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An Atlas of [N II] and [O III] Images and Spectra of Planetary Nebulae
We present an atlas of Hubble Space Telescope images and ground-based,long-slit, narrowband spectra centered on the 6584 Å line of [NII] and the 5007 Å line of [O III]. The spectra were obtained fora variety of slit positions across each target (as shown on the images)in an effort to account for nonspherical nebular geometries in a robustmanner. We have extended the prolate ellipsoidal shell model originallydevised by Aaquist, Zhang, and Kwok to generate synthetic images, aswell as long-slit spectra. Using this model, we have derived basicparameters for the subsample of PNe that present ellipsoidal appearancesand regular kinematic patterns. We find differences between ourparameters for the target PNe as compared to those of previous studies,which we attribute to increased spatial resolution for our image dataand the inclusion of kinematic data in the model fits. The data andanalysis presented in this paper can be combined with detections ofnebular angular expansion rates to determine precise distances to the PNtargets.

HST and VLT observations of the symbiotic star Hen 2-147. Its nebular dynamics, its Mira variable and its distance
Aims.We investigate the dynamics of the nebula around the symbiotic starHen 2-147, determine its expansion parallax, and compare it with thedistance obtained via the period-luminosity relation for its Miravariable. Methods: A combination of multi-epoch HST images and VLTintegral field high-resolution spectroscopy is used to study the nebulardynamics both along the line of sight and in the plane of the sky. Theseobservations allow us to build a 3D spatio-kinematical model of thenebula, which, together with the measurement of its apparent expansionin the plane of the sky over a period of 3 years, provides the expansionparallax for the nebula. Additionally, SAAO near-infrared photometryobtained over 25 years is used to determine the Mira pulsation periodand derive an independent distance estimation via the period-luminosityrelationship for Mira variables. Results: The geometry of the nebula isfound to be that of a knotty annulus of ionized gas inclined to theplane of sky and expanding with a velocity of ~90 km s-1. Astraightforward application of the expansion parallax method provides adistance of 1.5 ± 0.4 kpc, which is a factor of two lower thanthe distance of 3.0 ± 0.4 kpc obtained from the period-luminosityrelationship for the Mira (which has a pulsation period of 373 days).The discrepancy is removed if, instead of expanding matter, we areobserving the expansion of a shock front in the plane of the sky. Thisshock interpretation is further supported by the broadening of thenebular emission lines.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASAcontract No. NAS5-26555; on observations obtained at the 8 m VLTtelescope of the European Southern Observatory in Chile; and onobservations made at the South African Astronomical Observatory. Themovie (Fig. 3) is only available in electronic form athttp://www.aanda.org Table 2 is only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/465/481

Chemical compositions and plasma parameters of planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet and wels type central stars
Aims.Chemical compositions and other properties of planetary nebulaearound central stars of spectral types [WC], [WO], and wels are comparedwith those of “normal” central stars, in order to clarifythe evolutionary status of each type and their interrelation. Methods:We use plasma diagnostics to derive from optical spectra the plasmaparameters and chemical compositions of 48 planetary nebulae. We alsoreanalyze the published spectra of a sample of 167 non-WR PN. Theresults as well as the observational data are compared in detail withthose from other studies of the objects in common. Results: We confirmthat [WC], [WO] and wels nebulae are very similar to those“normal” PN: the relation between [N II] and [O III]electron temperatures, abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S and Ar, and thenumber of ionizing photons show no significant differences. However,some differences are observed in their infrared (IRAS) properties. welsnebulae appear bluer than [WR] PN. The central star's spectral type isclearly correlated with electron density, temperature and excitationclass of the nebula, [WC] nebulae tend to be smaller than the othertypes. All this corroborates the view of an evolutionary sequence fromcool [WC 11] central stars inside dense, low excitation nebulae towardshot [WO 1] stars with low density, high excitation nebulae. The wels PN,however, appear to be a separate class of objects, not linked to WRPN byevolution: nebular excitation, electron temperature and density, and thenumber of ionizing photons all cover the whole range found in the othertypes. Their lower mean N/O ratio and slightlylower He/H suggestprogenitor stars less massive than for the other PN types. Furthermore,the differences between results of different works are dominated by thedifferences in observational data rather than differences in theanalysis methods.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory(ESO), La Silla, Chile. Table 3 and Appendices are only available inelectronic form at http://www.aanda.org Table with fluxes andintensities is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/463/265

Observed Planetary Nebulae as Descendants of Interacting Binary Systems
We examine recent studies on the formation rate of planetary nebulae andfind this rate to be about one-third of the formation rate of whitedwarfs. This implies that only about one-third of all planetary nebulaethat evolve to form white dwarfs are actually bright enough to beobserved. This finding corresponds with the claim that it is necessaryfor a binary companion to interact with the asymptotic giant branchstellar progenitor for the descendant planetary nebulae to be brightenough to be detected. The finding about the formation rate alsostrengthens O. De Marco's conjecture that the majority of observedplanetary nebulae harbor binary systems. In other words, single starsalmost never form observed planetary nebulae.

Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Wolf-Rayet Nuclei III. Kinematical Analysis of a Large Sample of Nebulae
Expansion velocities (V_{exp}) of different ions and line widths at thebase of the lines are measured and analyzed for 24 PNe with [WC]-typenuclei (WRPNe), 9 PNe ionized by WELS (WLPNe) and 14 ordinary PNe. Acomparative study of the kinematical behavior of the sample clearlydemonstrates that WRPNe have on average 40-45% larger V_{exp}, andpossibly more turbulence than WLPNe and ordinary PNe. WLPNe havevelocity fields very much like the ones of ordinary PNe, rather than theones of WRPNe. All the samples (WRPNe, WLPNe and ordinary PNe) showexpansion velocities increasing with age indicators, for example is larger for low-density nebulae and also it is largerfor nebulae around high-temperature stars. This age effect is muchstronger for evolved WRPNe, suggesting that the [WC] winds have beenaccelerating the nebulae for a long time, while for non-WRPNe theacceleration seems to stop at some point when the star reaches atemperature of about 90,000 - 100,000. Non-WR nebulae reach a maximumV_{exp} ≤ 30 km s(-1) evolved WRPNe reach maximum V_{exp} about 40km s(-1) . For all kinds of objects (WRPNe and non-WRPNe) it is foundthat on average V_{exp}(N(+) ) is slightly larger than V_{exp}(O(++) ),indicating that the nebulae present acceleration of the external shells.

The evolution of planetary nebulae. III. Internal kinematics and expansion parallaxes
A detailed theoretical study of the basic internal kinematics ofplanetary nebulae is presented, based on 1D radiation-hydrodynamicssimulations of circumstellar envelopes around central stars of 0.595 and0.696 Mȯ. By means of observable quantities like radialsurface-brightness distributions and emission-line profiles computedfrom the models, a comparison with real objects was performed andrevealed a reasonable agreement. This allowed to draw importantconclusions by investigating the kinematics of these models in detail.Firstly, it is shown that the determination of kinematical ages,normally considered to be simple if size and expansion rate of an objectare given, can seriously be flawed. Secondly, the expansion law of aplanetary nebula is different from what is assumed for derivingspatio-kinematical models. Thirdly and most importantly, ourhydrodynamical models help to correctly use existing angular expansionmeasurements for distance determinations. The mere combination of theangular expansion rates with the spectroscopic expansion velocitiesleads always to a serious underestimate of the distance, the degree ofwhich depends on the evolutionary state of the object. The necessarycorrection factor varies between 3 and 1.3. Individual correctionfactors can be estimated with an accuracy of about 10% by matching ourhydrodynamical models to real objects. As a result, revised distancesfor a few objects with reliable angular expansion rates are presented.But even these corrected distances are not always satisfying: they stillappear to be inconsistent with other distance determinations and, evenmore disturbing, with the accepted theory of post-asymptotic giantbranch evolution. As a byproduct of the angular expansion measurements,the transition times from the vicinity of the asymptotic giant branch tothe planetary-nebula regime could be estimated. They appear to beshorter than assumed in the present evolutionary calculations.

The distances of less-evolved planetary nebulae: a further test of statistical distance scales
It has recently been pointed out that a number of the methods used todetermine planetary nebulae (PNe) distances may be appreciably in error.Whilst the scales of Zhang (1995), Bensby & Lundstrom (2001) andothers are appropriate for higher radio brightness temperaturesTB, those of Phillips and Daub are more relevant whereTB is small.We note, in the following, that the absolute bolometric magnitudes ofless-evolved PNe are likely to be similar. The mean value of can therefore be used to constrain PNe distancesD, and confirm the distance scales for higher TB outflows. Wehave used this procedure to evaluate distances to a further 47 PNe, andwe find that the mean values of are consistent with those ofCahn, Kaler & Stanghellini (1992), Zhang (1995), Phillips et al.(2004) and van de Steene & Zijlstra (1995). They are, as expected,inconsistent with the lower TB scale of Phillips (2002a).

The Chemical Composition of Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Regard to Inhomogeneity in the Gas Density in Their Envelopes
The results of a study of the chemical compositions of Galacticplanetary nebulae taking into account two types of inhomogeneity in thenebular gas density in their envelopes are reported. New analyticalexpressions for the ionization correction factors have been derived andare used to determine the chemical compositions of the nebular gas inGalactic planetary nebulae. The abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, and Arhave been found for 193 objects. The Y Z diagrams for various Heabundances are analyzed for type II planetary nebulae separately andjointly with HII regions. The primordial helium abundance Y p andenrichment ratio dY/dZ are determined, and the resulting values arecompared with the data of other authors. Radial abundance gradients inthe Galactic disk are studied using type II planetary nebulae.

Detection of Silicon Nitride Particles in Extreme Carbon Stars
On the basis of spectra taken by the Infrared Space Observatory andlaboratory measurements, we present the first spectroscopic evidence forthe presence of silicon nitride (Si3N4) grains inthe circumstellar shells of a number of extreme carbon stars. Laboratorymeasurements of α, β, and amorphousSi3N4 are compared with spectra of the extremecarbon stars IRAS 21318+5631 and AFGL 2477. Both stars show anabsorption feature near the well-known 11 μm band of silicon carbide(SiC) but peaking at and extending to considerably shorter wavelengths.We demonstrate that the position and the band profile of the observedfeatures coincide well with the main features of laboratorySi3N4 spectra, especially in the case of IRAS21318+5631. While this band alternatively may be explained by SiC grainsplus interstellar silicate absorption, in the way worked out by Speckand coworkers, there is further strong evidence forSi3N4 grains in IRAS 21318+5631 and possibleevidence for Si3N4 grains in AFGL 2477 provided byweaker absorption features in the wavelength region longward of the mainfeature.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, theNetherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISASand NASA. The SWS is a joint project of SRON and MPE.

Evolution from AGB to planetary nebula in the MSX survey
We investigate the evolution of oxygen- and carbon-rich AGB stars,post-AGB objects, and planetary nebulae using data collected mainly fromthe MSX catalogue. Magnitudes and colour indices are compared with thosecalculated from a grid of synthetic spectra that describe the post-AGBevolution beginning at the onset of the superwind. We find that carbonstars and OH/IR objects form two distinct sequences in the (K-[8.3])×([8.3]-[14.7]) MSX colour diagram. OH/IR objects are distributedin two groups: the bluest ones are crowded near [14.7]-[21.3]≃ 1and [8.3]-[14.7]≃ 2, and a second, redder group is spread over alarge area in the diagram, where post-AGB objects and planetary nebulaeare also found. High mass-loss rate OH/IR objects, post-AGB stars, andplanetary nebulae share the same region in the (K-[8.3])×([8.3]-[14.7]) and [14.7]-[21.3]×([8.3]-[14.7]) colour-colourdiagrams. This region in the diagram is clearly separated from a bluerone where most OH/IR stars are found. We use a grid of models ofpost-AGB evolution, which are compared with the data. The gap in thecolour-colour diagrams is interpreted as the result of the rapidtrajectory in the diagram of the stars that have just left the AGB.Based on results obtained by the MSX survey.Tables 1 to 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/565

A reexamination of electron density diagnostics for ionized gaseous nebulae
We present a comparison of electron densities derived from opticalforbidden line diagnostic ratios for a sample of over a hundred nebulae.We consider four density indicators, the [O II]λ3729/λ3726, [S II] λ6716/λ6731, [Cl III]λ5517/λ5537 and [Ar IV] λ4711/λ4740 doubletratios. Except for a few H II regions for which data from the literaturewere used, diagnostic line ratios were derived from our own high qualityspectra. For the [O II] λ3729/λ3726 doublet ratio, we findthat our default atomic data set, consisting of transition probabilitiesfrom Zeippen (\cite{zeippen1982}) and collision strengths from Pradhan(\cite{pradhan}), fit the observations well, although at high electrondensities, the [O II] doublet ratio yields densities systematicallylower than those given by the [S II] λ6716/λ6731 doubletratio, suggesting that the ratio of transition probabilities of the [OII] doublet, A(λ3729)/A(λ3726), given by Zeippen(\cite{zeippen1982}) may need to be revised upwards by approximately 6per cent. Our analysis also shows that the more recent calculations of[O II] transition probabilities by Zeippen (\cite{zeippen1987a}) andcollision strengths by McLaughlin & Bell (\cite{mclaughlin}) areinconsistent with the observations at the high and low density limits,respectively, and can therefore be ruled out. We confirm the earlierresult of Copetti & Writzl (\cite{copetti2002}) that the [O II]transition probabilities calculated by Wiese et al. (\cite{wiese}) yieldelectron densities systematically lower than those deduced from the [SII] λ6716/λ6731 doublet ratio and that the discrepancy ismost likely caused by errors in the transition probabilities calculatedby Wiese et al. (\cite{wiese}). Using our default atomic data set for [OII], we find that Ne([O II])  Ne([S II]) ≈Ne([Cl III])< Ne([Ar IV]).

The populations of planetary nebulae in the direction of the Galactic bulge. Chemical abundances and Wolf-Rayet central stars
We have observed 44 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the direction of theGalactic bulge, and merged our data with published ones. We havedistinguished, in the merged sample of 164 PNe, those PNe most likely toprtain physically to the Galactic bulge and those most likely to belongto the Galactic disk. We have determined the chemical composition of allthe 164 objects in a coherent way. We looked for stellar emissionfeatures and discovered 14 new [WR] stars and 15 new weak emission linecentral stars. The analyzed data led us to the following conclusions:(1) the spectral type distribution of [WR] stars is very different inthe bulge and in the disk of the Galaxy. However, the observeddistributions are strongly dependent on selection effects. (2) Theproportion of [WR] PNe is significantly larger in the bulge than in thedisk. (3) The oxygen abundances in [WR] stars do no appear to besignificantly affected by nucleosynthesis and mixing in the progenitors.(4) The O/H gradient of the Galactic disk PNe population flattens in themost internal parts of the Galaxy. (5) The median oxygen abundance inthe bulge PN population is larger by 0.2 dex than in the disk populationseen in the direction of the bulge. (6) Bulge PNe with smaller O/H tendto have smaller radial velocities. (7) The oxygen abundance distributionof bulge PNe is similar in shape to that of the metallicity distributionof bulge giants, but significantly narrower. (8) The location ofSB 32 (PN G 349.7-09.1) in the(Vlsr, lII) diagram and its low oxygen abundanceargues that it probably belongs to the halo population.Based on observations made at the South African AstronomicalObservatory.Tables 1-3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http: / /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/427/231

Planetary nebula distances re-examined: an improved statistical scale
The distances of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still quite uncertain.Although observational estimates are available for a small proportion ofPNe, based on statistical parallax and the like, such distances are verypoorly determined for the majority of galactic PNe. In particular,estimates of so-called `statistical' distance appear to differ byfactors of ~2.7.We point out that there is a well-defined correlation between the 5-GHzluminosity of the sources, L5, and their brightnesstemperatures, TB. This represents a different trend to thoseinvestigated in previous statistical analyses, and permits us todetermine independent distances to a further 449 outflows. Thesedistances are shown to be closely comparable to those determined using aTB-R correlation, providing that the latter trend is taken tobe non-linear.This non-linearity in the TB-R plane has not been noted inprevious analyses, and is likely responsible for the broad (andconflicting) ranges of distance that have previously been published.Finally, we point out that there is a close accord between observedtrends within the L5-TB and TB-Rplanes, and the variation predicted through nebular evolutionarymodelling. This is used to suggest that observational biases areprobably modest, and that our revised distance scale is reasonablytrustworthy.

BUDDA: A New Two-dimensional Bulge/Disk Decomposition Code for Detailed Structural Analysis of Galaxies
We present BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis), a new code devotedto perform a two-dimensional bulge/disk decomposition directly from theimages of galaxies. The bulge component is fitted with a generalizedSérsic profile, whereas disks have an exponential profile. Noother components are included. Bars and other substructures, likelenses, rings, inner bars, and inner disks, are studied with theresidual images obtained through the subtraction of bulges and disksfrom the original images. This means that a detailed structural analysisof galaxies may be performed with a small number of parameters, andsubstructures may be directly studied with no a priori assumptions. Ashas been already shown by several studies, two-dimensional fitting ismuch more reliable than one-dimensional profile fitting. Moreover, ourcode has been thoroughly tested with artificial data, and we demonstrateit to be an accurate tool for determining structural parameters ofgalaxies. We also show that our code is useful in various kinds ofstudies, including galaxies of, e.g., different morphological types, andinclinations, which also may be observed at different spatialresolutions. Thus, the code has a broader range of potentialapplications than most of the previous codes, which are developed totackle specific problems. To illustrate its usefulness, we present theresults obtained with a sample of 51 mostly early-type galaxies (butcovering the whole Hubble sequence). These results show some of theapplications in which the code may be used: the determination ofparameters for fundamental plane and structural studies, quantitativemorphological classification of galaxies, and the identification andstudy of hidden substructures. We have determined the structuralparameters of the galaxies in our sample and found many examples ofhidden inner disks in ellipticals, secondary bars, nuclear rings anddust lanes in lenticulars and spirals, and also wrong morphologicalclassification cases. We now make BUDDA generally available to theastronomical community.Based on observations made at the Pico dos Dias Observatory(PDO/LNA-CNPq), Brazil.

A reanalysis of chemical abundances in galactic PNe and comparison with theoretical predictions
New determinations of chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, Ar and Sare derived for all galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) so far observedwith a relatively high accuracy, in an effort to overcome differences inthese quantities obtained over the years by different authors usingdifferent procedures. These include: ways to correct for interstellarextinction, the atomic data used to interpret the observed line fluxes,the model nebula adopted to represent real objects and the ionizationcorrections for unseen ions. A unique `good quality' classical-typeprocedure, i.e. making use of collisionally excited forbidden lines toderive ionic abundances of heavy ions, has been applied to allindividual sets of observed line fluxes in each specific position withineach PN. Only observational data obtained with linear detectors, andsatisfying some `quality' criteria, have been considered. Suchobservations go from the mid-1970s up to the end of 2001. Theobservational errors associated with individual line fluxes have beenpropagated through the whole procedure to obtain an estimate of theaccuracy of final abundances independent of an author's `prejudices'.Comparison of the final abundances with those obtained in relevantmulti-object studies on the one hand allowed us to assess the accuracyof the new abundances, and on the other hand proved the usefulness ofthe present work, the basic purpose of which was to take full advantageof the vast amount of observations done so far of galactic PNe, handlingthem in a proper homogeneous way. The number of resulting PNe that havedata of an adequate quality to pass the present selection amounts to131. We believe that the new derived abundances constitute a highlyhomogeneous chemical data set on galactic PNe, with realisticuncertainties, and form a good observational basis for comparison withthe growing number of predictions from stellar evolution theory. Owingto the known discrepancies between the ionic abundances of heavyelements derived from the strong collisonally excited forbidden linesand those derived from the weak, temperature-insensitive recombinationlines, it is recognized that only abundance ratios between heavyelements can be considered as satisfactorily accurate. A comparison withtheoretical predictions allowed us to assess the state of the art inthis topic in any case, providing some findings and suggestions forfurther theoretical and observational work to advance our understandingof the evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars.

On expansion parallax distances for planetary nebulae
The distances to individual wind-driven bubbles such as PlanetaryNebulae (PNe) can be determined using expansion parallaxes: the angularexpansion velocity in the sky is compared to the radial velocity of gasmeasured spectroscopically. Since the one is a pattern velocity, and theother a matter velocity, these are not necessarily the same. Using thejump conditions for both shocks and ionization fronts, I show that fortypical PNe the pattern velocity is 20 to 30% larger than the materialvelocity, and the derived distances are therefore typically 20 to 30%too low. I present some corrected distances and suggest approaches to beused when deriving distances using expansion parallaxes.

Characteristics of Planetary Nebulae with [WC] Central Stars
We have analyzed the plasma diagnostics (electron densities andtemperatures and abundance ratios), and the kinematics of a large sampleof planetary nebulae around [WC] stars by means of high resolutionspectra. The results have been compared with characteristics ofplanetary nebulae around WELS and non-WR central stars. We find that theproportion of nitrogen rich nebulae is larger in WRPNe than innon-WRPNe. None of the 9 nebulae around WELS in our sample showsN-enrichment. WRPNe have larger expansion velocities and/or largerturbulence than non-WRPNe demonstrating that the mechanical energy ofthe massive [WC] stellar wind largely affects the kinematical behaviorof nebulae. A weak relation between stellar temperature and expansionvelocities has been found for all kind of nebulae, indicating that oldernebulae expand faster. The effect is more important for WRPNe. Thiscould be useful in testing the evolutionary sequence [WC]-late ->[WC]-early, proposed for [WC] stars.

The relation between Zanstra temperature and morphology in planetary nebulae
We have created a master list of Zanstra temperatures for 373 galacticplanetary nebulae based upon a compilation of 1575 values taken from thepublished literature. These are used to evaluate mean trends intemperature for differing nebular morphologies. Among the most prominentresults of this analysis is the tendency forη=TZ(HeII)/TZ(HeI) to increase with nebularradius, a trend which is taken to arise from the evolution of shelloptical depths. We find that as many as 87 per cent of nebulae may beoptically thin to H ionizing radiation where radii exceed ~0.16 pc. Wealso note that the distributions of values η and TZ(HeII)are quite different for circular, elliptical and bipolar nebulae. Acomparison of observed temperatures with theoretical H-burning trackssuggests that elliptical and circular sources arise from progenitorswith mean mass ≅ 1 Msolar(although the elliptical progenitors are probably more massive).Higher-temperature elliptical sources are likely to derive fromprogenitors with mass ≅2 Msolar, however, implying thatthese nebulae (at least) are associated with a broad swathe ofprogenitor masses. Such a conclusion is also supported by trends in meangalactic latitude. It is found that higher-temperature ellipticalsources have much lower mean latitudes than those with smallerTZ(HeII), a trend which is explicable where there is anincrease in with increasing TZ(HeII).This latitude-temperature variation also applies for most other sources.Bipolar nebulae appear to have mean progenitor masses ≅2.5Msolar, whilst jets, Brets and other highly collimatedoutflows are associated with progenitors at the other end of the massrange (~ 1 Msolar). Indeed it ispossible, given their large mean latitudes and low peak temperatures,that the latter nebulae are associated with the lowest-mass progenitorsof all.The present results appear fully consistent with earlier analyses basedupon nebular scale heights, shell abundances and the relativeproportions of differing morphologies, and offer further evidence for alink between progenitor mass and morphology.

Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinates
We have used the 2nd generation of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC-II) asa reference astrometric catalogue to compile the positions of 1086Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) listed in the Strasbourg ESO Catalogue(SEC), its supplement and the version 2000 of the Catalogue of PlanetaryNebulae. This constitutes about 75% of all known PNe. For these PNe, theones with a known central star (CS) or with a small diameter, we havederived coordinates with an absolute accuracy of ~0\farcs35 in eachcoordinate, which is the intrinsic astrometric precision of the GSC-II.For another 226, mostly extended, objects without a GSC-II counterpartwe give coordinates based on the second epoch Digital Sky Survey(DSS-II). While these coordinates may have systematic offsets relativeto the GSC-II of up to 5 arcsecs, our new coordinates usually representa significant improvement over the previous catalogue values for theselarge objects. This is the first truly homogeneous compilation of PNepositions over the whole sky and the most accurate one available so far.The complete Table \ref{tab2} is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/1029}

Angular dimensions of planetary nebulae
We have measured angular dimensions of 312 planetary nebulae from theirimages obtained in Hα (or Hα + [NII]). We have appliedthree methods of measurements: direct measurements at the 10% level ofthe peak surface brightness, Gaussian deconvolution and second-momentdeconvolution. The results from the three methods are compared andanalysed. We propose a simple deconvolution of the 10% levelmeasurements which significantly improves the reliability of thesemeasurements for compact and partially resolved nebulae. Gaussiandeconvolution gives consistent but somewhat underestimated diameterscompared to the 10% measurements. Second-moment deconvolution givesresults in poor agreement with those from the other two methods,especially for poorly resolved nebulae. From the results of measurementsand using the conclusions of our analysis we derive the final nebulardiameters which should be free from systematic differences between small(partially resolved) and extended (well resolved) objects in our sample.Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Quantitative classification of WR nuclei of planetary nebulae
We analyse 42 emission-line nuclei of Planetary Nebulae (PNe), in theframework of a large spectrophotometric survey of [WC] nuclei of PNeconducted since 1994, using low/medium resolution spectra obtained atESO and at OHP. We construct a grid of selected line-intensities(normalized to C Iv-5806 Å= 100) ordered by decreasing ionisationpotential going from 871 to 24 eV. In this grid, the stars appear tobelong clearly to prominent O (hot [WO1-4] types) or C (cooler [WC4-11]types) line-sequences, in agreement with the classification of massiveWR stars applied to Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae (CSPNe) byCrowther et al. \cite{crowther98} (CMB98). We propose 20 selected lineratios and the FWHM of C Iv and C Iii lines as classificationdiagnostics, which agree well with the 7 line ratios and the FWHMproposed by CMB98. This classification based on ionisation is related tothe evolution of the temperature and of the stellar wind, reflecting themass-loss history. In particular, inside the hot [WO4]-class, wediscover four stars showing very broad lines over the whole spectralrange. These stars possibly mark the transition from the initialmomentum-driven phase to the later energy-driven phase of the CSPNealong their evolution from the post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB)phase through [WC] late, [WC4] and [WO]-types. The HR diagram and thediagram linking the terminal velocity and the temperature indicatehighly dispersed values of the stellar mass for our sample, around amean mass higher than for normal CSPNe. The distribution of the 42 starsalong the ionisation sequence shows 24% of [WO1-3], 21% of [WO4], 17% of[WC4] hot stars, and 26% of [WC9-11] cool stars. The [WC5-8] classesremain poorly represented (12%). This distribution is confirmed on thebasis of a large compilation of the 127 known emission-lines CSPNe,which represent about 5% of the known PNe.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory(ESO), La Silla (Chile), and at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP,France).Table \ref{liste} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Ionized haloes in planetary nebulae: new discoveries, literature compilation and basic statistical properties
We present a comprehensive observational study of haloes aroundplanetary nebulae (PNe). Deep Hα+[NII] and/or [OIII] narrow-bandimages have been obtained for 35 PNe, and faint extended haloes havebeen newly discovered in the following 10 objects: Cn 1-5, IC 2165, IC2553, NGC 2792, NGC 2867, NGC 3918, NGC 5979, NGC 6578, PB 4, andpossibly IC 1747. New deep images have also been obtained of other knownor suspected haloes, including the huge extended emission around NGC3242 and Sh 2-200. In addition, the literature was searched, andtogether with the new observations an improved data base containing some50 PN haloes has been compiled.The halo sample is illustrated in an image atlas contained in thispaper, and the original images are made available for use by thescientific community at http://www.ing.iac.es/~rcorradi/HALOES/.The haloes have been classified following the predictions of modernradiation-hydrodynamical simulations that describe the formation andevolution of ionized multiple shells and haloes around PNe. According tothe models, the observed haloes have been divided into the followinggroups: (i) circular or slightly elliptical asymptotic giant branch(AGB) haloes, which contain the signature of the last thermal pulse onthe AGB; (ii) highly asymmetrical AGB haloes; (iii) candidaterecombination haloes, i.e. limb-brightened extended shells that areexpected to be produced by recombination during the late post-AGBevolution, when the luminosity of the central star drops rapidly by asignificant factor; (iv) uncertain cases which deserve further study fora reliable classification; (v) non-detections, i.e. PNe in which no halois found to a level of <~10-3 the peak surface brightnessof the inner nebulae.We discuss the properties of the haloes: detection rate, morphology,location of the central stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, sizes,surface brightness profiles, and kinematical ages. Among the mostnotable results, we find that, as predicted by models, ionized AGBhaloes are a quite common phenomenon in PNe, having been found in 60 percent of elliptical PNe for which adequately deep images exist. Another10 per cent show possible recombination haloes. In addition, using thekinematical ages of the haloes and inner nebulae, we conclude that mostof the PNe with observed AGB haloes have left the AGB far from a thermalpulse, at a phase when hydrogen burning is the dominant energy source.We find no significant differences between the AGB haloes ofhydrogen-poor and hydrogen-rich central stars.

Sulfur, Chlorine, and Argon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae. III. Observations and Results for a Final Sample
This paper is the fourth in a series whose purpose is to study theinterstellar abundances of sulfur, chlorine, and argon in the Galaxyusing a sample of 86 planetary nebulae. Here we present new high-qualityspectrophotometric observations of 20 Galactic planetary nebulae withspectral coverage from 3700 to 9600 Å. A major feature of ourobservations throughout the entire study has been the inclusion of thenear-infrared lines of [S III] λλ9069, 9532, which allowsus to calculate accurate S+2 abundances and to either improveupon or convincingly confirm results of earlier sulfur abundancestudies. For each of the 20 objects here, we calculate ratios of S/O,Cl/O, and Ar/O and find average values ofS/O=(1.1+/-1.1)×10-2,Cl/O=(4.2+/-5.3)×10-4, andAr/O=(5.7+/-4.3)×10-3. For six objects, we are able tocompare abundances of S+3 calculated directly from available[S IV] 10.5 μm measurements with those inferred indirectly from thevalues of the ionization correction factors for sulfur. In the finalpaper of the series, we will compile results from all 86 objects, searchfor and evaluate trends, and use chemical evolution models to interpretour results.

Gas temperature and excitation classes in planetary nebulae
Empirical methods to estimate the elemental abundances in planetarynebulae usually use the temperatures derived from the [O III] and [N II]emission-line ratios, respectively, for the high- and low-ionizationzones. However, for a large number of objects these values may not beavailable. In order to overcome this difficulty and allow a betterdetermination of abundances, we discuss the relationship between thesetwo temperatures. Although a correlation is not easily seen when asample of different PNe types is used, the situation is improved whenthey are gathered into excitation classes. From [OII]/[OIII] andHeII/HeI line ratios, we define four excitation classes. Then, usingstandard photoionization models which fit most of the data, a linearrelation between the two temperatures is obtained for each of the fourexcitation classes. The method is applied to several objects for whichonly one temperature can be obtained from the observed emission linesand is tested by recalculation of the radial abundance gradient of theGalaxy using a larger number of PNe. We verified that our previousgradient results, obtained with a smaller sample of planetary nebulae,are not changed, indicating that the temperature relation obtained fromthe photoionization models are a good approximation, and thecorresponding statistical error decreases as expected. Tables 3-5, 7 and9 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

A Catalogue of IJK Photometry of PNe with DENIS
Near-infrared photometry of planetary nebulae (PNe) allows theclassification of those objects (Whitelock 1985; Peña &Torres-Peimbert 1987). We present the largest homogeneous sample.

Study of electron density in planetary nebulae. A comparison of different density indicators
We present a comparison of electron density estimates for planetarynebulae based on different emission-line ratios. We have considered thedensity indicators [O Ii]lambda 3729/lambda 3726, [S Ii]lambda6716/lambda 6731, [Cl Iii]lambda 5517/lambda 5537, [Ar Iv]lambda4711/lambda 4740, C Iii]lambda 1906/lambda 1909 and [N I]lambda5202/lambda 5199. The observational data were extracted from theliterature. We have found systematic deviations from the densityhomogeneous models, in the sense that: Ne(ion {N}i) <~Ne(ion {O}{ii}) < Ne(ion {S}{ii}, ion {C}{iii},ion {Cl}{iii} or ion {Ar}{iv}) and Ne(ion {S}{ii}) ~Ne(ion {C}{iii}) ~ Ne(ion {Cl}{iii}) ~Ne(ion {Ar}{iv}). We argue that the lower [O Ii] densityestimates are likely due to errors in the atomic parameters used.

Helium contamination from the progenitor stars of planetary nebulae: The He/H radial gradient and the ΔY / ΔZ enrichment ratio
In this work, two aspects of the chemical evolution of 4He inthe Galaxy are considered on the basis of a sample of disk planetarynebulae (PN). First, an application of corrections owing to thecontamination of 4He from the evolution of the progenitorstars shows that the He/H abundance by number of atoms is reduced by0.012 to 0.015 in average, leading to an essentially flat He/H radialdistribution. Second, a determination of the helium to heavy elementenrichment ratio using the same corrections leads to values in the range2.8 < ΔY / ΔZ < 3.6 for Y p = 0.23 and 2.0< ΔY / ΔZ < 2.8 for Y p = 0.24, in goodagreement with recent independent determinations and theoretical models.

The distance scale of planetary nebulae
By collecting distances from the literature, a set of 73 planetarynebulae with mean distances of high accuracy is derived. This sample isused for recalibration of the mass-radius relationship, used by manystatistical distance methods. An attempt to correct for a statisticalpeculiarity, where errors in the distances influences the mass-radiusrelationship by increasing its slope, has been made for the first time.Distances to PNe in the Galactic Bulge, derived by this new method aswell as other statistical methods from the last decade, are then usedfor the evaluation of these methods as distance indicators. In order ofachieving a Bulge sample that is free from outliers we derive newcriteria for Bulge membership. These criteria are much more stringentthan those used hitherto, in the sense that they also discriminateagainst background objects. By splitting our Bulge sample in two, onewith optically thick (small) PNe and one with optically thin (large)PNe, we find that our calibration is of higher accuracy than most othercalibrations. Differences between the two subsamples, we believe, aredue to the incompleteness of the Bulge sample, as well as the dominanceof optical diameters in the ``thin'' sample and radio diameters in the``thick'' sample. Our final conclusion is that statistical methods givedistances that are at least as accurate as the ones obtained from manyindividual methods. Also, the ``long'' distance scale of Galactic PNe isconfirmed.

ISO LWS observations of planetary nebula fine-structure lines
We have obtained 43-198μm far-infrared (IR) spectra for a sample of51 Galactic planetary nebulae (PN) and protoplanetary nebulae (PPN),using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on board the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO). Spectra were also obtained of the former PN candidateLo 14. The spectra yield fluxes for the fine-structure lines [Nii]122μm, [Niii] 57μm and [Oiii] 52 and 88μm emitted in theionized regions and the [Oi] 63- and 146-μm and [Cii] 158-μm linesfrom the photodissociation regions (PDRs), which have been used todetermine electron densities and ionic abundances for the ionizedregions and densities, temperatures and gas masses for the PDRs. Thestrong [Niii] and [Oiii] emission lines detected in the LWS spectrumtaken centred on Lo 14 could be associated with the nearby strong radioand infrared source G 331.5-0.1. We find that the electron densitiesyielded by the [Oiii] 88μm/52μm doublet ratio are systematicallylower than those derived from the optical [Ariv]λ4740/λ4711 and [Cliii] λ5537/λ5517 doubletratios, which have much higher critical densities than the 52- and88-μm lines, suggesting the presence of density inhomogeneities inthe nebulae. Ionic abundances, N+/H+,N2+/H+ and O2+/H+, as wellas the N2+/O2+ abundance ratio, which provides agood approximation to the N/O elemental abundance ratio, are derived.Although ionic abundances relative to H+ deduced from thefar-IR fine-structure lines are sensitive to the adopted electrondensity and the presence of density inhomogeneities, the strongdependence on the nebular physical conditions is largely cancelled outwhen N2+/O2+ is calculated from the57μm/(52μm+88μm) flux ratio, owing to the similarity of thecritical densities of the lines involved. The temperatures and densitiesof the PDRs around 24 PN have been determined from the observed [Oi] and[Cii] line intensity ratios. Except for a few objects, the deducedtemperatures fall between 200 and 500K, peaking around 250K. Thedensities of the PDRs vary from104-105cm-3, reaching3×105cm-3 in some young compact PN. With aderived temperature of 1600K and a density of105cm-3, the PDR of NGC 7027 is one of the warmestand at the same time one of the densest amongst the nebulae studied. Formost of the PN studied, the [Cii]-emitting regions contain only modestamounts of material, with gas masses <~0.1Msolar.Exceptional large PDR masses are found for a few nebulae, including NGC7027, the bipolar nebulae M2-9 and NGC 6302, the young dense planetarynebulae BD+30°3639, IC 418 and NGC 5315, and the old, probablyrecombining, nebulae IC 4406 and NGC 6072.

Hi line measurements of pulsars towards the Galactic Centre and the electron density in the inner Galaxy
We have measured 21-cm absorption and emission spectra in the directionof a further seven southern pulsars with the Parkes telescope to derivetheir kinematic distances and to study the interstellar medium. For thefirst time we have successfully obtained Hi absorption measurements forPSRs J1602-5100, J1740-3015 and J1745-3040. We have also significantlyimproved the sensitivity and resolution on PSRs J1600-5044, J1752-2806and J1825-0935, the spectra of which have previously been measured, andhave corrected an error in the published distance to PSR J1824-1945.Since the Frail & Weisberg summary of pulsar distances in 1990, afurther 23 pulsars now have measured Hi distances, mainly through theefforts of the current group. We discuss the Taylor & Cordeselectron density model in light of these new measurements and find that,although the model towards the Galactic Centre appears good, the line ofsight through the Carina spiral arm is poorly fitted by the model.

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Right ascension:18h16m16.52s
Apparent magnitude:13

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6578

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