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|Atomic and Molecular Gas in Colliding Galaxy Systems. I. The Data|
We present H I and CO (1-0) interferometric observations of 10comparable-mass interacting systems obtained at the Very Large Array(VLA) and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) millimeter array.The primary intent of this study is to investigate the response of coldgas during the early stages of collision of massive disk galaxies. Thesample sources are selected based on their luminosity(MB<=-19), projected separation (5-40 kpc), andsingle-dish CO (1-0) content (SCO>=20 Jy kms-1). These selection criteria result in a sample thatprimarily consists of systems in the early stages of an interaction or amerger. Despite this sample selection, 50% of the systems show long H Itidal tails indicative of a tidal disruption in a prograde orbit. Inaddition, all (4/4) of the infrared luminous pairs (LIRGs) in the sampleshow long H I tails, suggesting that the presence of a long H I tail canbe a possible signature of enhanced star formation activity in acollision of gas-rich galaxies. More than half of the groups show adisplacement of H I peaks from the stellar disks. The CO (1-0)distribution is generally clumpy and widely distributed, unlike in mostIR-selected late stage mergers-in fact, CO peaks are displaced from thestellar nucleus in 20% (4/18) of the galaxies with robust CO detection.H I and CO (1-0) position-velocity diagrams (PVDs) and rotation curvesare also presented, and their comparison with the numerical simulationanalyzed in Paper I show evidence for radial inflow and wide occurrencesof nuclear molecular rings. These results are further quantified byexamining physical and structural parameters derived in comparison withisolated systems in the BIMA SONG sample in our forthcoming paper.
|Radial Gas Flows in Colliding Galaxies: Connecting Simulations and Observations|
We investigate the detailed response of gas to the formation oftransient and long-lived dynamical structures induced in the earlystages of a disk-disk collision and identify observational signatures ofradial gas inflow through a detailed examination of the collisionsimulation of an equal-mass bulge-dominated galaxy. Our analysis anddiscussion mainly focuses on the evolution of the diffuse and dense gasin the early stages of the collision, when the two disks are interactingbut have not yet merged. Stars respond to the tidal interaction byforming both transient arms and long-lived m=2 bars, but the gasresponse is more transient, flowing directly toward the central regionswithin about 108 yr after the initial collision. The rate ofinflow declines when more than half of the total gas supply reaches theinner few kiloparsecs, where the gas forms a dense nuclear ring insidethe stellar bar. The average gas inflow rate to the central 1.8 kpc is~7 Msolar yr-1 with a peak rate of 17Msolar yr-1. Gas with high volume density is foundin the inner parts of the postcollision disks at size scales close tothe spatial resolution of the simulations, and this may be a directresult of shocks traced by the discontinuity in the gas velocity field.The evolution of gas in a bulgeless progenitor galaxy is also discussed,and a possible link to the ``chain galaxy'' population observed at highredshifts is inferred. The evolution of the structural parameters suchas asymmetry and concentration of both stars and gas are studied indetail. Further, a new structure parameter (the compactness parameter K)that traces the evolution of the size scale of the gas relative to thestellar disk is introduced, and this may be a useful tracer to determinethe merger chronology of colliding systems. Noncircular gas kinematicsdriven by the perturbation of the nonaxisymmetric structure can producedistinct emission features in the ``forbidden velocity quadrants'' ofthe position-velocity diagram (PVD). The dynamical mass calculated usingthe rotation curve derived from fitting the emission envelope of the PVDcan determine the true mass to within 20%-40%. The evolution of themolecular fraction(MH2/MH2+HI) is a potentialtracer to quantitatively assign the age of the interaction, but theapplication to real systems may require additional observationaldiagnostics to properly assess the exact chronology of the mergerevolution.
|Superassociations and Stellar Complexes in Galaxies|
The basic characteristics of stellar complexes and superassociations, aswell as the differences between these kinds of gigantic groups of youngstars, are discussed. The main difference is that superassociations arethe result of induced (triggered) star formation, while the stars andclusters in stellar complexes develop as a result of the spontaneousprocesses typical of galactic gaseous disks.
|An IRAS High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) Atlas of All Interacting Galaxies in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample|
The importance of far-infrared observations for our understanding ofextreme activity in interacting and merging galaxies has beenillustrated by many studies. Even though two decades have passed sinceits launch, the most complete all-sky survey to date from which far-IRselected galaxy samples can be chosen is still that of the InfraredAstronomical Satellite (IRAS). However, the spatial resolution of theIRAS all-sky survey is insufficient to resolve the emission fromindividual galaxies in most interacting galaxy pairs, and hence previousstudies of their far-IR properties have had to concentrate either onglobal system properties or on the properties of very widely separatedand weakly interacting pairs. Using the HIRES image reconstructiontechnique, it is possible to achieve a spatial resolution ranging from30" to 1.5m (depending on wavelength and detector coverage), whichis a fourfold improvement over the normal resolution of IRAS. This issufficient to resolve the far-IR emission from the individual galaxiesin many interacting systems detected by IRAS, which is very importantfor meaningful comparisons with single, isolated galaxies. We presenthigh-resolution 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm images of 106 interactinggalaxy systems contained in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS,Sanders et al.), a complete sample of all galaxies having a 60 μmflux density greater than 5.24 Jy. These systems were selected to haveat least two distinguishable galaxies separated by less than threeaverage galactic diameters, and thus we have excluded very widelyseparated systems and very advanced mergers. Additionally, some systemshave been included that are more than three galactic diameters apart,yet have separations less than 4' and are thus likely to suffer fromconfusion in the RBGS. The new complete survey has the same propertiesas the prototype survey of Surace et al. We find no increased tendencyfor infrared-bright galaxies to be associated with other infrared-brightgalaxies among the widely separated pairs studied here. We find smallenhancements in far-IR activity in multiple galaxy systems relative toRBGS noninteracting galaxies with the same blue luminosity distribution.We also find no differences in infrared activity (as measured byinfrared color and luminosity) between late- and early-type spiralgalaxies.
|A Study of the Distribution of Star-forming Regions in Luminous Infrared Galaxies by Means of Hα Imaging Observations|
We performed Hα imaging observations of 22 luminous infraredgalaxies to investigate how the distribution of star-forming regions inthese galaxies is related to galaxy interactions. Based on correlationdiagrams between Hα flux and continuum emission for individualgalaxies, a sequence for the distribution of star-forming regions wasfound: very compact (~100 pc) nuclear starbursts with almost nostar-forming activity in the outer regions (type 1), dominant nuclearstarbursts <~1 kpc in size with a negligible contribution from theouter regions (type 2), nuclear starbursts >~1 kpc in size with asignificant contribution from the outer regions (type 3), and extendedstarbursts with relatively faint nuclei (type 4). These classes ofstar-forming regions were found to be strongly related to globalstar-forming properties, such as star formation efficiency, far-infraredcolor, and dust extinction. There was a clear tendency for the objectswith more compact distributions of star-forming regions to show a higherstar formation efficiency and hotter far-infrared color. An appreciablefraction of the sample objects were dominated by extended starbursts(type 4), which is unexpected in the standard scenario ofinteraction-induced starburst galaxies. We also found that thedistribution of star-forming regions was weakly but clearly related togalaxy morphology: severely disturbed objects had a more concentrateddistribution of star-forming regions. This suggests that the propertiesof galaxy interactions, such as dynamical phase and orbital parameters,play a more important role than the internal properties of progenitorgalaxies, such as dynamical structure or gas mass fraction. We alsodiscuss the evolution of the distribution of star-forming regions ininteracting galaxies.
|A Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 Investigation of the Nuclear Morphology in the Toomre Sequence of Merging Galaxies|
We report on the properties of nuclear regions in the Toomre sequence ofmerging galaxies, based on imaging data gathered with the Hubble SpaceTelescope WFPC2 camera. We have imaged the 11 systems in the proposedevolutionary merger sequence in the F555W and F814W broadband filters,and in Hα+[N II] narrowband filters. The broadband morphology ofthe nuclear regions varies from nonnucleated starburst clumps throughdust-covered nuclei to a nucleated morphology. There is no unambiguoustrend in the morphology with merger stage. The emission-line morphologyis extended beyond the nucleus in most cases, but centrally concentrated(within 1 kpc) emission-line gas can be seen in the four latest-stagemerger systems. We have quantified the intrinsic luminosity densitiesand colors within the inner 100 pc and 1 kpc of each identified nucleus.We find little evidence for a clear trend in nuclear properties alongthe merger sequence other than a suggestive rise in the nuclearluminosity density in the most evolved members of the sequence. The lackof clear trends in nuclear properties is likely due both to the effectsof obscuration and geometry, as well as the physical variety of galaxiesincluded in the Toomre sequence.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal8669.
|Massive Star Clusters in Ongoing Galaxy Interactions: Clues to Cluster Formation|
We present HST WFPC2 observations, supplemented by ground-based Hαdata, of the star-cluster populations in two pairs of interactinggalaxies selected for being in very different kinds of encounters seenat different stages. Dynamical information and n-body simulationsprovide the details of encounter geometry, mass ratio, and timing. InNGC 5752/4 we are seeing a weak encounter, well past closest approach,after about 2.5×108 yr. The large spiral NGC 5754 has anormal population of disk clusters, while the fainter companion NGC 5752exhibits a rich population of luminous clusters with a flatterluminosity function. The strong, ongoing encounter in NGC 6621/2, seenabout 1.0×108 yr past closest approach between roughlyequal-mass galaxies, has produced an extensive population of luminousclusters, particularly young and luminous in a small region between thetwo nuclei. This region is dynamically interesting, with such a strongperturbation in the velocity field that the rotation curve reversessign. From these results, in comparison with other strongly interactingsystems discussed in the literature, cluster formation requires athreshold level of perturbation, with stage of the interaction a lessimportant factor. The location of the most active star formation in NGC6621/2 draws attention to a possible role for the Toomre stabilitythreshold in shaping star formation in interacting galaxies. The richcluster populations in NGC 5752 and NGC 6621 show that direct contactbetween gas-rich galaxy disks is not a requirement to form luminousclusters and that they can be triggered by processes happening within asingle galaxy disk (albeit triggered by external perturbations).Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.
|H I line observations of luminous infrared galaxy mergers|
A total of 19 luminous infrared galaxy mergers, with LIR>~ 2 1011 Lsun, for H0=75 kms-1 Mpc-1, have been observed in the H I line atNançay and four of them were observed at Arecibo as well. Ofthese 19, ten had not been observed before. Six were clearly detected,one of which for the first time. The objective was to statisticallysample the H I gas mass in luminous infrared mergers along a starburstmerger sequence where the molecular CO gas content is already known. Wealso searched the literature for H I data and compared these with ourobservations.
|Mapping Infrared Enhancements in Closely Interacting Spiral-Spiral Pairs. I. ISO CAM and ISO SWS Observations|
Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging and spectroscopic observations are presentedfor a well-defined sample of eight closely interacting (CLO) pairs ofspiral galaxies that have overlapping disks and show enhancedfar-infrared (FIR) emission. The goal is to study the star formationdistribution in CLO pairs, with special emphasis on the role of``overlap starbursts.'' Observations were made with the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO) using the CAM and SWS instruments. The ISO CAM maps,tracing the MIR emission of warm dust heated by young massive stars, arecompared to new ground-based Hα and R-band images. We identifythree possible subgroups in the sample, classified according to the starformation morphology: (1) advanced mergers (Arp 157, Arp 244, and Arp299), (2) severely disturbed systems (Arp 81 and Arp 278), and (3) lessdisturbed systems (Arp 276, KPG 347, and KPG 426). Localized starburstsare detected in the overlap regions in all five pairs of subgroups (1)and (2), suggesting that they are a common property in collidingsystems. Except for Arp 244, the ``overlap starburst'' is usuallyfainter than the major nuclear starburst in CLO pairs. Star formation in``less disturbed systems'' is often distributed throughout the disks ofboth galaxies with no ``overlap starburst'' detected in any of them.These systems also show less enhanced FIR emission, suggesting that theyare in an earlier interaction stage when the direct disk collisions haveprobably not yet occurred. Based on observations made with ISO, an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA Member States and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA.
|An X-Ray Survey of Galaxies in Pairs|
Results are reported from the first survey of X-ray emission fromgalaxies in pairs. The sample consists of 52 pairs of galaxies from theCatalog of Paired Galaxies whose coordinates overlap the ROSAT PositionSensitive Proportional Counter pointed observations. The mean observedlogl_X for early-type pairs is 41.35+/-0.21, while the mean logl_Xpredicted using the l_X-l_b relationship for isolated early-typegalaxies is 42.10+/-0.19. With 95% confidence, the galaxies in pairs areunderluminous in the X-ray, compared with isolated galaxies, for thesame l_b. A significant fraction of the mixed pair sample also appearssimilarly underluminous. A spatial analysis shows that the X-rayemission from pairs of both types typically has an extent of ~10-50 kpc,much smaller than the group intergalactic medium, and thus likelyoriginates from the galaxies. CPG 564, the most X-ray luminousearly-type pair, 4.7x10^42 ergs s^-1, is an exception. The extent of itsX-ray emission, greater than 169 kpc, and HWHM, ~80 kpc, is comparableto that expected from an intergalactic medium. The sample shows only aweak correlation, ~81% confidence, between l_X and l_b, presumably dueto variations in gas content within the galaxies. No correlation betweenl_X and the pair velocity difference (Deltav), separation (Deltar), orfar-infrared luminosity (l_fir) is found, although the detection rate islow, 22%.
|Molecular Gas in Strongly Interacting Galaxies. I. CO (1-0) Observations|
We present observations of the CO (1-0) line in 80 interacting galaxiesas part of a program to study the role of interactions and mergers intriggering starbursts. The sample, which only includes obviouslyinteracting pairs of galaxies, is the largest such sample observed inCO. The observations were carried out at the NRAO 12 m and IRAM 30 mtelescopes. CO emission was detected in 56 galaxies (of which 32 are newdetections), corresponding to a detection rate of 70%. Because mostgalaxies are slightly larger than the telescope beam, correction factorswere applied to include CO emission outside the beam. The correctionfactors were derived by fitting a Gaussian function or an exponential CObrightness distribution to galaxies with multiple pointings and byassuming an exponential model for galaxies with single pointing. Wecompared the global CO fluxes of 10 galaxies observed by us at bothtelescopes. We also compared the measured fluxes for another 10 galaxiesobserved by us with those by other authors using the NRAO 12 m and FCRAO14 m telescopes. These comparisons provide an estimate of the accuracyof our derived global fluxes, which is ~40%. Mapping observations of twoclose pairs of galaxies, UGC 594 (NGC 317) and UGC 11175 (NGC 6621), arealso presented. In subsequent papers we will report the statisticalanalyses of the molecular properties in our sample galaxies and makecomparisons between isolated spirals and interacting galaxies.
|Study of the Interacting System NGC 6845|
We present optical spectroscopy, B, V, R, and I CCD photometry, and VLAneutral hydrogen observations of the interacting quartet NGC 6845, alsoknow as Klemola 30. NGC 6845 A, the dominant component, sports a broadand bright tidal bridge and a faint tidal tail, which bifurcates. Thetidal bridge has a B-I color bluer than that of the inner disk of NGC6845 A. Five strong condensations, identified as H II regions brighterthan the brightest one known in our Galaxy, are found along the tidalbridge, with the two most luminous located at the bridge tip. Two giantH II regions, comparable to 30 Dor, are located where the tidal bridgeand the tidal tail join the disk of NGC 6845 A. Since the age of the HII regions is 3-8 Myr, star formation continued to occur along the tidalbridge and in the tidal arm well after they began to be torn apart(>=100 Myr). Satoh model fitting to the optical rotation curve of theA component reveals a kinematical mass of (4.4+/-1.2)x10^11 M_solar,inside the central 12 kpc (H_0=75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1). The H I emissionconsist of two components, a more massive one that belongs to NGC 6845 Aand a second one associated with NGC 6845 B. We do not detect gasassociated with galaxies C and D. The total amount of H I is 1.4x10^10M_solar, 5 time higher than the H I content of the Milky Way. The H Ikinematics indicates an amount of dark matter associated with the Acomponent 2 times higher than the mass inside its central 12 kpc. Thegroup kinematics indicates M/L~43(+/-2)(M/L)_solar orM/L~66(+/-2)(M/L)_solar, according to two different prescriptions forthe internal absorption correction. In spite of this large difference,both values furnish a similar group mass (~1x10^13 M_solar). Althoughpreliminary results on N-body simulations indicate that either B or Cmight well create a tidal feature like the bridge of the A component,the collision with B appears to be more favorable.
|The Distribution of Mid- and Far-Infrared Emission in 10 Interacting Galaxy Systems|
A sample of 10 interacting and merging galaxy systems has been mapped atmid-infrared (10 μm) and far-infrared (100-160 μm) wavelengthswith spatial resolutions of 4"and 45", respectively. The interacting andmerging systems are known to be strong IRAS sources; however, the IRASdata contain limited information concerning the distribution of infraredemission between the two galaxies in each pair and no information on thedistribution within each galaxy. The observations presented here showthat in five of the seven paired systems, one galaxy is the dominant orthe only infrared source. There is a good correlation between theHα and infrared emission levels for these galaxies, indicatingthat the infrared emission is closely tied to dust heated by youngstars. There is also a good spatial correlation between the Hα,infrared, and radio continuum morphologies of these systems, whichfurther strengthens the belief that the infrared, as well as the radioemission, is associated with regions of active star formation. The 10μm emission is concentrated around the nuclei of most of thesegalaxies, indicating that the highest levels of current star formationactivity are also confined to the near-nuclear regions. Some systems,however, show evidence for significant star formation activitythroughout the outer disk regions of the galaxies. All the samplegalaxies that are bright in the infrared also have optical indicationsof high levels of star formation or nuclear activity, suggesting thatthese conditions are necessary in order for a galaxy to exhibit excessinfrared emission.
|A Spectrophotometric Survey of Merging Galaxies|
We present long-slit spectrophotometry of 40 merging or stronglyinteracting galaxy systems in the wavelength range 3650-7100 A. Alongwith optically selected objects, the sample includes 10 ultraluminousIRAS galaxies with evidence of ongoing merger activity. The data show awide variety of phenomena, with spectra resembling those of isolatedelliptical galaxies, early and late-type spiral galaxies, activegalactic nuclei starbursts, and poststarburst systems.
|Spectrophotometric Properties of Merging Galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...450..547L&db_key=AST
|The IRAS Bright Galaxy Survey - Part II: Extension to Southern Declinations (delta ~< -30), and Low Galactic Latitudes (f<|b|=30 degrees)|
Complete IRAS Observations and redshifts are reported for all sourcesidentified in the IRAS Bright Galaxy Survey-Part II (hereafter referredto as BGS_2_). Source positions, radial velocities, optical magnitudes,and total flux densities, peak flux densities, and spatial extents at12, 25, and 100 ,microns are reported for 288 sources having 60 micronflux densities > 5.24 Jy, the completeness limit of the originalBright Galaxy Survey [Soifer et al., AJ, 98,766(1989)], hereafterreferred to as BGS_1_. These new data represent the extension of theIRAS Bright Galaxy Survey to southern declinations,δ<~-30^deg^, and low Galactic latitudes,5^deg^<|b|<30^deg^. Although the sky coverage of the BGS_2_ (~19935 deg^2^) is 37% larger than the sky coverage of the BGS_1_, thenumber of sources is 8% smaller due primarily to large scale structurein the local distribution of galaxies. Otherwise, the sources in theBGS_2_ show similar relationships between number counts and flux densityas observed for the 313 sources in the BGS_1_. The BGS_2_ along with theearlier BGS, represents the best sample currently available for definingthe infrared properties of galaxies in the local (z <~ 0.1) Universe.
|The frequency of mergers in compact groups|
The far-infrared colors, optical morphologies, and emission-linerotation curves of galaxies in compact groups are used to estimate thenumber of these galaxies which are currently merging. Each of theseindependent methods indicates that roughly 7 percent of the galaxies incompact groups are in the process of merging. Although each technique issomewhat uncertain, the agreement among the independent methods for thefraction of ongoing mergers and the generally good correlation betweendifferent measures of merging for individual systems lend added weightto the results. The combination of this fraction of galaxies in compactgroups which are currently merging with previous studies of theproperties of elliptical galaxies in compact groups leads to theconclusion that the dynamical evolution of compact groups throughmerging occurs on a time scale significantly longer than the observedcrossing time.
|Photometric properties of interacting galaxies.|
|A photometric and kinematic study of the interacting system VV 247 (NGC 6621/22).|
|Global properties of interacting disk-type galaxies|
Optical, far-IR, and radio observations of global properties arepresented for a sample of strongly interacting disk-type galaxies.Global star formation rates (SFRs) for the galaxies span a large rangeand are, on average, a factor of 2.5 higher than similarly determinedglobal SFRs for isolated spiral galaxies. New star formation occurspreferentially in or near the nuclear regions. H I 21 cm emission-lineprofiles indicate the presence of anomalous velocity material andchaotic patterns of gas motion in many interacting systems. Few systemsshow evidence for the presence of a well-organized rotating H I disksuch as are seen in isolated spiral galaxies. Neutral hydrogen gasmass-to-blue luminosity ratios are not atypical when compared withisolated spirals. The evidence indicates that local rather than globalproperties of these galaxies govern the star-formation process. Theobservations generally support the notion that enhanced SFRs are causedby increased cloud collision rates and dissipative flows of gas to thenucleus.
|Enhanced radio emission in merging galaxies|
The list of examples selected by Toomre (1977) is supplemented withmorphologically similar systems from the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies(1966). This sample of mergers is compared with two samples of spiralgalaxies in terms of radio power. The first comparison sample comprisesgalaxies with the same optical luminosities as the mergers. The secondis that subset of the first sample in which the galaxy forms part of adouble or multiple system. The mergers are found to be approximatelyeight times more likely to be radio-loud (radio power greater than orequal to 10 to the 22nd W/Hz at 1.4 GHz) than the members of the firstsample and two to three times more likely to be radio-loud than those ofthe second sample. The merger either involves a unique mechanism forstimulating radio emission or makes more extensive use of the samemechanism that enhances radio emission in galaxies in double or multiplesystems.
|Double galaxy investigations. I - Observations|
Redshift information from 240 A/mm spectrograms is presented for 370double arcsec galaxy systems from the Karachentsev (1972) catalog,including all pairs in that catalog with separation less than 80 arcsec.An extensive error discussion utilizing internal and external (21 cm)comparisons provides calibration of systematic error and determines theuncertainty for a typical high weight optical redshift to be plus orminus 65 km/sec. Internal differential redshifts within single spectrausing common lines achieve accuracies of 18-30 km/sec, depending uponseparation, and are available for about 200 pairs. Extensive informationon emission and other properties is also provided.
|Atlas of interacting galaxies, Part. II and the concept of fragmentation of galaxies.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977A&AS...28....1V&db_key=AST
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