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|Three-Dimensional Photoionization Structure and Distances of Planetary Nebulae. I. NGC 6369|
We present the results of mapping the planetary nebula NGC 6369 by usingmultiple long-slit spectra taken with the Cerro Tololo Inter-AmericanObservatory 1.5 m telescope. We create two-dimensional emission-lineimages from our spectra and use these to derive fluxes for 17 lines, theHα/Hβ extinction map, the [S II ] line ratio density map, andthe [N II] temperature map of the nebula. We use our photoionizationcode constrained by these data to determine the distance and theionizing star characteristics and to show that a clumpy hourglass shapeis the most likely three-dimensional structure for NGC 6369. Note thatour knowledge of the nebular structure eliminates all uncertaintiesassociated with classical distance determinations, and our method can beapplied to any spatially resolved emission-line nebula. We use thecentral star, nebular emission line, and optical+IR luminosities to showthat NGC 6369 is matter bound, as about 70% of the Lyman continuum fluxescapes. Using recent evolutionary tracks from Blöcker, we derive acentral star mass of about 0.65 Msolar.
|An H I/Optical Atlas of Isolated Galaxies|
We present an H I and optical survey of 41 extremely isolated galaxiesin an attempt to search for the gaseous remnants of the galaxy formationprocess, predicted to exist by hierarchical models of galaxy formation.By observing extremely isolated, quiescent, nonpeculiar galaxies weminimize the chances that any extragalactic H I found will be anothergalaxy, tidal debris, or ejecta from a galactic fountain or superwind.We have obtained new and archival data from the VLA and ATCA in a searchfor H I clouds down to MHI~107 Msolararound these galaxies. We found 13 H I-rich companions around 10 of the41 galaxies surveyed. Optical imaging finds spatially coincident starsassociated with all 13 companions. We find that the isolated galaxieshave properties fairly similar to those of field galaxies, while thecompanions are similar to dwarf irregular galaxies. The presence ofstars in all 13 companions suggests that H I clouds without starsdiscovered by other authors around field galaxies are not primordial andmost likely have either a tidal or ejecta origin.
|Kinematical data on early-type galaxies. VI.|
We present the result of spectroscopic observations of a sample of 73galaxies, completing the database published in this series of articles.The sample contains mostly low-luminosity early-type objects, includingfour dwarfs of the Local Group (in particular, deep spectra of NGC 205),15 dEs or dS0s in the Virgo cluster, and UGC 05442, a spheroidal dwarfof the M 81 group. We have measured the central velocity dispersion forall but one object, and determined the major-axis rotation andvelocity-dispersion profiles for 59 objects. For the current sample ofdiffuse (or dwarf) elliptical galaxies, we have compared stellarrotation to velocity dispersion; the analysis suggests that theseobjects may be nearly rotationally flattened, and therefore thatanisotropy may be less important than previously thought. Based onobservations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. Table 1 isalso, and Tables 2 and 4 only, available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/384/371
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Investigation of Barred Galaxies. V. Surroundings of SB and SA Galaxies|
|Gas-Rich Companions of Isolated Galaxies|
We have used the VLA to search for gaseous remnants of the galaxyformation process around six extremely isolated galaxies. We found twodistinct H I clouds around each of two galaxies in our sample (UGC 9762and UGC 11124). These clouds are rotating and appear to have opticalcounterparts, strongly implying that they are typical dwarf galaxies.The companions are currently weakly interacting with the primary galaxybut look to be in stable orbits as they have dynamical frictiontimescales of 5-100 Gyr. In one case, (UGC 11124N), we see ongoingaccretion of the companion onto the primary galaxy. The small mass ratioinvolved in this interaction means that the resulting merger will be aminor one. The companion does, however, contain enough gas that themerger will represent a significant infusion of fuel to drive futurestar formation in UGC 11124 while building up the mass of the disk.
|The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: 21 Centimeter H I Line Data|
A compilation of 21 cm line spectral parameters specifically designedfor application of the Tully-Fisher (TF) distance method is presentedfor 1201 spiral galaxies, primarily field Sc galaxies, for which opticalI-band photometric imaging is also available. New H I line spectra havebeen obtained for 881 galaxies. For an additional 320 galaxies, spectraavailable in a digital archive have been reexamined to allow applicationof a single algorithm for the derivation of the TF velocity widthparameter. A velocity width algorithm is used that provides a robustmeasurement of rotational velocity and permits an estimate of the erroron that width taking into account the effects of instrumental broadeningand signal-to-noise. The digital data are used to establish regressionrelations between measurements of velocity widths using other commonprescriptions so that comparable widths can be derived throughconversion of values published in the literature. The uniform H I linewidths presented here provide the rotational velocity measurement to beused in deriving peculiar velocities via the TF method.
|The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging Data|
Properties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field.
|A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography|
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Short 21-cm WSRT observations of spiral and irregular galaxies. HI properties.|
We present the analysis of neutral hydrogen properties of 108 galaxies,based on short 21-cm observations with the Westerbork Synthesis RadioTelescope (WSRT). The results of two HI surveys are analysed toinvestigate the existence of relations between optical and HIproperties, like diameters, hydrogen masses and average surfacedensities. For all galaxies in our sample we find that the HI diameter,defined at a surface density level of 1Msun_/pc^2^, is largerthan the optical diameter, defined at the 25^th^mag/arcsec^2^ isophotallevel. The Hi-to-optical-diameter ratio does not depend on morphologicaltype or luminosity. The strongest, physically meaningful, correlationfor the sample of 108 galaxies is the one between logM_HI_ and logD_HI_,with a slope of 2. This implies that the HI surface density averagedover the whole HI disc is constant from galaxy to galaxy, independent ofluminosity or type. The radial HI surface density profiles are studiedusing the technique of principal component analysis. We find that about81% of the variation in the density profiles of galaxies can beexplained by two dimensions. The most dominant component can be relatedto "scale" and the second principal component accounts for the variancein the behaviour of the radial profile in the central parts of galaxies(i.e. "peak or depression") . The third component accounts for 7% of thevariation and is most likely responsible for bumps and wiggles in theobserved density profiles.
|Influence of a partial incompleteness of the sample on the determination of the Hubble constant.|
This paper presents a study of the Malmquist bias effect in thedetermination of the Hubble constant from the method of "sosies"(look-alike) galaxies. It is shown that a bias appears when a partialincompleteness exists in the sample. A new method, based on the use ofthe completeness curve, is proposed to correct for such a bias. Afterthis correction, the Hubble constant drops of about 20% just because ofthe existence of the partial incompleteness. From the present resultsand on the acceptance of the distance modulus of primary calibrators,the value of the Hubble constant would be: H_0_=~60km/s/Mpc with aninternal statistical error of about 2km/s/Mpc.
|Large-Scale Structure at Low Galactic Latitude|
We have extended the CfA Redshift Survey to low galactic latitudes toinvestigate the relation between the Great Wall in the North GalacticCap and the Perseus-Pisces chain in the South Galactic Cap. We presentredshifts for 2020 galaxies in the Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clustersof Galaxies (Zwicky et al. 1961-68, CGCG) in the following regions: 4^h^<= α <= 8^h^, 17^h^ <= α <= 20^h^, 0^deg^ <=δ <= 45^deg^. In these regions, the redshift catalogue includes1664 galaxies with B(0) <= 15.5 (of which 820 are newly measured) andis 97% complete. We also include redshifts for an additional 356galaxies in these regions with B(O) > 15.5; of these, 148 werepreviously unmeasured. The CGCG samples the galaxy distribution down tob_II_ = 10^deg^. In this paper, we discuss the acquisition and reductionof the spectra, and we examine the qualitative features of the redshiftdistribution. The Great Wall and the Perseus-Pisces chain are not simplyconnected across the Zone of Avoidance. These structures, which at firstappear to be coherent on scales of ~100 h^-1^ Mpc or more, actually formthe boundaries of neighboring voids of considerably smaller scale,approximately 50h^-1^ Mpc. The structures delineated by ouroptically-selected sample are qualitatively similar to those detected bythe far-infrared-selected IRAS 1.2 Jansky Survey (Fisher et al. 1995).Although the IRAS survey probes more deeply into the Zone of Avoidance,our optically-selected survey provides better sampling of structures atb_II_ >= 10^deg^.
|Short WSRT HI observations of spiral galaxies.|
We have obtained short HI observations of 60 late type spiral galaxieswith the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Several HIproperties are presented, including the radial surface densitydistribution of HI and a position-velocity map. When possible these arecompared to those measured from single-dish observations. We confirmearlier results that there is no serious systematic difference betweenthe WSRT and single-dish observations in total flux and linewidths.
|Recalibration of the H-0.5 magnitudes of spiral galaxies|
The H-magnitude aperture data published by the Aaronson et al.collaboration over a 10 year period is collected into a homogeneous dataset of 1731 observations of 665 galaxies. Ninety-six percent of thesegalaxies have isophotal diameters and axial ratios determined by theThird Reference Cataloque of Bright Galaxies (RC3; de Vaucouleurs et al.1991), the most self-consistent set of optical data currently available.The precepts governing the optical data in the RC3 are systematicallydifferent from those of the Second Reference Catalogue (de Vaucouleurs,de Vaucouleurs, & Corwin 1976), which were used by Aaronson et al.for their original analyses of galaxy peculiar motions. This in turnleads to systematic differences in growth curves and fiducialH-magnitudes, prompting the present recalibration of the near-infraredTully-Fisher relationship. New optically normalized H-magnitude growthcurves are defined for galaxies of types SO to Im, from which new valuesof fiducial H-magnitudes, Hg-0.5, are measured forthe 665 galaxies. A series of internal tests show that these fourstandard growth curves are defined to an accuracy of 0.05 mag over theinterval -1.5 less than or equal to log (A/Dg) less than orequal to -0.2. Comparisons with the Aaronson et al. values of diameters,axial ratios, and fiducial H-magnitudes show the expected differences,given the different definitions of these parameters. The values ofHg-0.5 are assigned quality indices: a qualityvalue of 1 indicates an accuracy of less than 0.2 mag, quality 2indicates an accuracy of 0.2-0.35 mag, and quality 3 indicates anaccuracy of more than 0.35 mag. Revised values of corrected H I velocitywidths are also given, based on the new set of axial ratios defiend bythe RC3.
|Arm structure in normal spiral galaxies, 1: Multivariate data for 492 galaxies|
Multivariate data have been collected as part of an effort to develop anew classification system for spiral galaxies, one which is notnecessarily based on subjective morphological properties. A sample of492 moderately bright northern Sa and Sc spirals was chosen for futurestatistical analysis. New observations were made at 20 and 21 cm; thelatter data are described in detail here. Infrared Astronomy Satellite(IRAS) fluxes were obtained from archival data. Finally, new estimatesof arm pattern radomness and of local environmental harshness werecompiled for most sample objects.
|Optical positions and 327 MHz flux-densities of UGC galaxies in selected Westerbork fields|
The study presents accurate optical positions of 421 UGC galaxies whichare used to search for 30 92-cm WSRT fields observed for emission fromthese galaxies. Good 92-cm flux densities were obtained for 140galaxies, marginal flux densities for 71 galaxies, and upper limits for210 galaxies. For 35 galaxies, spectral indices in the decimeterwavelength range are determined. The mean spectral index for spiralgalaxies (0.72 +/- 0.03) is very similar to that of elliptical galaxies(0.64 +/- 0.10). The four multiple systems in the sample have a muchflatter spectral index (-0.21 +/- 0.07), from which the presence of asignificant thermal component in their total radio emission issuggested. Comparison with IRAS results show that about half of thegalaxies detected at radio wavelengths are detected in the FIR. It isproposed that some spiral galaxies are anomalously weak in the IR ascompared with their radio brightness.
|Nearby galaxy flows modeled by the light distribution - Distances, model, and the local velocity anomaly|
Tables giving measured galaxy distances used to construct a map ofobserved peculiar velocities, and giving a grid of the distribution oflight used to construct a map of expected peculiar velocities arepresented. A preferred model was developed which yielded a best fitbetween these maps, and this model was used to generate output kinematicdistances which are recorded for groups and individual galaxies withV0 of less than 3000 km/s. In terms of the ratio ofpeculiar-to-systemic velocities, the local velocity anomaly is the mostimportant perturbation involving substantial numbers of galaxies forthis case. The ratio of these quantities in this case is larger than forthe more famous cases of the Virgocentric or Great Attractorperturbations. Maps which illustrate the fit of the present mass modelto the velocity data in the local region are provided. A graphicaldemonstration of the relative importance of large-scale streaming tolocal motions within the context of this model is presented.
|Multiband analysis of the surface brightness distributions of SB and SC spirals CCD images. I - Observations|
Results are presented of an imaging study of eight Sb-Sc spirals, basedon CCD observations in the B, V, R, I, and Z photometric filters.Presented are grey scale images, both in individual bands and in colorindices, isophote maps, the parameters of the best fits to the isophotes(ellipticity and position angle as functions of deprojected radius), andradial profiles in the passbands. The paper explains how the radialintensity profiles of these galaxies are naturally divisible into innerbulge, outer disk, and an intermediate zone, and it is shown how thecolor index images can aid in the diagnostics of reddening effects dueto older or more metallic stellar population on the one hand, and duston the other. The data are presented with a view to facilitating thetask of dynamically reliable bulge-disk decomposition.
|Multiband analysis of the surface brightness distributions of SB and SC spirals from CCD images. II - Bulge-disc decomposition|
We analyze the structure of a small sample of galaxies, using a set ofCCD images in standard photometric bands presented in a previous paper(Prieto et al. 1991). These and their combinations in the form of colorindex images, offer high quality information about the structure of thegalaxies, allowing us to pick out the major concentrations of dust andstar formation, notably in the intermediate zone between bulge and disk.The detection of these structures allows us to interpret the radialluminosity profiles of the galaxies, in particular where these showdepartures from the simple sum of an R exp 1/4 law bulge component andan exponential disk component. The radial color index profiles are shownto be especially useful in revealing the presence of a true bulge andhence in effecting a reliable bulge-disk decomposition. We infer that inall the galaxies examined here, the causes of observed departures fromsimple two-component bulge + disk models for radial profiles are to befound in the intermediate zones of the galaxies, and are the enhancedyoung stellar populations and the associated dust concentrationsencountered in these zones.
|Photometric separation of the bulge and disc components of spirals using CCD imaging|
High-resolution CCD images are presented of a sample of spiral galaxies,in infrared photometric bands, obtained at the Cassegrain focus of the 1m Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope, La Palma. A decisive advantage of thelinearity in these images is that a reliable separation of the lightfrom bulge and disk can be effected. Possible applications of theresults to determine the structure of the bulges are described.
|Uncertainties in 21 centimeter redshifts. I - Data|
High-precision data on the 21-cm redshifts, profile widths, and shapesfor 625 galaxies are presented. Each galaxy is listed in across-identification and morphology table. High-resolution spectra arealso given for each galaxy. Internal redshift consistency is roughly 1km/s for galaxies for which the S/N is above 15. No systematic effectshave been found which might influence the observed redshift quantizationat 72.5 km/s or its submultiples.
A new list of isolated galaxies has been compiled in order to determinewhether or not a true isolated sample can be selected. The sampleselection and the statistical characteristics of the sample arediscussed. In agreement with previous findings, it is concluded that anunclustered background seems to be observationally and operationallymeaningless, and that clustering dominates in all regions of space.
|A catalog of infrared magnitudes and H I velocity widths for nearby galaxies|
Integrated infrared (1.6 micron) magnitudes and 21 cm velocity widthsare presented for 308 nearby spiral galaxies. Positions, types,inclinations, diameters, H I velocities and flux density integrals, anddistances are also listed. These data form the basis for a recentanalysis of the velocity field in the Local supercluster.
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