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Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames Galaxies
Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters.

Mass Profile of the Infall Region of the Abell 2199 Supercluster
Using a redshift survey of 1323 galaxies (1092 new or remeasured) in aregion of 95 deg2 centered on the nearby galaxy cluster Abell2199, we analyze the supercluster containing A2199, A2197, and an X-raygroup. The caustic technique accurately reproduces the true massprofiles of simulated simple superclusters (i.e., superclusters forwhich the virial mass of one cluster is 2-10 times the virial mass ofall other clusters in the supercluster). We calculate the masses of thetwo main components of A2197 (A2197W and A2197E) by using archival X-rayobservations and demonstrate that the A2199 supercluster is simple (themass of A2199 is 5 and 12 times larger than A2197W and A2197E,respectively) and thus that the caustic technique should yield anaccurate mass profile. The masses of A2199, A2197W, and A2197E withinr500 (the radius within which the enclosed density is 500times the critical density) are 22.0, 3.8, and 1.7 times 1013h-1 Msolar, respectively. The mass profile isuncertain by ~30% within 3 h-1 Mpc and by a factor of 2within 8 h-1 Mpc and is one of only a few for a superclusteron such large scale. Independent X-ray mass estimates agree with ourresults at all radii where they overlap. The mass profile stronglydisagrees with an isothermal sphere profile but agrees with profilessuggested by simulations. We discuss the interplay of the superclusterdynamics and the dynamics of the bound subclusters. The agreementbetween the infall mass profile and other techniques shows that thecaustic technique is surprisingly robust for simple superclusters.

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

Spiral Galaxies with HST/NICMOS. I. Nuclear Morphologies, Color Maps, and Distinct Nuclei
This is the first of two papers where we present the analysis of anHST/NICMOS2 near-infrared (NIR) snapshot survey in the F160W (H) filterfor a sample of 78 spiral galaxies selected from the UGC and ESOLVcatalogs. For 69 of these objects we provide nuclear color informationderived by combining the H data either with additional NICMOS F110W (J)images or with V WFPC2/HST data. Here we present the NIR images and theoptical-NIR color maps. We focus our attention on the properties of thephotometrically distinct ``nuclei'' which are found embedded in most ofthe galaxies and provide measurements of their half-light radii andmagnitudes in the H (and when available in the J) band. We find that (1)in the NIR the nuclei embedded in the bright early- to intermediate-typegalaxies span a much larger range in brightness than the nuclei whichare typically found embedded in bulgeless late-type disks: the nucleiembedded in the early- to intermediate-type galaxies reach, on thebright end, values up to HAB~-17.7 mag; (2) nuclei are foundin both nonbarred and barred hosts, in large-scale (>~1 kpc) as wellas in nuclear (up to a few 100 pc) bars; (3) there is a significantincrease in half-light radius with increasing luminosity of the nucleusin the early/intermediate types (a decade in radius for ~8 magbrightening), a correlation which was found in the V band and which isalso seen in the NIR data; (4) the nuclei of early/intermediate-typespirals cover a large range of optical-NIR colors, from V-H~-0.5 to 3.Some nuclei are bluer and others redder than the surroundinggalaxy,indicating the presence of activity or reddening by dust in many ofthese systems; (5) someearly/intermediate nuclei are elongated and/orslightly offset from the isophotal center of the host galaxy. Onaverage, however, these nuclei appear as centered, star-cluster-likestructures similar to those whichare found in the late-type disks. Basedon observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained atthe Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Rotation curves and metallicity gradients from HII regions in spiral galaxies
In this paper we study long slit spectra in the region of Hαemission line of a sample of 111 spiral galaxies with recognizable andwell defined spiral morphology and with a well determined environmentalstatus, ranging from isolation to non-disruptive interaction withsatellites or companions. The form and properties of the rotation curvesare considered as a function of the isolation degree, morphological typeand luminosity. The line ratios are used to estimate the metallicity ofall the detected HII regions, thus producing a composite metallicityprofile for different types of spirals. We have found that isolatedgalaxies tend to be of later types and lower luminosity than theinteracting galaxies. The outer parts of the rotation curves of isolatedgalaxies tend to be flatter than in interacting galaxies, but they showsimilar relations between global parameters. The scatter of theTully-Fisher relation defined by isolated galaxies is significantlylower than that of interacting galaxies. The [NII]/Hα ratios, usedas a metallicity indicator, show a clear trend between Z andmorphological type, t, with earlier spirals showing higher ratios; thistrend is tighter when instead of t the gradient of the inner rotationcurve, G, is used; no trend is found with the change in interactionstatus. The Z-gradient of the disks depends on the type, being almostflat for early spirals, and increasing for later types. The[NII]/Hα ratios measured for disk HII regions of interactinggalaxies are higher than for normal/isolated objects, even if all thegalaxy families present similar distributions of Hα EquivalentWidth. Tables 3 and 4 and Figs. 6, 7 and 21 are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/389 Based on dataobtained Asiago/Ekar Observatory. Also based on observations made withINT operated on the island of La Palma by ING in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.

Fossil Radio Emission Associated with Currently Active Radio Galaxies
We have begun an investigation of how often and for how long galaxiesundergo episodes of nonthermal nuclear activity. Radio images ofgalaxies at high frequencies (~1 GHz and above) reveal nuclear activityover only a limited time interval preceding the current epoch. However,extended radio emission from earlier epochs of activity should be moreprominent at lower radio frequencies because the much longer synchrotronradiation lifetimes of low-energy electrons result in spectra thatsteepen with time. After ~108 yr, radio emission from earlyepochs of activity may only be detectable at lower radio frequencies. Tobegin our investigation, we have chosen fields for observation thatcontain currently active galaxies because these are known to be capableof nuclear activity. We observed three 10° fields with the VLA at 74MHz that contained seven active galaxies from the Pearson-Readheadsample plus a rich cluster of galaxies. Three of the active galaxies andthe galaxy cluster were also observed at 327 MHz. None of the targetedactive galaxies showed extended emission that we interpret as evidenceof earlier activity. However, 10 background radio sources (out of ~100)in the VLA fields of view did appear to have extended low-frequencyemission, with the best case for fossil radio lobes being 3C 338. Ourresults suggest that extended low-frequency radio emission on scales ofseveral arcminutes may be quite common in radio sources detectable withthe VLA at 74 MHz. With adequate statistics, the study of fossil lobescan improve our understanding of the number and duration of activeepochs, the history of black hole accretion, and galactic evolution.More sensitive, higher resolution, and lower frequency observations withfuture instruments will greatly enhance this study.

Homogenization of the Stellar Population along Late-Type Spiral Galaxies
We present a study of the broadband UBV color profiles for 257 Sbcbarred and nonbarred galaxies, using photoelectric aperture photometrydata from the literature. Using robust statistical methods, we haveestimated the color gradients of the galaxies, as well as the total andbulge mean colors. A comparative photometric study using CCD images wasdone. In our sample, the color gradients are negative (reddish inward)in approximately 59% of the objects, are almost null in 27%, and arepositive in 14%, considering only the face-on galaxies, which representapproximately 51% of the sample. The results do not change, essentially,when we include the edge-on galaxies. As a consequence of this study wehave also found that barred galaxies are overrepresented among theobjects having null or positive gradients, indicating that bars act as amechanism of homogenization of the stellar population. This effect ismore evident in the U-B color index, although it can also be detected inthe B-V color. A correlation between the total and bulge colors wasfound that is a consequence of an underlying correlation between thecolors of bulges and disks found by other authors. Moreover, the meantotal color is the same irrespective of the gradient regime, whilebulges are bluer in galaxies with null or positive gradients, whichindicates an increase of the star formation rate in the central regionsof these objects. We have also made a quantitative evaluation of theamount of extinction in the center of these galaxies. This was doneusing the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and the Near InfraredCamera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Hubble Space Telescope(HST) archival data, as well as CCD B, V, and I images. We show thatalthough the extinction in the V-band can reach values up to 2 mag inthe central region, it is unlikely that dust plays a fundamental role inglobal color gradients. We found no correlation between color and O/Habundance gradients. This result could suggest that the color gradientsare more sensitive to the age rather than to the metallicity of thestellar population. However, the absence of this correlation may becaused by dust extinction. We discuss this result by considering apicture in which bars are a relatively fast, recurrent phenomenon. Theseresults are not compatible with a pure classical monolithic scenario forbulge and disk formation. On the contrary, they favor a scenario inwhich both these components are evolving in a correlated process inwhich stellar bars play a crucial role. Based partly on observationsmade at the Pico dos Dias Observatory (PDO/LNA-CNPq), Brazil.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Optical Spectroscopy of the Central Regions of Bright Barred Spiral Galaxies
Optical red spectra of a set of 18 bright barred spiral galaxies arepresented. The study is aimed at determining the local kinematics, andthe physical conditions of ionized gas in the compact nucleus (inside adiameter of 5") and in the circumnuclear regions (inside a diameter of20"). Only 8 galaxies showed bright emission from their east and westside of the nucleus. The spectrum of each region was analizedseparately. In other 10 galaxies the line emission was so weak that wewere only able to obtain an average spectrum of the central emission. Noemission was detected in the remaining 8 galaxies. An estimate of thedynamical mass is presented based on the observed velocities in thecircumnuclear regions. In NGC 4314 and NGC 6951, that show H_alphaemission distributed in circumnuclear ring structures, we determine the[NII]/H_alpha and [SII]/H_alpha ratios for the eastern and westernregions of the rings. The velocity difference for the two sides is usedto derive the rotation velocity of the gas around the compact nucleus.The ratio [NII]6583/H_alpha is a factor of 2 larger in the compactnucleus of NGC 6951 than in its western side. The electron gas densitieshave been estimated from the [SII] lines ratio.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

The Centers of Early- to Intermediate-Type Spiral Galaxies: A Structural Analysis
A recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 visual survey of early- andintermediate-type spiral galaxies has unveiled a great complexity in theinner regions of these systems, which include a high fraction ofphotometrically distinct compact sources sitting at the galactic centers(``nuclei''). The faint nuclei (M_V>~-12) are typically hosted byrather amorphous, quiescent, bulgelike structures with an exponential(rather than the classical R^1/4) light profile. These ``exponentialbulges'' are commonly found inside the intermediate-type disks,consistent with previous studies. Brighter nuclei (M_V<~-12) aretypically found instead in the centers of galaxies with circumnuclearrings/arms of star formation or dust and an active, i.e., H II- orAGN-type, central spectrum at ground-based resolution. On the structuralplane of half-light radius (R_e) versus mean surface brightness withinthe half-light radius (mu_e), faint and bright nuclei overlap with, andfill the region of parameter space between, the old Milky Way globularclusters and the young star clusters, respectively, with typical R_e ofabout a few up to ~20 pc. On the same plane, the exponential bulges havesignificantly fainter mu_e than R^1/4 bulges for any given radius andfollow a mu_e-R_e relation typical of disks, which strengthens thesuggestion that the exponential bulges grow inside the disks as a resultof the secular evolution of the latter. Under the likely assumption thatthe visual light from the faint nuclei embedded in the quiescentexponential bulges is of stellar origin and of a similar (>~1 Gyr)age for the central star clusters and their host bulges, the massesinferred for the former agree with those required to disrupt barscomparable in size to the latter. This offers support to scenarios inwhich the exponential bulges grow inside the disks owing to the orbitaldisruption of progenitor bars caused by the growth of a centralconcentration of mass and suggests that this specific mode of bulgeformation is (still) active in the present-day universe. On the otherhand, the presence of the massive clusters at the very center of thelow-density exponential bulges should prevent any other ``nuclear'' barfrom forming, thereby preventing further infall of dissipative fuel tothe nuclear regions. This may argue against the possibility of evolvingthe exponential bulges into denser, R^1/4 bulges by a simple looping forseveral cycles of the bar formation/disruption mechanism.

Spiral Galaxies with WFPC2. II. The Nuclear Properties of 40 Objects
We report the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field PlanetaryCamera 2 F606W images of 40 spiral galaxies belonging to the sampleintroduced in Paper I, where 35 other targets were discussed. Wedescribe the optical morphological properties of the new 40 galaxies,derive the surface brightness profiles for 25 of them, and present theresults of photometric decompositions of these profiles into a ``bulge''(R^1/4 or exponential) and a disk component. The analysis of theenlarged sample of 75 galaxies puts on a statistically more solid groundthe main results presented in Paper I: (1) In ~30% of the galaxies, theinner, morphologically distinct structures have an irregular appearance.Some of these ``irregular bulges'' are likely to be currently formingstars. (2) Resolved, central compact sources are detected in about 50%of the galaxies. (3) The central compact sources in galaxies withnuclear star formation are brighter, for similar sizes, than those innon-star-forming galaxies. (4) The luminosity of the compact sourcescorrelates with the total galactic luminosity. Furthermore, the analysisof the enlarged sample of 75 objects shows the following: (a) Several ofthe nonclassical inner structures are well fitted by an exponentialprofile. These ``exponential bulges'' are typically fainter than R^1/4bulges, for a given total galaxy luminosity and (catalog) Hubble typelater than Sab. (b) Irregular/exponential bulges typically host centralcompact sources. (c) The central sources are present in all types ofdisk galaxies, starting with systems as early as S0a. About 60% of Sb toSc galaxies host a central compact source. Many of the galaxies thathost compact sources contain a barred structure. (d) Galaxies withapparent nuclear star formation, which also host the brightest compactsources, are preferentially the early- and intermediate-type (S0a-Sb)systems. (e) None of the features depend on environment: isolated andnonisolated galaxies show indistinguishable properties. Independent ofthe physical nature of the nonclassical inner structures, our mainconclusion is that a significant fraction of galaxies classified fromthe ground as relatively early-type spirals show a rich variety ofcentral properties and little or no morphological/photometric evidencefor a smooth, R^1/4 law bulge. Based on observations with the NASA/ESAHubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Asymmetry in high-precision global H I profiles of isolated spiral galaxies
New high-SNR 21 cm H I line profiles have been obtained for 104 galaxieswith the Green Bank 43 m telescope. The primary sample is composed ofisolated spirals with no known optical companions within a 1 radius anda median ratio of optical diameter to beamwidth of 0.17. An effort wasmade to ensure linearity of baseline fitting and precise flux densitycalibration to better than 5 percent. Two quantitative measures ofasymmetry are applied to assess the occurrence of lopsidedness in theglobal H I profiles. In agreement with previous estimates, half thegalaxies show significant H I profile asymmetries. The lopsidednesscannot be explained by pointing offsets but, rather, must result fromnoncircular motions, confusion with unidentified companions within thetelescope beam, or true distortions in the H I distribution.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Spatial Distribution of Ionized Gas in Bright Barred Spiral Galaxies: H(alpha) Images
Charged Coupled Detector (CCD) images of a set of 52 bright barredspiral galaxies in the narrow band filter H(alpha) and in the broadbandI filter are presented. The sample was selected from the Shapley AmesCatalog, with IRAS fluxes characteristic of star formation and a dusttemperature above Td greater than or equal to 25 K. The study is aimedat identifying the global distribution and the underlying symmetries ofthe structures of ionized gas in barred galaxies. Thirty-two galaxiespresent H(alpha) emission from the innermost central regions, but theemission from nuclear rings is observed only in ten galaxies. About halfof the observed galaxies show H(alpha) emission from several regions inthe disk, and 18 galaxies display emission from along the bar. TheH(alpha) emission from inner and outer rings are easily identified insome galaxies. Some other galaxies present more complicated spatialdistributions, probably due to tidal or direct encounters withneighboring galaxies.

Photoelectric UBV Photometry of Galaxies in the Clusters Pegasus I, Pegasus II, Abell 262, Abell 1367, and Abell 2197-9
This paper presents photoelectric UBV multiaperture photometry of 144galaxies, 139 of which are associated with six nearby bright clusters.The observations were made at the McDonald Observatory from 1986September to 1987 November and were part of the production of the ThirdReference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3). The observations were usedto compute total magnitudes and color indices published in RC3. Theobservations can also be used to calibrate CCD images.

A Preliminary Classification Scheme for the Central Regions of Late-Type Galaxies
The large-scale prints in The Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies have been usedto formulate a classification scheme for the central regions oflate-type galaxies. Systems that exhibit small bright central bulges ordisks (type CB) are found to be of earlier Hubble type and of higherluminosity than galaxies that do not contain nuclei (type NN). Galaxiescontaining nuclear bars, or exhibiting central regions that are resolvedinto individual stars and knots, and galaxies with semistellar nuclei,are seen to have characteristics that are intermediate between those oftypes CB and NN. The presence or absence of a nucleus appears to be auseful criterion for distinguishing between spiral galaxies andmagellanic irregulars.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

Arm structure in normal spiral galaxies, 1: Multivariate data for 492 galaxies
Multivariate data have been collected as part of an effort to develop anew classification system for spiral galaxies, one which is notnecessarily based on subjective morphological properties. A sample of492 moderately bright northern Sa and Sc spirals was chosen for futurestatistical analysis. New observations were made at 20 and 21 cm; thelatter data are described in detail here. Infrared Astronomy Satellite(IRAS) fluxes were obtained from archival data. Finally, new estimatesof arm pattern radomness and of local environmental harshness werecompiled for most sample objects.

Integrated colors and luminosity of Seyfert host galaxies - A comparison with the photometric characteristics of normal galaxies
Not Available

The Malmquist bias and the value of H0 from the Tully-Fisher relation
A large sample (n = 395) of spiral (Sab to Sd type) galaxies havingcorrected apparent magnitudes B-zero-sub-T and 21-cm line data (HI linewidths and radial velocities) is used to investigate in a new way theinfluence of the Malmquist bias on the determination of theextragalactic distance scale and the Hubble constant derived from theapplication of the B-band Tully-Fisher relation. This effect is clearlyidentified by using relative kinematic distances derived from aclassical local velocity field model and the concept of normalizedrelative kinematic distance. It results in an unbiased estimate of theHubble constant H0 which appears quite insensitive to the parameters(mean velocity of Virgo and infall velocity of the Local Group towardVirgo) adapted for the local velocity field model. A similar effect isfound from a sample of galaxies (n = 72) which are 'sosies' of 14primary galaxies. It is suggested that the presently derived H0represents the global value of the Hubble constant.

Catalog of CO observations of galaxies
A series of tables summarizes all observations of CO isotopes inexternal galaxies up to spring 1984. Entries include the morphologicaltype, apparent magnitude, diameter, recession velocity, and H I contentof the galaxies, and lists for the CO observations the telescope used,the features examined, the portion of the galaxy observed, the antennatemperatures of detections and their upper limits, the detected andextrapolated integrated emission, the uncertainties in the data, and thedistribution of emission in mapped galaxies. Differences in thecalibration conventions employed by observers and notations appearing inthe literature are explained, and conversion factors are derived.

The dependence on distance and redshift of the velocity vectors of the sun, the Galaxy, and the Local Group with respect to different extragalactic frames of reference
The solar apex S is confirmed to move steadily from S-prime toS-asterisk, when the mean redshift of the reference frame increases fromsmall to large values, on the basis of a new analysis of the solarmotion and Hubble ratio. Most of the change takes place in the 0-4000km/sec interval. The velocity vectors increase steadily, and thedirections of the apexes drift progressively as the mean distance orredshift of the reference frame increases. The frame of referencedefined by galaxies at z greater than 0.01 is essentially at rest withrespect to background radiation, suggesting that any intrinsic dipolaranisotropy of the background radiation is probably less than about0.0001.

The A2197 and A2199 galaxy clusters
Seventy-four new galaxy redshifts in the A2197/A2199 region arepresented. When these are added to data in the literature, 117 galaxieswith known redshifts are found within the two clusters, and 19 galaxieswith known redshifts are found generally north of A2197. These samplesare used to determine the dynamical properties and M/L ratios for thetwo clusters and to examine the broad supercluster properties of thisregion.

H I line studies of galaxies. III - Distance moduli of 822 disk galaxies
The distance scale established on the basis of a distance moduli catalog(for 822 galaxies) that was derived from 21-cm line widths via theB-band Tully-Fisher relation is compared with several independent scaleshaving a common zero point, that are based on the indicators forluminosity index, redshift, ring diameters, brightest superassociations,and effective diameters. These are in excellent systematic agreement,and confirm the linearity of the H I scale in the 24-35 modulusinterval, but indicate a small systematic zero point difference of about0.2 mag, which must be added to the H I moduli to place them on the same'short' distance scale defined by the others.

Radio observations of galaxies of the Byurakan classification at 102 MHz
Interplanetary-scintillation observations at 102 MHz have been made of131 galaxies of the Biurakan classification (1975). It is found thatgalaxies with more pronounced nuclei have higher activity in the radiorange and that scintillating components (with angular dimensions about0.1 arcsec) are more frequently found in them. The scintillatingcomponents have steep spectra.

Bibliography on the structure of galaxies.
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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:16h50m05.50s
Aparent dimensions:2.291′ × 1.047′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6239

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