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|Integrated-Light Two Micron All Sky Survey Infrared Photometry of Galactic Globular Clusters|
We have mosaicked Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) images to derivesurface brightness profiles in J, H, and Ks for 104 Galacticglobular clusters. We fit these with King profiles and show that thecore radii are identical to within the errors for each of these IRcolors and are identical to the core radii at V in essentially allcases. We derive integrated-light colors V-J, V-H, V-Ks, J-H,and J-Ks for these globular clusters. Each color shows areasonably tight relation between the dereddened colors and metallicity.Fits to these are given for each color. The IR - IR colors have verysmall errors, due largely to the all-sky photometric calibration of the2MASS survey, while the V-IR colors have substantially largeruncertainties. We find fairly good agreement with measurements ofintegrated-light colors for a smaller sample of Galactic globularclusters by M. Aaronson, M. Malkan, and D. Kleinmann from 1977. Ourresults provide a calibration for the integrated light of distantsingle-burst old stellar populations from very low to solarmetallicities. A comparison of our dereddened measured colors withpredictions from several models of the integrated light of single-burstold populations shows good agreement in the low-metallicity domain forV-Ks colors but also shows an offset at a fixed [Fe/H] of~0.1 mag in J-Ks, which we ascribe to photometric systemtransformation issues. Some of the models fail to reproduce the behaviorof the integrated-light colors of the Galactic globular clusters nearsolar metallicity.
|Globular cluster system and Milky Way properties revisited|
Aims.Updated data of the 153 Galactic globular clusters are used toreaddress fundamental parameters of the Milky Way, such as the distanceof the Sun to the Galactic centre, the bulge and halo structuralparameters, and cluster destruction rates. Methods: .We build areduced sample that has been decontaminated of all the clusters youngerthan 10 Gyr and of those with retrograde orbits and/or evidence ofrelation to dwarf galaxies. The reduced sample contains 116 globularclusters that are tested for whether they were formed in the primordialcollapse. Results: .The 33 metal-rich globular clusters([Fe/H]≥-0.75) of the reduced sample basically extend to the Solarcircle and are distributed over a region with the projected axial-ratiostypical of an oblate spheroidal, Δ x:Δ y:Δz≈1.0:0.9:0.4. Those outside this region appear to be related toaccretion. The 81 metal-poor globular clusters span a nearly sphericalregion of axial-ratios ≈1.0:1.0:0.8 extending from the central partsto the outer halo, although several clusters in the external regionstill require detailed studies to unravel their origin as accretion orcollapse. A new estimate of the Sun's distance to the Galactic centre,based on the symmetries of the spatial distribution of 116 globularclusters, is provided with a considerably smaller uncertainty than inprevious determinations using globular clusters, R_O=7.2±0.3 kpc.The metal-rich and metal-poor radial-density distributions flatten forR_GC≤2 kpc and are represented well over the full Galactocentricdistance range both by a power-law with a core-like term andSérsic's law; at large distances they fall off as R-3.9. Conclusions: .Both metallicity components appearto have a common origin that is different from that of the dark matterhalo. Structural similarities between the metal-rich and metal-poorradial distributions and the stellar halo are consistent with a scenariowhere part of the reduced sample was formed in the primordial collapseand part was accreted in an early period of merging. This applies to thebulge as well, suggesting an early merger affecting the central parts ofthe Galaxy. The present decontamination procedure is not sensitive toall accretions (especially prograde) during the first Gyr, since theobserved radial density profiles still preserve traces of the earliestmerger(s). We estimate that the present globular cluster populationcorresponds to ≤23±6% of the original one. The fact that thevolume-density radial distributions of the metal-rich and metal-poorglobular clusters of the reduced sample follow both a core-likepower-law, and Sérsic's law indicates that we are dealing withspheroidal subsystems at all scales.
|Nearby Spiral Globular Cluster Systems. I. Luminosity Functions|
We compare the near-infrared (JHK) globular cluster luminosity functions(GCLFs) of the Milky Way, M31, and the Sculptor Group spiral galaxies.We obtained near-infrared photometry with the Persson's AuxiliaryNasmyth Infrared Camera on the Baade Telescope for 38 objects (mostlyglobular cluster candidates) in the Sculptor Group. We also havenear-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)-6Xdatabase for 360 M31 globular cluster candidates and aperture photometryfor 96 Milky Way globular cluster candidates from the 2MASS All-Sky andSecond Incremental Release databases. The M31 6X GCLFs peak at absolutereddening-corrected magnitudes of MJ0=-9.18,MH0=-9.73, and MK0=-9.98.The mean brightness of the Milky Way objects is consistent with that ofM31 after accounting for incompleteness. The average Sculptor absolutemagnitudes (correcting for relative distance from the literature andforeground reddening) are MJ0=-9.18,MH0=-9.70, and MK0=-9.80.NGC 300 alone has absolute foreground-dereddened magnitudesMJ0=-8.87, MH0=-9.39, andMK0=-9.46 using the newest Gieren et al. distance.This implies either that the NGC 300 GCLF may be intrinsically fainterthan that of the larger galaxy M31 or that NGC 300 may be slightlyfarther away than previously thought. Straightforward application of ourM31 GCLF results as a calibrator gives NGC 300 distance moduli of26.68+/-0.14 using J, 26.71+/-0.14 using H, and 26.89+/-0.14 using K.Data for this project were obtained at the Baade 6.5 m telescope, LasCampanas Observatory, Chile.
|RR Lyrae-based calibration of the Globular Cluster Luminosity Function|
We test whether the peak absolute magnitude MV(TO) of theGlobular Cluster Luminosity Function (GCLF) can be used for reliableextragalactic distance determination. Starting with the luminosityfunction of the Galactic Globular Clusters listed in Harris catalogue,we determine MV(TO) either using current calibrations of theabsolute magnitude MV(RR) of RR Lyrae stars as a function ofthe cluster metal content [Fe/H] and adopting selected cluster samples.We show that the peak magnitude is slightly affected by the adoptedMV(RR)-[Fe/H] relation, with the exception of that based onthe revised Baade-Wesselink method, while it depends on the criteria toselect the cluster sample. Moreover, grouping the Galactic GlobularClusters by metallicity, we find that the metal-poor (MP) ([Fe/H]<-1.0, <[Fe/H]>~-1.6) sample shows peak magnitudes systematicallybrighter by about 0.36mag than those of the metal-rich (MR) ([Fe/H]>-1.0, (<[Fe/H]>~-0.6) one, in substantial agreement with thetheoretical metallicity effect suggested by synthetic Globular Clusterpopulations with constant age and mass function. Moving outside theMilky Way, we show that the peak magnitude of the MP clusters in M31appears to be consistent with that of Galactic clusters with similarmetallicity, once the same MV(RR)-[Fe/H] relation is used fordistance determination. As for the GCLFs in other external galaxies,using Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) measurements we giveevidence that the luminosity functions of the blue (MP) GlobularClusters peak at the same luminosity within ~0.2mag, whereas for the red(MR) samples the agreement is within ~0.5mag even accounting for thetheoretical metallicity correction expected for clusters with similarages and mass distributions. Then, using the SBF absolute magnitudesprovided by a Cepheid distance scale calibrated on a fiducial distanceto Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we show that the MV(TO)value of the MP clusters in external galaxies is in excellent agreementwith the value of both Galactic and M31 ones, as inferred by an RR Lyraedistance scale referenced to the same LMC fiducial distance. Eventually,adopting μ0(LMC) = 18.50mag, we derive that the luminosityfunction of MP clusters in the Milky Way, M31, and external galaxiespeak at MV(TO) =-7.66 +/- 0.11, - 7.65 +/- 0.19 and -7.67 +/-0.23mag, respectively. This would suggest a value of -7.66 +/- 0.09mag(weighted mean), with any modification of the LMC distance modulusproducing a similar variation of the GCLF peak luminosity.
|Resolved Massive Star Clusters in the Milky Way and Its Satellites: Brightness Profiles and a Catalog of Fundamental Parameters|
We present a database of structural and dynamical properties for 153spatially resolved star clusters in the Milky Way, the Large and SmallMagellanic Clouds, and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal. This databasecomplements and extends others in the literature, such as those ofHarris and Mackey & Gilmore. Our cluster sample comprises 50 ``youngmassive clusters'' in the LMC and SMC, and 103 old globular clustersbetween the four galaxies. The parameters we list include central andhalf-light-averaged surface brightnesses and mass densities; core andeffective radii; central potentials, concentration parameters, and tidalradii; predicted central velocity dispersions and escape velocities;total luminosities, masses, and binding energies; central phase-spacedensities; half-mass relaxation times; and ``κ-space'' parameters.We use publicly available population-synthesis models to computestellar-population properties (intrinsic B-V colors, reddenings, andV-band mass-to-light ratios) for the same 153 clusters plus another 63globulars in the Milky Way. We also take velocity-dispersionmeasurements from the literature for a subset of 57 (mostly old)clusters to derive dynamical mass-to-light ratios for them, showing thatthese compare very well to the population-synthesis predictions. Thecombined data set is intended to serve as the basis for futureinvestigations of structural correlations and the fundamental plane ofmassive star clusters, including especially comparisons between thesystemic properties of young and old clusters.The structural and dynamical parameters are derived from fitting threedifferent models-the modified isothermal sphere of King; an alternatemodified isothermal sphere based on the ad hoc stellar distributionfunction of Wilson; and asymptotic power-law models withconstant-density cores-to the surface-brightness profile of eachcluster. Surface-brightness data for the LMC, SMC, and Fornax clustersare based in large part on the work of Mackey & Gilmore, but includesignificant supplementary data culled from the literature and importantcorrections to Mackey & Gilmore's V-band magnitude scale. Theprofiles of Galactic globular clusters are taken from Trager et al. Weaddress the question of which model fits each cluster best, finding inthe majority of cases that the Wilson models-which are spatially moreextended than King models but still include a finite, ``tidal'' cutoffin density-fit clusters of any age, in any galaxy, as well as or betterthan King models. Untruncated, asymptotic power laws often fit about aswell as Wilson models but can be significantly worse. We argue that theextended halos known to characterize many Magellanic Cloud clusters maybe examples of the generic envelope structure of self-gravitating starclusters, not just transient features associated strictly with youngage.
|On the origin of the radial mass density profile of the Galactic halo globular cluster system|
We investigate what may be the origin of the presently observed spatialdistribution of the mass of the Galactic Old Halo globular clustersystem. We propose its radial mass density profile to be a relic of thedistribution of the cold baryonic material in the protogalaxy. Assumingthat this one arises from the profile of the whole protogalaxy minus thecontribution of the dark matter (and a small contribution of the hot gasby which the protoglobular clouds were bound), we show that the massdistributions around the Galactic centre of this cold gas and of the OldHalo agree satisfactorily. In order to demonstrate our hypothesis evenmore conclusively, we simulate the evolution with time, up to an age of15Gyr, of a putative globular cluster system whose initial massdistribution in the Galactic halo follows the profile of the coldprotogalactic gas. We show that beyond a galactocentric distance oforder 2-3kpc, the initial shape of such a mass density profile ispreserved despite the complete destruction of some globular clusters andthe partial evaporation of some others. This result is almostindependent of the choice of the initial mass function for the globularclusters, which is still ill determined. The shape of these evolvedcluster system mass density profiles also agrees with the presentlyobserved profile of the Old Halo globular cluster system, thusstrengthening our hypothesis. Our result might suggest that theflattening shown by the Old Halo mass density profile at short distancesfrom the Galactic centre is, at least partly, of primordial origin.
|Comparing the properties of local globular cluster systems: implications for the formation of the Galactic halo|
We investigate the hypothesis that some fraction of the globularclusters presently observed in the Galactic halo formed in externaldwarf galaxies. This is done by means of a detailed comparison betweenthe `old halo', `young halo' and `bulge/disc' subsystems defined by Zinnand the globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud, SmallMagellanic Cloud, and Fornax and Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxies.We first use high-quality photometry from Hubble Space Telescope imagesto derive a complete set of uniform measurements of horizontal branch(HB) morphology in the external clusters. We also compile structural andmetallicity measurements for these objects and update the data base ofsuch measurements for the Galactic globular clusters, including newcalculations of HB morphology for 11 objects. Using these data togetherwith recent measurements of globular cluster kinematics and ages weexamine the characteristics of the three Galactic cluster subsystems.Each is quite distinct in terms of their spatial and age distributions,age-metallicity relationships, and typical orbital parameters, althoughwe observe some old halo clusters with ages and orbits more similar tothose of young halo objects. In addition, almost all of the Galacticglobular clusters with large core radii fall into the young halosubsystem, while the old halo and bulge/disc ensembles are characterizedby compact clusters. We demonstrate that the majority of the externalglobular clusters are essentially indistinguishable from the Galacticyoung halo objects in terms of HB morphology, but ~20-30 per cent ofexternal clusters have HB morphologies most similar to the Galactic oldhalo clusters. We further show that the external clusters have adistribution of core radii which very closely matches that for the younghalo objects. The old halo distribution of core radii can be very wellrepresented by a composite distribution formed from ~83-85 per cent ofobjects with structures typical of bulge/disc clusters, and ~15-17 percent of objects with structures typical of external clusters. Takentogether our results fully support the accretion hypothesis. We concludethat all 30 young halo clusters and 15-17 per cent of the old haloclusters (10-12 objects) are of external origin. Based on cluster numbercounts, we estimate that the Galaxy may have experienced approximatelyseven merger events with cluster-bearing dwarf-spheroidal-type galaxiesduring its lifetime, building up ~45-50 per cent of the mass of theGalactic stellar halo. Finally, we identify a number of old halo objectswhich have properties characteristic of accreted clusters. Several ofthe clusters associated with the recently proposed dwarf galaxy in CanisMajor fall into this category.
|Ages and metallicities of star clusters: New calibrations and diagnostic diagrams from visible integrated spectra|
We present homogeneous scales of ages and metallicities for starclusters from very young objects, through intermediate-age ones up tothe oldest known clusters. All the selected clusters have integratedspectra in the visible range, as well as reliable determinations oftheir ages and metallicities. From these spectra equivalent widths (EWs)of K Ca II, G band (CH) and Mg I metallic, and Hδ, Hγ andHβ Balmer lines have been measured homogeneously. The analysis ofthese EWs shows that the EW sums of the metallic and Balmer H lines,separately, are good indicators of cluster age for objects younger than10 Gyr, and that the former is also sensitive to cluster metallicity forages greater than 10 Gyr. We propose an iterative procedure forestimating cluster ages by employing two new diagnostic diagrams and agecalibrations based on the above EW sums. For clusters older than 10 Gyr,we also provide a calibration to derive their overall metal contents.
|Globular Clusters as Candidates for Gravitational Lenses to Explain Quasar-Galaxy Associations|
We argue that globular clusters (GCs) are good candidates forgravitational lenses in explaining quasar-galaxy associations. Thecatalog of associations (Bukhmastova 2001) compiled from the LEDAcatalog of galaxies (Paturel 1997) and from the catalog of quasars(Veron-Cetty and Veron 1998) is used. Based on the new catalog, we showthat one might expect an increased number of GCs around irregulargalaxies of types 9 and 10 from the hypothesis that distant compactsources are gravitationally lensed by GCs in the halos of foregroundgalaxies. The King model is used to determine the central surfacedensities of 135 GCs in the Milky Way. The distribution of GCs incentral surface density was found to be lognormal.
|HST color-magnitude diagrams of 74 galactic globular clusters in the HST F439W and F555W bands|
We present the complete photometric database and the color-magnitudediagrams for 74 Galactic globular clusters observed with the HST/WFPC2camera in the F439W and F555W bands. A detailed discussion of thevarious reduction steps is also presented, and of the procedures totransform instrumental magnitudes into both the HST F439W and F555Wflight system and the standard Johnson ( B ) and ( V ) systems. We alsodescribe the artificial star experiments which have been performed toderive the star count completeness in all the relevant branches of thecolor magnitude diagram. The entire photometric database and thecompleteness function will be made available on the Web immediatelyafter the publication of the present paper. Based on observations withthe NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space TelescopeScience Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contractNAS5-26555, and on observations retrieved from the ESO ST-ECF Archive.
|Globular Cluster Subsystems in the Galaxy|
Data from the literature are used to construct a homogeneous catalog offundamental astrophysical parameters for 145 globular clusters of theMilky Way Galaxy. The catalog is used to analyze the relationshipsbetween chemical composition, horizontal-branch morphology, spatiallocation, orbital elements, age, and other physical parameters of theclusters. The overall globular-cluster population is divided by a gap inthe metallicity function at [Fe/H]=-1.0 into two discrete groups withwell-defined maxima at [Fe/H]=-1.60±0.03 and -0.60±0.04.The mean spatial-kinematic parameters and their dispersions changeabruptly when the metallicity crosses this boundary. Metal-poor clustersoccupy a more or less spherical region and are concentrated toward theGalactic center. Metal-rich clusters (the thick disk subsystem), whichare far fewer in number, are concentrated toward both the Galacticcenter and the Galactic plane. This subsystem rotates with an averagevelocity of V rot=165±28 km/s and has a very steep negativevertical metallicity gradient and a negligible radial gradient. It is,on average, the youngest group, and consists exclusively of clusterswith extremely red horizontal branches. The population ofspherical-subsystem clusters is also inhomogeneous and, in turn, breaksup into at least two groups according to horizontal-branch morphology.Clusters with extremely blue horizontal branches occupy a sphericalvolume of radius 9 kpc, have high rotational velocities (Vrot=77±33 km/s), have substantial and equal negative radial andvertical metallicity gradients, and are, on average, the oldest group(the old-halo subsystem). The vast majority of clusters withintermediate-type horizontal branches occupy a more or less sphericalvolume ≈18 kpc in radius, which is slightly flattened perpendicularto the Z direction and makes an angle of ≈30° to the X-axis. Onaverage, this population is somewhat younger than the old-halo clusters(the young-halo subsystem), and exhibits approximately the samemetallicity gradients as the old halo. As a result, since theirGalactocentric distance and distance from the Galactic plane are thesame, the young-halo clusters have metallicities that are, on average,Δ[Fe/H] ≈0.3 higher than those for old-halo clusters. Theyoung-halo subsystem, which apparently consists of objects captured bythe Galaxy at various times, contains many clusters with retrogradeorbits, so that its rotational velocity is low and has large errors, Vrot=-23±54 km/s. Typical parameters are derived for all thesubsystems, and the mean characteristics of their member globularclusters are determined. The thick disk has a different nature than boththe old and young halos. A scenario for Galactic evolution is proposedbased on the assumption that only the thick-disk and old-halo subsystemsare genetically associated with the Galaxy. The age distributions ofthese two subsystems do not overlap. It is argued that heavy-elementenrichment and the collapse of the proto-Galactic medium occurred mainlyin the period between the formation of the old-halo and thick-disksubsystems.
|Foreground and background dust in star cluster directions|
This paper compares reddening values E(B-V) derived from the stellarcontent of 103 old open clusters and 147 globular clusters of the MilkyWay with those derived from DIRBE/IRAS 100 mu m dust emission in thesame directions. Star clusters at |b|> 20deg showcomparable reddening values between the two methods, in agreement withthe fact that most of them are located beyond the disk dust layer. Forvery low galactic latitude lines of sight, differences occur in thesense that DIRBE/IRAS reddening values can be substantially larger,suggesting effects due to the depth distribution of the dust. Thedifferences appear to arise from dust in the background of the clustersconsistent with a dust layer where important extinction occurs up todistances from the Plane of ~ 300 pc. For 3 % of the sample asignificant background dust contribution might be explained by higherdust clouds. We find evidence that the Milky Way dust lane and higherdust clouds are similar to those of several edge-on spiral galaxiesrecently studied in detail by means of CCD imaging.
|Blue horizontal branch globular clusters towards the bulge: Terzan 9, NGC 6139 and NGC 6453|
We present V and I photometry of the globular clusters Terzan 9 and NGC6453 for the first time, and also of NGC 6139. The three clusters areprojected towards the bulge. The Colour-Magnitude Diagram morphologiesreveal that the sample clusters have blue horizontal branches. Thischaracterizes an important fraction of the clusters projected on thebulge, with implications on the early Galaxy history. From thecolour-magnitude diagrams we derive reddenings of E(B-V) = 1.95, 0.77,0.70 and distances dsun~ 4.9, 9.4, 8.5 kpc respectively forTerzan 9, NGC 6139 and NGC 6453. We conclude that these metal-poorclusters are within the bulge volume. Observations collected at theEuropean Southern Observatory - ESO, Chile, proposal No. 61.E-0335.
|The metal-rich bulge globular cluster NGC 6401|
We present V and I photometry for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6401for the first time. The Colour-Magnitude Diagram reveals a redhorizontal branch, and the cluster is metal-rich ([Fe/H] ~ -0.7). NGC6401 is located at 5.3(deg) from the Galactic center, turning out to bean interesting target to trace the extent of the bulge. A reddeningE(B-V) = 0.53+/-0.15 and a distance from the Sun dsun ~12.0+/-1.0 kpc are derived. The cluster is slightly behind the bulk ofthe bulge population in that direction, but still within the bulgevolume. Since the number of clusters with Horizontal Branch informationhas increased enormously in the later years for the central 20(deg)x20(deg), we present a discussion on the distribution of red and bluehorizontal branch clusters and their possible relation to bulge and/orhalo. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory --ESO, Chile, proposal no. 61.E-0335
|The Horizontal Branches of Globular Clusters. II. The Color-Magnitude Diagram of NGC 6139|
A color-magnitude diagram (CMD) has been constructed for the globularcluster NGC 6139 from V and I photometry. The broad sequences in thisCMD are caused by variable interstellar reddening, and a gradient inreddening across the field was measured and removed from the data. Fromthe color and shape of the giant branch, we obtain [Fe/H] = -1.71 +/-0.20 and a mean reddening of E(V-I) = 1.03 +/- 0.04 [E(B-V) = 0.76 +/-0.03]. At the blue edge of the instability strip, the mean V magnitudeof the horizontal branch is 17.9 +/- 0.1. These measurements agree withsome but not all previous ones. NGC 6139 has a very blue horizontalbranch (HB), (B-R)/(B+V+R) = 0.91 +/- 0.06, which appears to beunusually short in color extent compared with other clusters of its highcentral density and concentration, although additional observations areneeded to confirm this. NGC 6139 lies in the inner regions of theGalaxy, but outside the Galactic bulge. Its [Fe/H], HB morphology, andkinematics are typical of other inner halo globular clusters.
|High quality seeing V, I and Gunn Z imaging of Terzan 4: a blue horizontal branch bulge globular cluster.|
We study the globular cluster Terzan 4 projected close to the Galacticcenter, by means of V, I and Gunn z Colour-Magnitude Diagrams. Theimages were obtained under exceptional seeing conditions (0.35"-0.55")at the ESO New Technology Telescope equipped with SUSI. We derive areddening of E(B-V)=2.35 and a distance from the Sundsun_=8.3kpc for Terzan 4. From the similarity of the VIColour-Magnitude Diagrams of Terzan 4 and M30, in particular thepresence of a blue horizontal branch, it could be as metal-poor as[Fe/H]=~-2.0. It is therefore another blue horizontal branch globularcluster located close to the Galactic center.
|Destruction of the Galactic Globular Cluster System|
We investigate the dynamical evolution of the Galactic globular clustersystem in considerably greater detail than has been done hitherto,finding that destruction rates are significantly larger than given byprevious estimates. The general scheme (but not the detailedimplementation) follows Aguilar, Hut, & Ostriker. For the evolutionof individual clusters, we use a Fokker-Planck code including the mostimportant physical processes governing the evolution: two-bodyrelaxation, tidal truncation of clusters, compressive gravitationalshocks while clusters pass through the Galactic disk, and tidal shocksdue to passage close to the bulge. Gravitational shocks are treatedcomprehensively, using a recent result by Kundic & Ostriker that the< Delta E2> shock-induced relaxation term, driving an additionaldispersion of energies, is generally more important than the usualenergy shift term < Delta E>. Various functional forms of thecorrection factor are adopted to allow for the adiabatic conservation ofstellar actions in a presence of transient gravitational perturbation.We use a recent compilation of the globular cluster positional andstructural parameters, and a collection of radial velocity measurements.Two transverse to the line-of-sight velocity components were assignedrandomly according to the two kinematic models for the cluster system(following the method of Aguilar, Hut, & Ostriker): one with anisotropic peculiar velocity distribution, corresponding to thepresent-day cluster population, and the other with the radiallypreferred peculiar velocities, similar to those of the stellar halo. Weuse the Ostriker & Caldwell and the Bahcall, Schmidt, & Soneiramodels for our Galaxy. For each cluster in our sample, we calculated itsorbits over a Hubble time, starting from the present observed positionsand assumed velocities. Medians of the resulting set of peri- andapogalactic distances and velocities are used then as an input for theFokker-Planck code. Evolution of the cluster is followed up to its totaldissolution due to a coherent action of all of the destructionmechanisms. The rate of destruction is then obtained as a median overall the cluster sample, in accord with Aguilar, Hut, & Ostriker. Wefind that the total destruction rate is much larger than that given byAguilar, Hut, & Ostriker with more than half of the present clusters(52%--58% for the Ostriker & Caldwell model, and 75%--86% for theBahcall, Schmidt, & Soneira model) destroyed in the next Hubbletime. Alternatively put, the typical time to destruction is comparableto the typical age, a result that would follow from (but is not requiredby) an initially power law distribution of destruction times. We discusssome implications for a past history of the globular cluster system andthe initial distribution of the destruction times, raising thepossibility that the current population is but a very small fraction ofthe initial population with the remnants of the destroyed clustersconstituting presently a large fraction of the spheroid (bulge + halo)stellar population.
|Some Integrated Properties of Galactic Globular Clusters|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AJ....112.2634V
|A Catalog of Parameters for Globular Clusters in the Milky Way|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....112.1487H&db_key=AST
|A Search for Radio Pulsars in Globular Clusters, Supernova Remnants and Transient X-Ray Sources|
We present the results of a targeted search for radio pulsars inglobular clusters, supernova remnants (SNRs) and transient X-raysources. 85 globular clusters, 29 SNRs and three transient X-ray sourceswere observed in the course of the search, during which four pulsarswere found. For each object searched, the sensitivity limit is given.The four new pulsars discovered were all in globular clusters, namelyPSR B1620-26 in M4, PSR B1718-19 in NGC6342, and PSR B1820-30A andB1820-30B in NGC6624. While PSR B1620-26 provides strong support for thebinary evolution hypothesis for the formation of millisecond pulsars,PSR B1718-19 and B1820-30A are somewhat anomalous as they are apparentlyrelatively young, the former pulsar and PSR B1820-30B have high magneticfields, and all are located in old globular clusters (ages ~10^10yr).Not surprisingly, the well-known pulsar PSR B0531+21 was detected in theCrab nebula SNR. The number of pulsars detected was probably limited bythe finite size of pulsar emission beams, as in any survey. Otherfactors such as large distance, low pulsar luminosity and orbital motionmay have inhibited the detection of other pulsars in globular clusters.Pulsars in SNRs and transient X-ray sources are probably less affectedby these factors. Our inability to detect the former is probably due tothe relatively high level of emission from the SNRs, the limited areathat we observed within each target and possibly the high birth velocityof pulsars which carries them away from the centres of their remnants.Processes concerning the accretion discs of transient X-ray sourcesprobably thwarted the detection of any potential radio pulsars in thesesystems.
|Spectroscopy and IR photometry for giant stars in obscured globular clusters: NGC 6325, NGC 6401, NGC 6440, NGC 6517, NGC 6642, HP 1 and PAL 6.|
We have obtained spectra of 85 giants selected from IR photometry in thefields of several very reddened galactic clusters. Radial velocities aremeasured to check membership. We measure the strength of several Fe andMg spectral features, presenting a new calibration of metallicity basedon the location of the giants in the Mg+Fe5270+Fe5335 vs (J-K)_0_diagram. Using this calibration we compute accurate mean metallicitiesfor the clusters studied. Reddening values which better fit thespectroscopic and photometric data are also derived. Pal 6 turns out tobe the most metal rich cluster of our sample, with [Fe/H]=0.2+/-0.3.
|Comparative classification of globular clusters in the galaxy and M31 using cluster analysis|
The distributions of 100 globular clusters in the Galaxy and 167globular clusters in M31 in a three-dimensional space with coordinatesMV, (B-V)0, and (U-B)O are considered. A centroid method of clusteranalysis is used. Classes are identified consisting of clusters that aresimilar in their parameters. The classes are not isolated andcontinually cross each other. This may indicate continuity in theprocess of formation of the aggregate of clusters for each galaxy.Comparison of the characteristics of the clusters in both galaxies, aswell as cluster analysis of the joint distribution for both samples,showed that certain combinations of parameters are characteristic forclusters in one galaxy but atypical for those in the other. Therefore, asignificant number of clusters do not have 'twins' in the other galaxy.This indicates a possible connection between the properties of globularclusters and the properties of the parent galaxy.
|IR Color-Magnitude Diagrams of 20 Galactic Globular Clusters and Bulge Fields|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AJ....110.1686M
|Abundances and velocities for open and globular cluster giants: The data.|
We present a large dataset consisting of giants in the field, and inopen and globular clusters. A total of 122 giants were observed in thefields of 8 open clusters. A total of 342 giants were observed in thefields of 25 globular clusters. A total of 36 field stars with wellknown abundances and luminosities were also observed. Radial velocitiesare determined for most giants, some of which have no photometryavailable. We have analyzed several spectral features in order to definea grid that will allow the determination of metal abundances for haloand bulge giants. The errors involved in the determination of radialvelocities and [Fe/H] are carefully examined. We find that field andopen cluster stars on one side, and globular cluster giants on the otherside, do not follow the same calibration. This is possibly due toenhanced [α/Fe] abundances in globular clusters. Therefore, wehave defined a calibration based only on globular cluster giants, validfrom [Fe/H]=-2.0 to +0.5. This calibration is carried out with thepurpose of measuring metallicities for bulge and halo giants, with theunderlying assumption that the abundance ratios of the relevant elementsrelative to iron are similar to the calibrating stars. Adopting asstandards the globular clusters NGC 288, NGC 362, NGC 1851, NGC 6356,NGC 6624, 47 Tuc, M 4 , M 3, and M 22 we derive metallicities forglobular clusters with less well known compositions, like M 28, and NGC6637. In particular, we confirm a low metallicity for M 28([Fe/H]=-1.35+/-0.2), a cluster that has a disk orbit.
|Perigalactic Distances of Globular Clusters|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AJ....110.1171V
|The ROSAT XRT Sky Survey of X-ray sources in globular clusters.|
We present data obtained on globular clusters during the Rosat XRT +PSPC Sky Survey. Sources were detected in the 0.5-2.5keV range in 11globular clusters. In Ter 6 a previously unknown sources was detected byRosat ; the source H1825-331 was confirmed to be in the cluster NGC6652; the persistent flux of the known burst source in Ter 5 was alsodetected for the first time. The sources in Ter 5 and NGC 6652 aretransients, seen by Rosat in their bright state. Improved positions areobtained for the sources in NGC 6652, Ter 5, and Ter 6. From ouranalysis of the area surrounding ω Cen, we suggest that only oneof the five sources detected by Einstein is related to the globularcluster. One source was detected in the 0.07-0.5keV band only, in NGC5272. A fit of a blackbody to the spectrum of the source in NGC 5272gives a temperature of ~45eV, and a bolometric luminosity of~1.3x10^35^erg/s. Upper limits of sources in clusters for which onlyHEAO-1 observations were available have been improved by factors ten tohundred, and indicate that most clusters do not contain sources withluminosities L_x_(0.5-2.5keV)>3x10^32^erg/s.
|Steps toward the Hubble Constant. X. The Distance of the Virgo Cluster Core Using Globular Clusters|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...446....1S&db_key=AST
|A BVI Photometric Study of the Near-Galactic Center Globular Cluster NGC 6517 (C1759-089)|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AJ....109.2081K
|Catalogue of Galactic globular-cluster surface-brightness profiles|
We present a catalogue of surface-brightness profiles (SBPs) of 125Galactic globular clusters, the largest such collection ever gathered.The SPBs are constructed from generally inhomogeneous data, but arebased heavily on the Berkeley Global Cluster Survey of Djorgovski &King. All but four of the SBPs have photometric zero points. We derivecentral surface brightness, King-model concentrations, core radii,half-light, and other fraction-of-light radii where data permit, and webriefly discuss their use.
|Predictions of a population of cataclysmic variables in globular clusters|
We have studied the number of cataclysmic variables (CVs) that should beactive in globular clusters during the present epoch as a result ofbinary formation via two-body tidal capture. We predict the orbitalperiod and luminosity distributions of CVs in globular clusters. Theresults are based on Monte Carlo simulations combined with evolutioncalculations appropriate to each system formed during the lifetime oftwo specific globular clusters, omega Cen and 47 Tuc. From our study ofthese two clusters, which represent the range of core densities andstates of mass segregation that are likely to be interesting, weextrapolate our results to the Galactic globlular cluster system.Although there is at present little direct observational evidence of CVsin globular clusters, we find that there should be a large number ofactive systems. We predict that there should be more than approximately100 CVs in both 47 Tuc and omega Cen and several thousand in theGalactic globular cluster system. These numbers are based on two-bodyprocesses alone and represent a lower bound on the number of systemsthat may have been formed as a result of stellar interaction withinglobular clusters. The relation between these calculations and thepaucity of optically detected CVs in globular clusters is discussed.Should future observations fail to find convincing evidence of asubstantial population of cluster CVs, then the two-body tidal capturescenario is likely to be seriously constrained. Of the CVs we espect in47 Tuc and omega Cen, approximately 45 and 20, respectively, should haveaccretion luminosities above 1033 ergs/s. If one utilizes arelation for converting accretion luminosity to hard X-ray luminositythat is based on observations of Galactic plane CVs, even these sourceswill not exhibit X-ray luminosities above 1033 ergs/s. Whilewe cannot account directly for the most luminous subset of thelow-luminosity globular cluster X-ray sources without assuming anevolutionary pattern that is different from that of the majority of CVsin the disk, we are able to account for all of the observed lowerluminosity subset of these sources, many of which have been recentlydiscovered through ROSAT observations. In order for our predictedintegrated cluster X-ray luminosities to be consistent withobservational upper limits, the relation between accretion and X-rayluminosities should be something like that inferred from the Galacticplane population of CVs. Our calculations predict a large number ofsystems with Lacc is less than 1032 ergs/s.Although our calculations imply that globular clusters should have anenhancement of CVs relative to the number thought to be present in theGalactic disk, this enhancement is at most roughly an order ofmagnitude, not comparable to the factor of approximately 100 forlow-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs).
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