows thatat least one galaxy, NGC 4700, exhibits signs of extraplanar H iemission. An in-depth search for H i gas in the galaxy halos and thedetermination of halo gas properties, based on three-dimensionalmodeling, will follow in a separate publication. Companion galaxies weredetected in H i line emission near 3 of the 7 sample galaxies: NGC 1511,NGC 4565 and NGC 4700. One of these, NGC 1511, is found to be stronglyinteracting and is therefore not suitable for a study of the dependenceof its halo properties on the level of star formation activity in theunderlying disk. In the case of NGC 4700 the companion galaxy has novisible influence on its gas kinematics, while NGC 4565 might beaffected by its interaction with two small companions.Figures [see full text] and Appendix A are only available in electronicform at http://www.edpsciences.org A Survey for H2O Megamasers. III. Monitoring Water Vapor Masers in Active GalaxiesWe present single-dish monitoring of the spectra of 13 extragalacticwater megamasers taken over a period of 9 years and a single epoch ofsensitive spectra for seven others. The primary motivation is a searchfor drifting line velocities analogous to those of the systemic featuresin NGC 4258, which are known to result from centripetal acceleration ofgas in an edge-on, subparsec molecular disk. We detect a velocity driftanalogous to that in NGC 4258 in only one source, NGC 2639. Another, themaser source in NGC 1052, exhibits erratic changes in its broad maserprofile over time. Narrow maser features in all of the other diskgalaxies discussed here either remain essentially constant in velocityover the monitoring period or are sufficiently weak or variable inintensity that individual features cannot be traced reliably from oneepoch to the next. In the context of a circumnuclear, molecular diskmodel, our results suggest that either (a) the maser lines seen aresystemic features subject to a much smaller acceleration than present inNGC 4258, presumably because the gas is farther from the nuclear blackhole, or (b) we are detecting satellite'' lines for which theacceleration is in the plane of the sky.Our data include the first K-band science observations taken with thenew 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The GBT data were taken duringtesting and commissioning of several new components and so are subjectto some limitations; nevertheless, they are in most cases the mostsensitive H2O spectra ever taken for each source and cover800 MHz (~=10,800 km s-1) of bandwidth. Many new maserfeatures are detected in these observations. Our data also include atentative and a clear detection of the megamaser in NGC 6240 at epochs ayear and a few months, respectively, prior to the detections reported byHagiwara et al. and Nakai et al.We also report a search for water vapor masers toward the nuclei of 58highly inclined (i>80deg), nearby galaxies. These sourceswere selected to investigate the tendency that H2O megamasersfavor inclined galaxies. None were detected, confirming that megamasersare associated exclusively with active galactic nuclei. The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy SampleIRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above thecharacteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs. The 2MASS Large Galaxy AtlasWe present the largest galaxies as seen in the near-infrared (1-2μm), imaged with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), ranging inangular size from 1' to 1.5d. We highlight the 100 largest in thesample. The galaxies span all Hubble morphological types, includingelliptical galaxies, normal and barred spirals, and dwarf and peculiarclasses. The 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas provides the necessary sensitivityand angular resolution to examine in detail morphologies in thenear-infrared, which may be radically different from those in theoptical. Internal structures such as spirals, bulges, warps, rings,bars, and star formation regions are resolved by 2MASS. In addition tolarge mosaic images, the atlas includes astrometric, photometric, andshape global measurements for each galaxy. A comparison of fundamentalmeasures (e.g., surface brightness, Hubble type) is carried out for thesample and compared with the Third Reference Catalogue. We furthershowcase NGC 253 and M51 (NGC 5194/5195) to demonstrate the quality anddepth of the data. The atlas represents the first uniform, all-sky,dust-penetrated view of galaxies of every type, as seen in thenear-infrared wavelength window that is most sensitive to the dominantmass component of galaxies. The images and catalogs are availablethrough the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database and Infrared ScienceArchive and are part of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog. An Hα survey aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in halos of edge-on spiral galaxies. II. The Hα survey atlas and catalogIn this second paper on the investigation of extraplanar diffuse ionizedgas in nearby edge-on spiral galaxies we present the actual results ofthe individual galaxies of our Hα imaging survey. A grand totalof 74 galaxies have been studied, including the 9 galaxies of a recentlystudied sub-sample \citep{Ro00}. 40.5% of all studied galaxies revealextraplanar diffuse ionized gas, whereas in 59.5% of the survey galaxiesno extraplanar diffuse ionized gas could be detected. The averagedistances of this extended emission above the galactic midplane rangefrom 1-2 kpc, while individual filaments in a few galaxies reachdistances of up to |z| ~ 6 kpc. In several cases a pervasive layer ofionized gas was detected, similar to the Reynolds layer in our MilkyWay, while other galaxies reveal only extended emission locally. Themorphology of the diffuse ionized gas is discussed for each galaxy andis compared with observations of other important ISM constituents in thecontext of the disk-halo connection, in those cases where publishedresults were available. Furthermore, we present the distribution ofextraplanar dust in these galaxies, based on an analysis of theunsharp-masked R-band images. The results are compared with thedistribution of the diffuse ionized gas.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile (ESO No. 63.N-0070, ESO No. 64.N-0034, ESO No. 65.N.-0002).\ref{fig22}-\ref{fig54} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org An Hα survey aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in halos of edge-on spiral galaxies. I. How common are gaseous halos among non-starburst galaxies?In a series of two papers we present results of a new Hα imagingsurvey, aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas inhalos of late-type spiral galaxies. We have investigated a sample of 74nearby edge-on spirals, covering the northern and southern hemisphere.In 30 galaxies we detected extraplanar diffuse emission at meandistances of |z| ~ 1-2 kpc. Individual filaments can be traced out to|z|<=6 kpc in a few cases. We find a good correlation between the FIRflux ratio (S60/S100) and the SFR per unit area(LFIR/D225), based on thedetections/non-detections. This is actually valid for starburst, normaland for quiescent galaxies. A minimal SFR per unit area for the lowestS60/S100 values, at which extended emission hasbeen detected, was derived, which amounts to dotEA25thres = (3.2+/-0.5)*E40ergs-1 kpc-2. There are galaxies where extraplanaremission was detected at smaller values ofLFIR/D225, however, only in combinationwith a significantly enhanced dust temperature. The results corroboratethe general view that the gaseous halos are a direct consequence of SFactivity in the underlying galactic disk.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile (ESO No. 63.N-0070, ESO No. 64.N-0034, ESO No. 65.N.-0002). A catalog of warps in spiral and lenticular galaxies in the Southern hemisphereA catalog of optical warps of galaxies is presented. This can beconsidered complementary to that reported by Sánchez-Saavedra etal. (\cite{sanchez-saavedra}), with 42 galaxies in the northernhemisphere, and to that by Reshetnikov & Combes(\cite{reshetnikov99}), with 60 optical warps. The limits of the presentcatalog are: logr 25 > 0.60, B_t< 14.5, delta (2000) <0deg, -2.5 < t < 7. Therefore, lenticular galaxies havealso been considered. This catalog lists 150 warped galaxies out of asample of 276 edge-on galaxies and covers the whole southern hemisphere,except the Avoidance Zone. It is therefore very suitable for statisticalstudies of warps. It also provides a source guide for detailedparticular observations. We confirm the large frequency of warpedspirals: nearly all galaxies are warped. The frequency and warp angle donot present important differences for the different types of spirals.However, no lenticular warped galaxy has been found within the specifiedlimits. This finding constitutes an important restriction fortheoretical models. Warps and correlations with intrinsic parameters of galaxies in the visible and radioFrom a comparison of the different parameters of warped galaxies in theradio, and especially in the visible, we find that: a) No large galaxy(large mass or radius) has been found to have high amplitude in thewarp, and there is no correlation of size/mass with the degree ofasymmetry of the warp. b) The disc density and the ratio of dark toluminous mass show an opposing trend: smaller values give moreasymmetric warps in the inner radii (optical warps) but show nocorrelation with the amplitude of the warp; however, in the externalradii is there no correlation with asymmetry. c) A third anticorrelationappears in a comparison of the amplitude and degree of asymmetry in thewarped galaxies. Hence, it seems that very massive dark matter haloeshave nothing to do with the formation of warps but only with the degreeof symmetry in the inner radii, and are unrelated to the warp shape forthe outermost radii. Denser discs show the same dependence. Homogenization of the Stellar Population along Late-Type Spiral GalaxiesWe present a study of the broadband UBV color profiles for 257 Sbcbarred and nonbarred galaxies, using photoelectric aperture photometrydata from the literature. Using robust statistical methods, we haveestimated the color gradients of the galaxies, as well as the total andbulge mean colors. A comparative photometric study using CCD images wasdone. In our sample, the color gradients are negative (reddish inward)in approximately 59% of the objects, are almost null in 27%, and arepositive in 14%, considering only the face-on galaxies, which representapproximately 51% of the sample. The results do not change, essentially,when we include the edge-on galaxies. As a consequence of this study wehave also found that barred galaxies are overrepresented among theobjects having null or positive gradients, indicating that bars act as amechanism of homogenization of the stellar population. This effect ismore evident in the U-B color index, although it can also be detected inthe B-V color. A correlation between the total and bulge colors wasfound that is a consequence of an underlying correlation between thecolors of bulges and disks found by other authors. Moreover, the meantotal color is the same irrespective of the gradient regime, whilebulges are bluer in galaxies with null or positive gradients, whichindicates an increase of the star formation rate in the central regionsof these objects. We have also made a quantitative evaluation of theamount of extinction in the center of these galaxies. This was doneusing the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and the Near InfraredCamera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Hubble Space Telescope(HST) archival data, as well as CCD B, V, and I images. We show thatalthough the extinction in the V-band can reach values up to 2 mag inthe central region, it is unlikely that dust plays a fundamental role inglobal color gradients. We found no correlation between color and O/Habundance gradients. This result could suggest that the color gradientsare more sensitive to the age rather than to the metallicity of thestellar population. However, the absence of this correlation may becaused by dust extinction. We discuss this result by considering apicture in which bars are a relatively fast, recurrent phenomenon. Theseresults are not compatible with a pure classical monolithic scenario forbulge and disk formation. On the contrary, they favor a scenario inwhich both these components are evolving in a correlated process inwhich stellar bars play a crucial role. Based partly on observationsmade at the Pico dos Dias Observatory (PDO/LNA-CNPq), Brazil. Warm dust as a tracer of galaxies with gaseous halosWe present radio continuum observations conducted with the VLA and ATCAof a sample of 15 edge-on spiral galaxies. 11 of these galaxies, withinclination angles of i >~ 75o and neither active galacticnuclei nor nearby interaction partners, are suitable for studies of haloproperties in relation to the level of star formation in their disks. In6 of these 11 galaxies radio halos were detected at the angularresolution of the current data. In the remaining cases the presence ofhalo emission could not be proven unambiguously, partly due torelatively low angular resolution. A clear trend was found that galaxieswith radio halos are those with the highest far-infrared 60 mu m to 100mu m flux ratios. This shows the suitability of highf60/f100 ratios of >=0.4 as a reliable tracerof galaxies with high star formation rates and related disk-halointeractions, leading to the presence of extraplanar emission, e.g. fromcosmic ray electrons. The measured exponential scale heights of those 6radio halos that were clearly detected range from about 1.4 to 3.1 kpc.All 4 physically small galaxies in our sample do show extraplanarsynchrotron radio emission, indicating that their more shallowgravitational potential compared to normal-sized spirals mightfacilitate the escape of cosmic-ray electrons from the sites of starformation in their disks. Although the galaxies with the highest energyinput rates into the ISM of their disks are those that have the mostprominent radio halos, there is no direct relation between the haloscale heights and the energy input rates. Instead, the scale heights ofthe radio halos are dominated by the energy losses of the cosmic rayelectrons on their way out of the galaxy disks. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. StatisticsWe present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxiesWe present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory. The Montreal Blue Galaxy Survey.III.Third List of UV-Bright CandidatesWe present and discuss the latest addition of the Montreal Blue Galaxy(MBG) survey. Inspection of 59 Curtis Schmidt plates resulted in theidentification of 135 new UV-bright galaxies with B < 15.5. Thisbrings the total number of MBGs to 469. New results of the V/V_m testshow that our survey is complete to B = 14.7. From our most recentspectroscopic follow-up, we confirm the discovery of one new Seyfert 1galaxy and possibly one new Seyfert 2 galaxy. We confirm also the biasof the MBG survey towards the low-excitation and metal rich StarburstNucleus Galaxies (SBNGs). The spectral characteristics of the MBGs aresimilar to those of the infrared luminous IRAS galaxies. As a commoncharacteristic, they show a mean ratio Log([NII]/Hα ) in excess of0.2 dex as compared to normal disk HII regions. In general, the MBGshave lower far-infrared luminosities (LIR < 10(11)Lsun) and are nearer (z < 0.05) than the luminous IRASgalaxies. The distribution of the morphologies of the MBGs indicates ahigh number of early-type spirals (Sb and earlier). Nearly half of thesegalaxies also possess a bar. In our sample, the fraction of galaxieswith bars depends on the morphology and increases towards the late-typespirals. However, if we consider only isolated galaxies, the late-typespirals show a clear tendency to be barred. Signs of a recentinteraction with neighbor galaxies are obvious only in 24% of ourcandidates. Although this number is only a lower limit, it isnevertheless sufficiently low to suggest that in a majority of massivegalaxies the burst of star formation do not depends solely on dynamicalprocesses. The APM Bright Galaxy CatalogueThe APM Bright Galaxy Catalogue lists positions, magnitudes, shapes andmorphological types for 14681 galaxies brighter than b_J magnitude16.44, over a 4180 deg^2 area of the southern sky. Galaxy and stellarimages have been located from glass copy plates of the United KingdomSchmidt Telescope (UKST) IIIaJ sky survey using the automatedphotographic measuring (APM) facility in Cambridge, England. Themajority of stellar images are rejected by the regularity of their imagesurface brightness profiles. Remaining images are inspected by eye onfilm copies of the survey material and classed as stellar, multiplestellar, galaxy, merger or noise. Galaxies are further classified aselliptical, lenticular, spiral, irregular or uncertain. The 180 surveyfields are put on to a uniform photometric system by comparing themagnitudes of galaxies in the overlap regions between neighbouringplates. The magnitude zero-point, photometric uniformity andphotographic saturation are checked with CCD photometry. Finally, thecompleteness and reliability of the catalogue are assessed by usingvarious internal tests and by comparison with several independentlyconstructed galaxy catalogues. The Absence of X-Ray Flashes from Nearby Galaxies and the Gamma-Ray Burst Distance ScaleIf typical gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have X-ray counterparts similar tothose detected by Ginga, then sensitive-focusing X-ray telescopes willbe able to detect GRBs 3 orders of magnitude fainter than the detectionlimit of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). If asubstantial portion of the burst population detected by BATSE originatesin a Galactic halo at distances greater than or equal to 150 kpc,existing X-ray telescopes will be able to detect GRBs in externalgalaxies out to a distance of at least 4.5 Mpc. As reported in Gotthelf,Hamilton, & Helfand, the imaging proportional counter (IPC) on boardthe Einstein Observatory detected 42 transient events with pointlikespatial characteristics and timescales of less than 10 s. These eventsare distributed isotropically on the sky; in particular, they are notconcentrated in the directions of nearby external galaxies. For halomodels of the BATSE bursts with radii of 150 kpc or greater, we wouldexpect to see several burst events in observations pointed toward nearbygalaxies. We see none. We therefore conclude that if the Gingadetections are representative of the population of GRBs sampled byBATSE, GRBs cannot originate in a Galactic halo population with limitingradii between 150 and 400 kpc. Inasmuch as halos with limiting radiioutside of this range have been excluded by the BATSE isotropymeasurements, our result indicates that all halo models are excluded.This result is independent of whether the flashes we do detect have anastronomical origin. Recalibration of the H-0.5 magnitudes of spiral galaxiesThe H-magnitude aperture data published by the Aaronson et al.collaboration over a 10 year period is collected into a homogeneous dataset of 1731 observations of 665 galaxies. Ninety-six percent of thesegalaxies have isophotal diameters and axial ratios determined by theThird Reference Cataloque of Bright Galaxies (RC3; de Vaucouleurs et al.1991), the most self-consistent set of optical data currently available.The precepts governing the optical data in the RC3 are systematicallydifferent from those of the Second Reference Catalogue (de Vaucouleurs,de Vaucouleurs, & Corwin 1976), which were used by Aaronson et al.for their original analyses of galaxy peculiar motions. This in turnleads to systematic differences in growth curves and fiducialH-magnitudes, prompting the present recalibration of the near-infraredTully-Fisher relationship. New optically normalized H-magnitude growthcurves are defined for galaxies of types SO to Im, from which new valuesof fiducial H-magnitudes, Hg-0.5, are measured forthe 665 galaxies. A series of internal tests show that these fourstandard growth curves are defined to an accuracy of 0.05 mag over theinterval -1.5 less than or equal to log (A/Dg) less than orequal to -0.2. Comparisons with the Aaronson et al. values of diameters,axial ratios, and fiducial H-magnitudes show the expected differences,given the different definitions of these parameters. The values ofHg-0.5 are assigned quality indices: a qualityvalue of 1 indicates an accuracy of less than 0.2 mag, quality 2indicates an accuracy of 0.2-0.35 mag, and quality 3 indicates anaccuracy of more than 0.35 mag. Revised values of corrected H I velocitywidths are also given, based on the new set of axial ratios defiend bythe RC3. The IRAS Bright Galaxy Survey - Part II: Extension to Southern Declinations (delta ~< -30), and Low Galactic Latitudes (f<|b|Complete IRAS Observations and redshifts are reported for all sourcesidentified in the IRAS Bright Galaxy Survey-Part II (hereafter referredto as BGS_2_). Source positions, radial velocities, optical magnitudes,and total flux densities, peak flux densities, and spatial extents at12, 25, and 100 ,microns are reported for 288 sources having 60 micronflux densities > 5.24 Jy, the completeness limit of the originalBright Galaxy Survey [Soifer et al., AJ, 98,766(1989)], hereafterreferred to as BGS_1_. These new data represent the extension of theIRAS Bright Galaxy Survey to southern declinations,δ<~-30^deg^, and low Galactic latitudes,5^deg^<|b|<30^deg^. Although the sky coverage of the BGS_2_ (~19935 deg^2^) is 37% larger than the sky coverage of the BGS_1_, thenumber of sources is 8% smaller due primarily to large scale structurein the local distribution of galaxies. Otherwise, the sources in theBGS_2_ show similar relationships between number counts and flux densityas observed for the 313 sources in the BGS_1_. The BGS_2_ along with theearlier BGS, represents the best sample currently available for definingthe infrared properties of galaxies in the local (z <~ 0.1) Universe. Total and effective colors of 501 galaxies in the Cousins VRI photometric systemTotal color indices (V-R)T, (V-I)T and effectivecolor indices (V-R)e, (V-I)e in the Cousins VRIphotometric system are presented for 501 mostly normal galaxies. Thecolors are computed using a procedure outlined in the Third ReferenceCatalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) whereby standard color curvesapproximated by Laplace-Gauss integrals are fitted to observedphotoelectric multiaperture photometry. 11 sources of such photometrywere used for our analysis, each source being assigned an appropriateweight according to a rigorous analysis of residuals of the data fromthe best-fitting standard color curves. Together with the integrated B-Vand U-B colors provided in RC3, our analysis widens the range ofwavelength of homogeneously defined colors of normal galaxies of allHubble types. We present color-color and color-type relations that canbe modeled to understand the star formation history of galaxies. Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV systemThe photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3. Spectroscopic Observations of ARP / Madore Interacting Galaxies - Part Two - Galaxies with Tails Loops of Material or DebrisWe present spectroscopic observations of 103 galaxies from a sample ofinteracting galaxies with tails, loops of material or debris. Radialvelocities, relative emission-line intensity measurements and opticalclassifications are presented. Three new Seyfert candidates areidentified. The frequency of Seyfert-type nuclei in our sample of`strongly' interacting galaxies (3.9 per cent; 4/103) is notsignificantly different from that of the interacting doubles ofcomparably sized galaxies (3.1 per cent; 4/129), which are presumably atan earlier stage of interaction than the galaxies observed in thepresent-study. However, the lack of a suitable control sample for ourinteracting samples prevents us from confirming whether interactions andmergers enhance Seyfert nuclear activity compared to that of non-interacting galaxies. A large fraction of the galaxies in our sampleshow strong H II region type emission lines, which indicate ongoingenhanced star formation activity. Since the systems are at a relativelyearly stage of the merger process and are near the peak of theirstarburst activities, the interstellar gas in the disc must be collectedin the nuclear region on time-scales less than about a few X 10^8^-10^9^yr. Strong H II region type emission lines superimposed on a strongstellar Balmer absorption spectrum are seen in many of the systems inour sample, suggesting a possible recurrent starburst or propagation ofstar-forming regions within the galaxy. High-resolution imaging studiesare required for further analysis of the sample. The extended 12 micron galaxy sampleWe have selected an all-sky (absolute value of b greater than or equalto 25 deg) 12 micron flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies from the IRASFaint Source Catalog, Version 2 (FSC-2). We have obtained accurate totalfluxes in the IRAS wavebands by using the ADDSCAN procedure for allobjects with FSC-2 12 micron fluxes greater than 0.15 Jy and increasingflux densities from 12 to 60 microns, and defined the sample by imposinga survey limit of 0.22 Jy on the total 12 micron flux. Its completenessis verified, by means of the classical log N - log S andV/Vmax tests, down to 0.30 Jy, below which we have measuredthe incompleteness down to the survey limit, using the log N - log Splot, for our statistical analysis. We have obtained redshifts (mostlyfrom catalogs) for virtually all (98.4%) the galaxies in the sample.Using existing catalogs of active galaxies, we defined a subsample of118 objects consisting of 53 Seyfert 1s and quasars, 63 Seyfert 2s, andtwo blazars (approximately 13% of the full sample), which is the largestunbiased sample of Seyfert galaxies ever assembled. Since the 12 micronflux has been shown to be about one-fifth of the bolometric flux forSeyfert galaxies and quasars, the subsample of Seyferts (includingquasars and blazars) is complete not only to 0.30 Jy at 12 microns butalso with respect to a bolometric flux limit of approximately 2.0 x10-10 ergs/s/sq cm. The average value of V/Vmaxfor the full sample, corrected for incompleteness at low fluxes, is 0.51+/- 0.04, expected for a complete sample of uniformly distributedgalaxies, while the value for the Seyfert galaxy subsample is 0.46 +/-0.10. We have derived 12 microns and far-infrared luminosity functionsfor the AGNs, as well as for the entire sample. We extracted from oursample a complete subsample of 235 galaxies flux-limited (8.3 Jy) at 60microns. The 60 micron luminosity function computed for this subsampleis in satisfactory agreement with the ones derived from the brightgalaxy sample (BGS) and the deep high-galactic latitude sample, bothselected at 60 microns. Nearby galaxy flows modeled by the light distribution - Distances, model, and the local velocity anomalyTables giving measured galaxy distances used to construct a map ofobserved peculiar velocities, and giving a grid of the distribution oflight used to construct a map of expected peculiar velocities arepresented. A preferred model was developed which yielded a best fitbetween these maps, and this model was used to generate output kinematicdistances which are recorded for groups and individual galaxies withV0 of less than 3000 km/s. In terms of the ratio ofpeculiar-to-systemic velocities, the local velocity anomaly is the mostimportant perturbation involving substantial numbers of galaxies forthis case. The ratio of these quantities in this case is larger than forthe more famous cases of the Virgocentric or Great Attractorperturbations. Maps which illustrate the fit of the present mass modelto the velocity data in the local region are provided. A graphicaldemonstration of the relative importance of large-scale streaming tolocal motions within the context of this model is presented. Southern Sky Redshift Survey - The catalogThe catalog of radial velocities for galaxies which comprise thediameter-limited sample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey ispresented. It consolidates the data of observations carried out at theLas Campanas Observatory, Observatorio Nacional, and South AfricanAstronomical Observatory. The criteria used for the sample selection aredescribed, as well as the observational procedures and the techniqueutilized to obtain the final radial velocities. The intercomparisonbetween radial velocity measurements from different telescopes indicatesthat the final data base is fairly homogeneous with a typical error ofabout 40 km/s. The sample is at present 90 percent complete, and themissing galaxies are predominantly objects with very low surfacebrightness for which it is very difficult to obtain optical redshifts. Revised supernova rates in Shapley-Ames galaxiesObservations of 855 Shapley Ames galaxies made from November 1, 1980 toOctober 31, 1988, together with improved supernova luminosities, havebeen used to derive the frequency of supernovae of different types, andthe results are presented in tables. From a uniform database of 24supernovae discovered, the following SN rates are found, expressed in SNper century per 10 to the 10th L(B)(solar): SN Ia, 0.3; SN Ib, 0.3; andSN II, 1.0. The present data confirm the relatively high frequency of SNII in late-type galaxies that has been found by many previousinvestigators. Magnitude calibration in the Cordoba AtlasNot Available The local extragalactic velocity field as a test of the explosion and gravitational instability picturesVarious models for the origin of large-scale structure were tested andconstrained using the local galaxy velocity field derived from theAaronson et al. (1982) catalog of IR magnitudes and H I velocity widthsfor nearby galaxies, together with the IR Tully-Fisher calibration ofthese data (Aaronson et al.,1986). The assumptions and the tests of theVirgocentric flow model, the pancake model, and, particularly, thesimple explosion model based on the work of Ostriker and Cowie (1981)and Ostriker et al. (1986) are discussed. It is concluded that theobservations of the local peculiar velocity field do not support thesimple explosion model. The Malmquist bias in the extragalactic distance scale - Controversies and misconceptionsSeveral critical statements about the authors' work on the Malmquistbias in the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation are examined. Theoreticalproblems with the bias and evidence for the bias are reviewed, and theconcept of the normalized distance is discussed. The determination ofH(0) from the plateau data is addressed, and the slope of the B-band TFrelation is examined. The cluster population incompleteness bias isdiscussed. It is shown that the criticisms are unjustified. The value of H(0) from the infrared Tully-Fisher relationInfrared H(-0.5) magnitudes and the Tully-Fisher method are used tostudy the value of the Hubble constant from field galaxies and clustersof galaxies. As in previous studies using B0(T) magnitudes, specialattention is paid to the Malmquist and cluster population incompletenessbiases. The slope of the direct TF relationship in the H-band is shownto be probably in the range 11.5-12.0. Both the field galaxies and thecluster galaxies provide values of H(0) consistent with previousdeterminations using the B-band: H(0) lies in the range 70-75 km/s/Mpc,when using de Vaucouleurs primary calibration.
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