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 The digitized first Byurakan survey - DFBSContext: The First Byurakan Survey (FBS), also known as the MarkarianSurvey, is the largest low resolution spectroscopic survey of the skyand led to the discovery of 1500 UV-excess (UVX) galaxies and starburstgalaxies. The FBS plates have also been used to search for UVX stellarobjects, late-type stars, and for the identification of unusual infraredsources. Aims: The Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) provides theastronomical community with a digitized version of the FBS images andwith the extracted spectra for the objects present in the plates. Methods: Nearly 2000 plates have been scanned and stored and programswere developed to compute the astrometric solution, extract the spectra,and apply wavelength and photometric calibration for the objects presentin the plates. Results: The DFBS database and catalog of objects hasbeen assembled. The DFBS database contains data for 20 000 000 objectspresent in the survey and provides tools for accessing the DFBS. Conclusions: .New scientific projects as well as existing surveys willbenefit by the digitized images and the ready-to-use extracted spectrawhich will allow an efficient computer-based analysis of the dataset. Planetary Nebula Abundances and Morphology: Probing the Chemical Evolution of the Milky WayThis paper presents a homogeneous study of abundances in a sample of 79northern Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) whose morphological classeshave been uniformly determined. Ionic abundances and plasma diagnosticswere derived from selected optical line strengths in the literature, andelemental abundances were estimated with the ionization correctionfactor developed by Kingsbourgh & Barlow in 1994. We compare theelemental abundances to the final yields obtained from stellar evolutionmodels of low- and intermediate-mass stars, and we confirm that mostbipolar PNe have high nitrogen and helium abundance and are the likelyprogeny of stars with main-sequence mass greater than 3Msolar. We derive =0.27 and discuss the implication of such ahigh ratio in connection with the solar neon abundance. We determine theGalactic gradients of oxygen and neon and foundΔlog(O/H)/ΔR=-0.01 dex kpc-1 andΔlog(Ne/H)/ΔR=-0.01 dex kpc-1. These flat PNgradients are irreconcilable with Galactic metallicity gradientsflattening with time. The structure of planetary nebulae: theory vs. practiceContext.This paper is the first in a short series dedicated to thelong-standing astronomical problem of de-projecting the bi-dimensional,apparent morphology of a three-dimensional mass of gas. Aims.Wefocus on the density distribution in real planetary nebulae (and alltypes of expanding nebulae). Methods. We introduce some basictheoretical notions, discuss the observational methodology, and developan accurate procedure for determining the matter radial profile withinthe sharp portion of nebula in the plane of the sky identified by thezero-velocity-pixel-column (zvpc) of high-resolution spectral images.Results. The general and specific applications of the method (andsome caveats) are discussed. Moreover, we present a series of evolutivesnapshots, combining illustrative examples of both model and trueplanetary nebulae. Conclusions. The zvpc radial-densityreconstruction - added to tomography and 3D recovery developed at theAstronomical Observatory of Padua (Italy) - constitutes a very usefultool for looking more closely at the spatio-kinematics, physicalconditions, ionic structure, and evolution of expanding nebulae. A Spectrophotometric Survey of K-Band Emission Lines in Planetary NebulaeWe present observations of 16 planetary nebulae (PNs) in the 2 μm (Kband) spectral region, obtained with a long-slit near-infraredspectrometer at McDonald Observatory. In general, the strongest featuresin our spectra are recombination lines of H I, He I, and (in some cases)He II. Half the sample shows emission from vibrationally excitedH2. Some of the observed PNs (e.g., M 1-13) displayH2 line ratios characteristic of shocked, thermalized gas,while others (e.g., BD +30 3639) have ratios intermediate between pureradiative (UV) and shock excitation, consistent with either acombination of the mechanisms or UV illumination of dense material. Ourspectra of J900 and M 1-13 confirm that published narrowband imagestrace the H2 emission, and we find that the H2emission in SwSt 1 has a larger spatial extent than previously reported.In IC 5117, SwSt 1, and NGC 40 we detect the [Kr III] 2.199 μm lineidentified by Dinerstein in 2001, with strengths indicating that kryptonis enriched relative to the solar abundance, most markedly so in NGC 40.We also detect several lines from the 3G term of [Fe III] inVy 2-2, SwSt 1, and marginally in Cn 3-1. The [Kr III] and [Fe III]lines fall near in wavelength to H2 transitions, which areoften used as diagnostics for UV excitation because they arise fromhigher vibrationally excited levels (v=2, 3). For moderate spectralresolving power, R<=600, these lines may be blended with, or evenmistaken for, the corresponding H2 lines, leading tomisinterpretation of the H2 emission. The strength of boththe Kr and Fe nebular emission lines can be enhanced by specialcircumstances, Kr because of nucleosynthetic self-enrichment in theprogenitor star and Fe due to inefficient initial dust condensation orpartial destruction of the dust after formation, causing a largerfraction of the elemental iron to reside in the gas phase. C [III] imagery of planetary nebulae and H II regions.Not Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission bands in selected planetary nebulae: a study of the behaviour with gas phase C/O ratioAirborne and space-based low-resolution spectroscopy in the 1980sdiscovered tantalizing quantitative relationships between the gas phaseC/O abundance ratio in planetary nebulae (PNe) and the fractions oftotal far-infrared (FIR) luminosity radiated by the 7.7- and 11.3-μmbands (the C = C stretch and C-H bend, respectively), of polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Only a very small sample of nebulae wasstudied in this context, limited by airborne observations of the7.7-μm band, or the existence of adequate IRAS Low ResolutionSpectrometer data for the 11.3-μm band. To investigate these trendsfurther, we have expanded the sample of planetaries available for thisstudy using Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) low-resolution spectrasecured with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer and the Long WavelengthSpectrometer. The new sample of 43 PNe, of which 17 are detected in PAHemission, addresses the range from C/O = 0.2-13 with the objective oftrying to delineate the pathways by which carbon dust grains might haveformed in planetaries. For the 7.7-μm and 11.3-μm bands, weconfirm that the ratio of band strength to total infrared (IR)luminosity is correlated with the nebular C/O ratio. Expressed inequivalent width terms, the cut-on C/O ratio for the 7.7-μm band isfound to be 0.6+0.2-0.4, in good accord with thatfound from sensitive ground-based measurements of the 3.3-μ band. The Galactic plane region near ℓ = 93°. III. Multi-wavelength emission from SNR 3C 434.1New Canadian Galactic Plane Survey radio continuum, ROSAT X-ray, andoptical line observations of supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 434.1(G94.0+1.0) are presented. A radio spectrum of index α=0.4 (whereS∝ ν -α ) confirms this SNR's emissionsignature as predominantly synchrotron, and suggests the SNR is in theSedov expansion phase. The morphology of the remnant is compared inX-ray, optical, and radio continuum, and the brightest emission in allthree wavelength regimes is from the eastern hemisphere of 3C 434.1,which marks where the SNR shock is interacting with the inside wall ofits stellar wind bubble (SWB) home. The system is determined to be 4.5kpc distant, residing in the Perseus Arm Spiral shock. From a deepHα mosaic of the region, λ 656 nm Hα line emission isobserved that correlates well with radio synchrotron emission andanticorrelates with X-ray emission from the SNR. The origin of thisoptical emission is likely dense (ne=40 cm-3)cooling H II from the wall of the SWB, where the SNR shock haspenetrated and become radiative (vs 100 kms-1). The X-ray spectrum of this SNR between 0.5 and 2.4 keVis well modelled by a single-temperature thermal plasma(Te=4.5×106 K, ne=0.2cm-3). The magnetic field of the bright radio synchrotronemission region is found (under the assumption of near equipartition) tobe B 15 μ G, a factor of 3 compression of the ambient ISM field(5 μ G). The westward extension of 3C 434.1 is the result of ongoingfree expansion of the shock into the lower density interior of the SWB.I use multiwavelength observations to arrive at a unique solution for aninteraction model of 3C 434.1 with the SWB, from which the age (t=25 000yr) and mass ejected in the explosion (Mej=15.5 Mȯ) are determined. I also find an initial blast-wave velocity of1350 km s-1, typical of type 1b SNe. The distances of less-evolved planetary nebulae: a further test of statistical distance scalesIt has recently been pointed out that a number of the methods used todetermine planetary nebulae (PNe) distances may be appreciably in error.Whilst the scales of Zhang (1995), Bensby & Lundstrom (2001) andothers are appropriate for higher radio brightness temperaturesTB, those of Phillips and Daub are more relevant whereTB is small.We note, in the following, that the absolute bolometric magnitudes ofless-evolved PNe are likely to be similar. The mean value of can therefore be used to constrain PNe distancesD, and confirm the distance scales for higher TB outflows. Wehave used this procedure to evaluate distances to a further 47 PNe, andwe find that the mean values of are consistent with those ofCahn, Kaler & Stanghellini (1992), Zhang (1995), Phillips et al.(2004) and van de Steene & Zijlstra (1995). They are, as expected,inconsistent with the lower TB scale of Phillips (2002a). The mean properties of planetary nebulae as a function of Peimbert classPlanetary nebulae are known to possess a broad range of abundances, andthese (with other characteristics) have been used to define five classesof outflow. Peimbert Type I sources, for instance, possess high N and Heabundances, filamentary structures, and low mean scaleheights above theGalactic plane, whilst those of Type III have much lower abundances,high peculiar velocities, and belong to the Galactic thick disc. Apartfrom some rather ill-defined indications, however, very little is knownconcerning their mean physical, spatial, structural, kinematic andthermal characteristics.We have performed a comprehensive study of all of these properties, andfind evidence for strong variations between the various Peimbertclasses. Certain of these differences are consistent with Type I sourceshaving the highest progenitor masses, although it seems that thesenebulae also possess the lowest rms densities and 5-GHz brightnesstemperatures. The latter results are in conflict with a range of recentmodelling. The [Fe IV] Discrepancy: Constraining the Iron Abundances in NebulaeWe study the current discrepancy between the model-predicted andmeasured concentrations of Fe++ and Fe+3 inionized nebulae. We calculate a set of photoionization models, updatedwith the atomic data relevant to the problem, and compare their resultswith those derived for the available nebulae where both [Fe III] and [FeIV] lines have been measured. Our new model results are closer to themeasured values than the results of previous calculations, but adiscrepancy remains. This discrepancy translates into an uncertainty inthe derived Fe abundances of a factor of up to ~4. We explore thepossible causes of this discrepancy and find that errors in the Featomic data may be the most likely explanation. The discrepancy can befully accounted for by any of the following changes: (1) an increase bya factor of ~10 in the recombination rate (radiative plus dielectronic,or charge transfer) for Fe+3, (2) an increase by a factor of2-3 in the effective collision strengths for Fe++, or (3) adecrease by a factor of 2-3 in the effective collision strengths forFe+3. We derive the Fe abundances implied by these threeexplanations and use the results to constrain the degree of depletion ofFe in our sample nebulae. The Galactic H II regions and planetarynebulae are found to have high depletion factors, with less than 5% oftheir Fe atoms in the gas phase. The extragalactic H II regions (LMC 30Doradus, SMC N88A, and SBS 0335-052) have somewhat lower depletions. Themetal-deficient blue compact galaxy SBS 0335-052 could have from 13% to40% of Fe in the gas phase. The depletions derived for the differentobjects define a trend of increasing depletion at higher metallicities. Helium recombination spectra as temperature diagnostics for planetary nebulaeElectron temperatures derived from the HeI recombination line ratios,designated Te(HeI), are presented for 48 planetary nebulae(PNe). We study the effect that temperature fluctuations inside nebulaehave on the Te(HeI) value. We show that a comparison betweenTe(HeI) and the electron temperature derived from the Balmerjump of the HI recombination spectrum, designated Te(HI),provides an opportunity to discriminate between the paradigms of achemically homogeneous plasma with temperature and density variations,and a two-abundance nebular model with hydrogen-deficient materialembedded in diffuse gas of a normal' chemical composition (i.e.~solar), as the possible causes of the dichotomy between the abundancesthat are deduced from collisionally excited lines and those deduced fromrecombination lines. We find that Te(HeI) values aresignificantly lower than Te(HI) values, with an averagedifference of = 4000 K. Theresult is consistent with the expectation of the two-abundance nebularmodel but is opposite to the prediction of the scenarios of temperaturefluctuations and/or density inhomogeneities. From the observeddifference between Te(HeI) and Te(HI), we estimatethat the filling factor of hydrogen-deficient components has a typicalvalue of 10-4. In spite of its small mass, the existence ofhydrogen-deficient inclusions may potentially have a profound effect inenhancing the intensities of HeI recombination lines and thereby lead toapparently overestimated helium abundances for PNe. Recombination Line versus Forbidden Line Abundances in Planetary NebulaeRecombination lines (RLs) of C II, N II, and O II in planetary nebulae(PNs) have been found to give abundances that are much larger in somecases than abundances from collisionally excited forbidden lines (CELs).The origins of this abundance discrepancy are highly debated. We presentnew spectroscopic observations of O II and C II recombination lines forsix planetary nebulae. With these data we compare the abundances derivedfrom the optical recombination lines with those determined fromcollisionally excited lines. Combining our new data with publishedresults on RLs in other PNs, we examine the discrepancy in abundancesderived from RLs and CELs. We find that there is a wide range in themeasured abundance discrepancyΔ(O+2)=logO+2(RL)-logO+2(CEL),ranging from approximately 0.1 dex (within the 1 σ measurementerrors) up to 1.4 dex. This tends to rule out errors in therecombination coefficients as a source of the discrepancy. Most RLsyield similar abundances, with the notable exception of O II multipletV15, known to arise primarily from dielectronic recombination, whichgives abundances averaging 0.6 dex higher than other O II RLs. Wecompare Δ(O+2) against a variety of physical propertiesof the PNs to look for clues as to the mechanism responsible for theabundance discrepancy. The strongest correlations are found with thenebula diameter and the Balmer surface brightness; high surfacebrightness, compact PNs show small values of Δ(O+2),while large low surface brightness PNs show the largest discrepancies.An inverse correlation of Δ(O+2) with nebular densityis also seen. A marginal correlation of Δ(O+2) is foundwith expansion velocity. No correlations are seen with electrontemperature, He+2/He+, central star effectivetemperature and luminosity, stellar mass-loss rate, or nebularmorphology. Similar results are found for carbon in comparing C II RLabundances with ultraviolet measurements of C III]. Unresolved Hα Enhancements at High Galactic Latitude in the WHAM Sky Survey MapsWe have identified 85 regions of enhanced Hα emission at|b|>10deg subtending approximately 1° or less on theWisconsin Hα Mapper (WHAM) sky survey. These high-latitude WHAMpoint sources'' have Hα fluxes of 10-11-10-9ergs cm-2 s-1, radial velocities within about 70km s-1 of the LSR, and line widths that range from less than20 to about 80 km s-1 (FWHM). Twenty-nine of theseenhancements are not identified with either cataloged nebulae or hotstars and appear to have kinematic properties that differ from thoseobserved for planetary nebulae. Another 14 enhancements are near hotevolved low-mass stars that had no previously reported detections ofassociated nebulosity. The remainder of the enhancements are catalogedplanetary nebulae and small, high-latitude H II regions surroundingmassive O and early B stars. Some implications of the introduction of scattered starlight in the spectrum of reddened starsThis paper presents new investigations on coherent scattering in theforward direction (orders of magnitude; conservation of energy;dependence of scattered light on geometry and wavelength), and on howscattered light contamination in the spectrum of reddened stars ispossibly related to as yet unexplained observations (the diminution ofthe 2200 Å bump when the obscuring material is close to the star,the difference between Hipparcos and photometric distances). This paperthen goes on to discuss the fit of the extinction curve, a possible roleof extinction by the gas in the far-UV, and the reasons of theinadequacy of the Fitzpatrick and Massa [ApJSS, 72 (1990) 163] fit. A reexamination of electron density diagnostics for ionized gaseous nebulaeWe present a comparison of electron densities derived from opticalforbidden line diagnostic ratios for a sample of over a hundred nebulae.We consider four density indicators, the [O II]λ3729/λ3726, [S II] λ6716/λ6731, [Cl III]λ5517/λ5537 and [Ar IV] λ4711/λ4740 doubletratios. Except for a few H II regions for which data from the literaturewere used, diagnostic line ratios were derived from our own high qualityspectra. For the [O II] λ3729/λ3726 doublet ratio, we findthat our default atomic data set, consisting of transition probabilitiesfrom Zeippen (\cite{zeippen1982}) and collision strengths from Pradhan(\cite{pradhan}), fit the observations well, although at high electrondensities, the [O II] doublet ratio yields densities systematicallylower than those given by the [S II] λ6716/λ6731 doubletratio, suggesting that the ratio of transition probabilities of the [OII] doublet, A(λ3729)/A(λ3726), given by Zeippen(\cite{zeippen1982}) may need to be revised upwards by approximately 6per cent. Our analysis also shows that the more recent calculations of[O II] transition probabilities by Zeippen (\cite{zeippen1987a}) andcollision strengths by McLaughlin & Bell (\cite{mclaughlin}) areinconsistent with the observations at the high and low density limits,respectively, and can therefore be ruled out. We confirm the earlierresult of Copetti & Writzl (\cite{copetti2002}) that the [O II]transition probabilities calculated by Wiese et al. (\cite{wiese}) yieldelectron densities systematically lower than those deduced from the [SII] λ6716/λ6731 doublet ratio and that the discrepancy ismost likely caused by errors in the transition probabilities calculatedby Wiese et al. (\cite{wiese}). Using our default atomic data set for [OII], we find that Ne([O II])  Ne([S II]) ≈Ne([Cl III])< Ne([Ar IV]). Chemical abundances of planetary nebulae from optical recombination lines - II. Abundances derived from collisionally excited lines and optical recombination linesIn Paper I, we presented spectrophotometric measurements of emissionlines from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-infrared for 12 Galacticplanetary nebulae (PNe) and derived nebular thermal and densitystructures using a variety of plasma diagnostics. The measurements andplasma diagnostic results are used in the current paper to determineelemental abundances in these nebulae. Abundance analyses are carriedout using both strong collisionally excited lines (CELs) and weakoptical recombination lines (ORLs) from heavy element ions.Assuming electron temperatures and densities derived from HIrecombination spectra (line and continuum), we are able to determine theORL C abundance relative to hydrogen for all the PNe in our sample, Nand O abundances for 11 of them and Ne abundances for nine of them. Inall cases, ORL abundances are found to be systematically higher than thecorresponding values deduced from CELs. In NGC 40, the discrepancybetween the abundances derived from the two types of emission linereaches a factor of 17 for oxygen. For the other 10 PNe, thediscrepancies for oxygen vary from 1.6 to 3.1. In general, collisionallyexcited infrared fine-structure lines, which have excitation energiesless than 103 K and consequently emissivities that areinsensitive to electron temperature and temperature fluctuations, yieldionic abundances comparable to those derived from optical/UV CELs. For agiven nebula, the discrepancies between the ORL and CEL abundances areof similar magnitude for different elements. In other words, relativeabundance ratios such as C/O, N/O and Ne/O deduced from the traditionalmethod based on strong CELs are comparable to those yielded by ORLs, fora wide range of ORL to CEL oxygen abundance ratios, varying from nearunity to over a factor of 20.We have also determined ORL abundances relative to hydrogen for thethird-row element magnesium for 11 nebulae in our sample. In strongcontrast to the cases for second-row elements, Mg abundances derivedfrom the MgII 3d-4f λ4481 ORL are nearly constant for all the PNeanalysed so far and agree within the uncertainties with the solarphotospheric value.In accordance with results from previous studies, the ORL to CELabundance ratio is correlated with the difference between the electrontemperatures derived from the [OIII] forbidden-line ratio, on the onehand, and from the hydrogen recombination Balmer discontinuity, on theother. We find that the discrepancy between the ORL and CEL abundancesis correlated with nebular absolute diameter, surface brightness, theelectron density derived from [SII] CELs, and excitation class. Theresults confirm that the dichotomy of temperatures and heavy elementalabundances determined from the two types of emission line, which hasbeen widely observed in PNe, is a strong function of nebular evolution,as first pointed out by Garnett and Dinerstein.Our analyses show that temperature fluctuations and/or densityinhomogeneities are incapable of explaining the large discrepanciesbetween the heavy elemental abundances and electron temperaturesdetermined from the two types of emission line. Our analyses support thebi-abundance model of Liu et al., who have proposed that PNe containanother previously unseen component of ionized gas which, highlyenriched in heavy elements, has an electron temperature of<~103 K and emits strongly in recombination lines but notin CELs. Our determinations of low average emission temperatures fromthe observed line intensity ratios of HeI and OII ORLs lend furthersupport to this scenario. Chemical abundances of planetary nebulae from optical recombination lines - I. Observations and plasma diagnosticsWe have obtained deep optical spectra of medium resolution for a sampleof 12 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). Optical recombination lines(ORLs) from carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have been detected in 11 of themand neon ORLs in nine of them. All spectra were obtained by scanning along slit across the nebular surface, yielding relative line intensitiesfor the entire nebula that are suitable for comparison with integratedline fluxes measured in other wavelength regions using space-bornefacilities, such as the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and theInternational Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). For 11 PNe, ISO infraredspectra between 2.4 and 197 μm are available, most of them taken byourselves, plus a Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) infrared spectrum ofNGC 6210. IUE ultraviolet (UV) spectra are available for all nebulaeexcept one in our sample. The UV, optical and infrared spectra have beencombined to study nebular thermal and density structures and todetermine elemental abundances.We have determined UV to optical extinction curves towards these PNe byexamining observed fluxes of HI and HeII recombination lines, radiofree-free continuum flux density, and UV to optical nebular continua.For 11 PNe in our sample, the derived optical reddening curves are foundto be consistent with the standard Galactic extinction law for atotal-to-selective extinction ratio, R≡A(V)/EB-V= 3.1.However, the optical extinction curve towards Hu 1-2 yields R= 2.0. TheUV extinction towards Hu 1-2 and NGC 6572 is also found to be muchsteeper than the standard Galactic reddening law. In contrast, the UVextinction curve along the sight lines towards NGC 6210 is found to bemuch shallower, although in the latter case the uncertainties involvedare quite large.Electron temperatures and densities have been derived using a variety ofdiagnostic ratios of collisionally excited lines (CELs) in the UV,optical and infrared. The results show clear stratifications, both intemperature and density. Lines emitted by ions formed in regions ofhigher ionization degree yield higher temperatures than lines arisingfrom regions of lower ionization degree, while densities deduced fromratios of infrared diagnostic CELs of low critical densities, such asthe [OIII] 88-μm/52-μm ratio, are systematically lower than thosederived from UV and optical diagnostic lines, which in general have muchhigher critical densities than the infrared fine-structure lines.Electron temperatures have also been derived from the ratio of thenebular continuum Balmer discontinuity to H 11 for 11 PNe. For four ofthese, the Balmer jump temperatures are more than 1000 K lower thanvalues derived from the [OIII] optical collisionally excited diagnosticline ratio. With a difference of 3580 K, NGC 40 has the lowest Balmerjump temperature relative to the [OIII] optical forbidden-linetemperature. High-order Balmer line decrements have been used todetermine electron densities. The results are consistent with valuesderived from forbidden-line density-diagnostics. Planetary nebula distances re-examined: an improved statistical scaleThe distances of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still quite uncertain.Although observational estimates are available for a small proportion ofPNe, based on statistical parallax and the like, such distances are verypoorly determined for the majority of galactic PNe. In particular,estimates of so-called statistical' distance appear to differ byfactors of ~2.7.We point out that there is a well-defined correlation between the 5-GHzluminosity of the sources, L5, and their brightnesstemperatures, TB. This represents a different trend to thoseinvestigated in previous statistical analyses, and permits us todetermine independent distances to a further 449 outflows. Thesedistances are shown to be closely comparable to those determined using aTB-R correlation, providing that the latter trend is taken tobe non-linear.This non-linearity in the TB-R plane has not been noted inprevious analyses, and is likely responsible for the broad (andconflicting) ranges of distance that have previously been published.Finally, we point out that there is a close accord between observedtrends within the L5-TB and TB-Rplanes, and the variation predicted through nebular evolutionarymodelling. This is used to suggest that observational biases areprobably modest, and that our revised distance scale is reasonablytrustworthy. Electron temperatures and densities of planetary nebulae determined from the nebular hydrogen recombination spectrum and temperature and density variationsA method is presented to derive electron temperatures and densities ofplanetary nebulae (PNe) simultaneously, using the observed hydrogenrecombination spectrum, which includes continuum and line emission. Bymatching theoretical spectra to observed spectra around the Balmer jumpat about 3646 Å, we determine electron temperatures and densitiesfor 48 Galactic PNe. The electron temperatures based on this method -hereafter Te(Bal) - are found to be systematically lower thanthose derived from [OIII] λ4959/λ4363 and [OIII] (88 μm+ 52 μm)/λ4959 ratios - hereafterTe([OIII]na) andTe([OIII]fn). The electron densities based on thismethod are found to be systematically higher than those derived from[OII] λ3729/λ3726, [SII] λ6731/λ6716,[ClIII] λ5537/λ5517, [ArIV] λ4740/λ4711 and[OIII] 88 μm/52 μm ratios. These results suggest that temperatureand density fluctuations are generally present within nebulae. Thecomparison of Te([OIII]na) and Te(Bal)suggests that the fractional mean-square temperature variation(t2) has a representative value of 0.031. A majority oftemperatures derived from the Te([OIII]fn) ratioare found to be higher than those of Te([OIII]na),which is attributed to the existence of dense clumps in nebulae - those[OIII] infrared fine-structure lines are suppressed by collisionalde-excitation in the clumps. By comparingTe([OIII]fn), Te([OIII]na)and Te(Bal) and assuming a simple two-density-componentmodel, we find that the filling factor of dense clumps has arepresentative value of 7 × 10-5. The discrepanciesbetween Te([OIII]na) and Te(Bal) arefound to be anticorrelated with electron densities derived from variousdensity indicators; high-density nebulae have the smallest temperaturediscrepancies. This suggests that temperature discrepancy is related tonebular evolution. In addition, He/H abundances of PNe are found to bepositively correlated with the difference betweenTe([OIII]na) and Te(Bal), suggestingthat He/H abundances might have been overestimated generally because ofthe possible existence of H-deficient knots. Electron temperatures anddensities deduced from spectra around the Paschen jump regions at 8250Åare also obtained for four PNe: NGC 7027, NGC 6153, M 1-42 andNGC 7009. Electron densities derived from spectra around the Paschenjump regions are in good agreement with the corresponding values derivedfrom spectra around the Balmer jump, whereas temperatures deduced fromthe spectra around the Paschen jump are found to be lower than thecorresponding values derived from spectra around the Balmer jump for allthe four cases. The reason remains unclear. Wind accretion by a binary stellar system and disc formationI calculate the specific angular momentum of mass accreted by a binarysystem embedded in the dense wind of a mass-losing asymptotic giantbranch star. The accretion flow is of the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton type.For most of the space of the relevant parameters the flow is basicallyan isothermal high Mach number accretion flow. I find that when theorbital plane of the accreting binary system and the orbital plane ofthe triple system are not parallel to each other, the accreted mass onto one or two of the binary system components has high specific angularmomentum. For a large fraction of triple-star systems, accretion discswill be formed around one or two of the stars in the binary system,provided that the mass ratio of the two stars in the accreting binarysystem is >~0.5. Such discs may blow jets which shape the descendantplanetary nebula (PN). The axis of jets will be almost parallel to theorbital plane of the triple-star system. One jet is blown outwardrelative to the wind, while the other jet passes near the mass-losingstar, and is more likely to be slowed down or deflected. I find thatduring the final asymptotic giant branch phase, when the mass-loss rateis very high, an accretion disc may form for orbital separation betweenthe accreting binary systems and the mass-losing star of up to ~400-800au. I discuss the implications for the shape of the descendant PN, andlist several PN which may have been shaped by an accreting binary-starsystem, i.e. by a triple-star system. A reanalysis of chemical abundances in galactic PNe and comparison with theoretical predictions New determinations of chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, Ar and Sare derived for all galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) so far observedwith a relatively high accuracy, in an effort to overcome differences inthese quantities obtained over the years by different authors usingdifferent procedures. These include: ways to correct for interstellarextinction, the atomic data used to interpret the observed line fluxes,the model nebula adopted to represent real objects and the ionizationcorrections for unseen ions. A unique good quality' classical-typeprocedure, i.e. making use of collisionally excited forbidden lines toderive ionic abundances of heavy ions, has been applied to allindividual sets of observed line fluxes in each specific position withineach PN. Only observational data obtained with linear detectors, andsatisfying some quality' criteria, have been considered. Suchobservations go from the mid-1970s up to the end of 2001. Theobservational errors associated with individual line fluxes have beenpropagated through the whole procedure to obtain an estimate of theaccuracy of final abundances independent of an author's `prejudices'.Comparison of the final abundances with those obtained in relevantmulti-object studies on the one hand allowed us to assess the accuracyof the new abundances, and on the other hand proved the usefulness ofthe present work, the basic purpose of which was to take full advantageof the vast amount of observations done so far of galactic PNe, handlingthem in a proper homogeneous way. The number of resulting PNe that havedata of an adequate quality to pass the present selection amounts to131. We believe that the new derived abundances constitute a highlyhomogeneous chemical data set on galactic PNe, with realisticuncertainties, and form a good observational basis for comparison withthe growing number of predictions from stellar evolution theory. Owingto the known discrepancies between the ionic abundances of heavyelements derived from the strong collisonally excited forbidden linesand those derived from the weak, temperature-insensitive recombinationlines, it is recognized that only abundance ratios between heavyelements can be considered as satisfactorily accurate. A comparison withtheoretical predictions allowed us to assess the state of the art inthis topic in any case, providing some findings and suggestions forfurther theoretical and observational work to advance our understandingof the evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars. 12C/13C Ratio in Planetary Nebulae from the IUE ArchivesWe investigated the abundance ratio of 12C/13C inplanetary nebulae by examining emission lines arising from C III2s2p3Po2,1,0-->2s21S0.Spectra were retrieved from the International Ultraviolet Explorerarchives, and multiple spectra of the same object were co-added toachieve improved signal-to-noise ratio. The 13C hyperfinestructure line at 1909.6 Å was detected in NGC 2440. The12C/13C ratio was found to be ~4.4+/-1.2. In allother objects, we provide an upper limit for the flux of the 1910Å line. For 23 of these sources, a lower limit for the12C/13C ratio was established. The impact on ourcurrent understanding of stellar evolution is discussed. The resultinghigh-signal-to-noise ratio C III spectrum helps constrain the atomicphysics of the line formation process. Some objects have the measured1907/1909 Å flux ratio outside the low-electron densitytheoretical limit for 12C. A mixture of 13C with12C helps to close the gap somewhat. Nevertheless, someobserved 1907/1909 Å flux ratios still appear too high to conformto the currently predicted limits. It is shown that this limit, as wellas the 1910/1909 Å flux ratio, are predominantly influenced byusing the standard partitioning among the collision strengths for themultiplet1S0-3PoJaccording to the statistical weights. A detailed calculation for thefine-structure collision strengths between these individual levels wouldbe valuable. Sulfur, Chlorine, and Argon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae. IV. Synthesis and the Sulfur AnomalyWe have compiled a large sample of O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar abundances thathave been determined for 85 Galactic planetary nebulae in a consistentand homogeneous manner using spectra extending from 3600 to 9600Å. Sulfur abundances have been computed using the near-IR lines of[S III] λλ9069, 9532 along with [S III] temperatures. Wefind average values, expressed logarithmically with a standarddeviation, of log(S/O)=-1.91+/-0.24, log(Cl/O)=-3.52+/-0.16, andlog(Ar/O)=-2.29+/-0.18, numbers consistent with previous studies of bothplanetary nebulae and H II regions. We also find a strong correlationbetween [O III] and [S III] temperatures among planetary nebulae. Inanalyzing abundances of Ne, S, Cl, and Ar with respect to O, we find atight correlation for Ne-O, and loose correlations for Cl-O and Ar-O.All three trends appear to be colinear with observed correlations for HII regions. S and O also show a correlation, but there is a definiteoffset from the behavior exhibited by H II regions and stars. We suggestthat this S anomaly is most easily explained by the existence ofS+3, whose abundance must be inferred indirectly when onlyoptical spectra are available, in amounts in excess of what is predictedby model-derived ionization correction factors in PNe. Finally for thedisk PNe, abundances of O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar all show gradients whenplotted against Galactocentric distance. The slopes are statisticallyindistinguishable from one another, a result which is consistent withthe notion that the cosmic abundances of these elements evolve inlockstep. On expansion parallax distances for planetary nebulaeThe distances to individual wind-driven bubbles such as PlanetaryNebulae (PNe) can be determined using expansion parallaxes: the angularexpansion velocity in the sky is compared to the radial velocity of gasmeasured spectroscopically. Since the one is a pattern velocity, and theother a matter velocity, these are not necessarily the same. Using thejump conditions for both shocks and ionization fronts, I show that fortypical PNe the pattern velocity is 20 to 30% larger than the materialvelocity, and the derived distances are therefore typically 20 to 30%too low. I present some corrected distances and suggest approaches to beused when deriving distances using expansion parallaxes. Indications of a Large Fraction of Spectroscopic Binaries among Nuclei of Planetary NebulaePrevious work indicates that about 10% of planetary-nebula nuclei (PNNi)are photometrically variable short-period binaries with periods of hoursto a few days. These systems have most likely descended fromcommon-envelope (CE) interactions in initially much wider binaries.Population-synthesis studies suggest that these very close pairs couldbe the short-period tail of a much larger post-CE binary population withperiods of up to a few months. We have initiated a radial-velocity (RV)survey of PNNi with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope and Hydra spectrograph,which is aimed at discovering these intermediate-period binaries. Wepresent initial results showing that 10 out of 11 well-observed PNNihave variable RVs, suggesting that a significant binary population maybe present. However, further observations are required because we haveas yet been unable to fit our sparse measurements with definite orbitalperiods and because some of the RV variability might be due tovariations in the stellar winds of some of our PNNi. The relation between Zanstra temperature and morphology in planetary nebulaeWe have created a master list of Zanstra temperatures for 373 galacticplanetary nebulae based upon a compilation of 1575 values taken from thepublished literature. These are used to evaluate mean trends intemperature for differing nebular morphologies. Among the most prominentresults of this analysis is the tendency forη=TZ(HeII)/TZ(HeI) to increase with nebularradius, a trend which is taken to arise from the evolution of shelloptical depths. We find that as many as 87 per cent of nebulae may beoptically thin to H ionizing radiation where radii exceed ~0.16 pc. Wealso note that the distributions of values η and TZ(HeII)are quite different for circular, elliptical and bipolar nebulae. Acomparison of observed temperatures with theoretical H-burning trackssuggests that elliptical and circular sources arise from progenitorswith mean mass ≅ 1 Msolar(although the elliptical progenitors are probably more massive).Higher-temperature elliptical sources are likely to derive fromprogenitors with mass ≅2 Msolar, however, implying thatthese nebulae (at least) are associated with a broad swathe ofprogenitor masses. Such a conclusion is also supported by trends in meangalactic latitude. It is found that higher-temperature ellipticalsources have much lower mean latitudes than those with smallerTZ(HeII), a trend which is explicable where there is anincrease in with increasing TZ(HeII).This latitude-temperature variation also applies for most other sources.Bipolar nebulae appear to have mean progenitor masses ≅2.5Msolar, whilst jets, Brets and other highly collimatedoutflows are associated with progenitors at the other end of the massrange (~ 1 Msolar). Indeed it ispossible, given their large mean latitudes and low peak temperatures,that the latter nebulae are associated with the lowest-mass progenitorsof all.The present results appear fully consistent with earlier analyses basedupon nebular scale heights, shell abundances and the relativeproportions of differing morphologies, and offer further evidence for alink between progenitor mass and morphology. Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinatesWe have used the 2nd generation of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC-II) asa reference astrometric catalogue to compile the positions of 1086Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) listed in the Strasbourg ESO Catalogue(SEC), its supplement and the version 2000 of the Catalogue of PlanetaryNebulae. This constitutes about 75% of all known PNe. For these PNe, theones with a known central star (CS) or with a small diameter, we havederived coordinates with an absolute accuracy of ~0\farcs35 in eachcoordinate, which is the intrinsic astrometric precision of the GSC-II.For another 226, mostly extended, objects without a GSC-II counterpartwe give coordinates based on the second epoch Digital Sky Survey(DSS-II). While these coordinates may have systematic offsets relativeto the GSC-II of up to 5 arcsecs, our new coordinates usually representa significant improvement over the previous catalogue values for theselarge objects. This is the first truly homogeneous compilation of PNepositions over the whole sky and the most accurate one available so far.The complete Table \ref{tab2} is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/1029} Ionized haloes in planetary nebulae: new discoveries, literature compilation and basic statistical propertiesWe present a comprehensive observational study of haloes aroundplanetary nebulae (PNe). Deep Hα+[NII] and/or [OIII] narrow-bandimages have been obtained for 35 PNe, and faint extended haloes havebeen newly discovered in the following 10 objects: Cn 1-5, IC 2165, IC2553, NGC 2792, NGC 2867, NGC 3918, NGC 5979, NGC 6578, PB 4, andpossibly IC 1747. New deep images have also been obtained of other knownor suspected haloes, including the huge extended emission around NGC3242 and Sh 2-200. In addition, the literature was searched, andtogether with the new observations an improved data base containing some50 PN haloes has been compiled.The halo sample is illustrated in an image atlas contained in thispaper, and the original images are made available for use by thescientific community at http://www.ing.iac.es/~rcorradi/HALOES/.The haloes have been classified following the predictions of modernradiation-hydrodynamical simulations that describe the formation andevolution of ionized multiple shells and haloes around PNe. According tothe models, the observed haloes have been divided into the followinggroups: (i) circular or slightly elliptical asymptotic giant branch(AGB) haloes, which contain the signature of the last thermal pulse onthe AGB; (ii) highly asymmetrical AGB haloes; (iii) candidaterecombination haloes, i.e. limb-brightened extended shells that areexpected to be produced by recombination during the late post-AGBevolution, when the luminosity of the central star drops rapidly by asignificant factor; (iv) uncertain cases which deserve further study fora reliable classification; (v) non-detections, i.e. PNe in which no halois found to a level of <~10-3 the peak surface brightnessof the inner nebulae.We discuss the properties of the haloes: detection rate, morphology,location of the central stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, sizes,surface brightness profiles, and kinematical ages. Among the mostnotable results, we find that, as predicted by models, ionized AGBhaloes are a quite common phenomenon in PNe, having been found in 60 percent of elliptical PNe for which adequately deep images exist. Another10 per cent show possible recombination haloes. In addition, using thekinematical ages of the haloes and inner nebulae, we conclude that mostof the PNe with observed AGB haloes have left the AGB far from a thermalpulse, at a phase when hydrogen burning is the dominant energy source.We find no significant differences between the AGB haloes ofhydrogen-poor and hydrogen-rich central stars. The 3-D ionization structure of NGC 6818: A Planetary Nebula threatened by recombinationLong-slit NTT+EMMI echellograms of NGC 6818 (the Little Gem) at nineequally spaced position angles, reduced according to the 3-D methodologyintroduced by Sabbadin et al. (\cite{Sabbadin00}a,b), allowed us toderive: the expansion law, the diagnostics and ionic radial profiles,the distance and the central star parameters, the nebularphoto-ionization model, the 3-D reconstruction in He II, [O III] and [NII], the multicolor projection and a series of movies. The Little Gemresults to be a young (3500 years), optically thin (quasi-thin in somedirections) double shell (Mion =~ 0.13 Msun) ata distance of 1.7 kpc, seen almost equatorial on: a tenuous and patchyspherical envelope (r =~ 0.090 pc) encircles a dense and inhomogeneoustri-axial ellipsoid (a/2 =~ 0.077 pc, a/b =~ 1.25, b/c =~ 1.15)characterized by a hole along the major axis and a pair of equatorial,thick moustaches. NGC 6818 is at the start of the recombination phasefollowing the luminosity decline of the 0.625 Msun centralstar, which has recently exhausted the hydrogen shell nuclear burningand is rapidly moving toward the white dwarf domain (log T*=~ 5.22 K; log L*/Lsun =~ 3.1). The nebula isdestined to become thicker and thicker, with an increasing fraction ofneutral, dusty gas in the outermost layers. Only over some hundreds ofyears the plasma rarefaction due to the expansion will prevail againstthe slower and slower stellar decline, leading to a gradual re-growingof the ionization front. The exciting star of NGC 6818 (mV =~17.06) is a visual binary: a faint, red companion (mV =~17.73) appears at 0.09 arcsec in PA =190degr , corresponding to aseparation ge 150 AU and to an orbital period ge 1500 years.Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La SillaObservatories, under programme ID 65.I-0524, and on observations madewith the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archiveat the Space Telescope Institute (observing programs GO 7501 and GO8773; P.I. Arsen Hajian). STScI is operated by the association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under the NASA contract NAS5-26555. We have applied the photo-ionization code CLOUDY, developed atthe Institute of Astronomy of the Cambridge University. The Correlations between Planetary Nebula Morphology and Central Star Evolution: Analysis of the Northern Galactic SampleNorthern Galactic planetary nebulae (PNs) are studied to disclosepossible correlations between the morphology of the nebulae and theevolution of the central stars (CSs). To this end, we have built thebest database available to date, accounting for homogeneity andcompleteness. We use updated statistical distances and an updatedmorphological classification scheme, and we calculate Zanstratemperatures for a large sample of PNs. With our study we confirm thatround, elliptical, and bipolar PNs have different spatial distributionswithin the Galaxy, with average absolute distances to the Galactic planeof 0.73, 0.38, and 0.21 kpc, respectively. We also find evidence thatthe distributions of the CS masses are different across thesemorphological groups, although we do not find that CSs hosted by bipolarPNs are hotter, on average, than CSs within round and elliptical PNs.Our results are in broad agreement with previous analyses, indicatingthat round, elliptical, and bipolar PNs evolve from progenitors indifferent mass ranges and might belong to different stellar populations,as also indicated by the helium and nitrogen abundances of PNs ofdifferent morphology.
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