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|Mass Profile of the Infall Region of the Abell 2199 Supercluster|
Using a redshift survey of 1323 galaxies (1092 new or remeasured) in aregion of 95 deg2 centered on the nearby galaxy cluster Abell2199, we analyze the supercluster containing A2199, A2197, and an X-raygroup. The caustic technique accurately reproduces the true massprofiles of simulated simple superclusters (i.e., superclusters forwhich the virial mass of one cluster is 2-10 times the virial mass ofall other clusters in the supercluster). We calculate the masses of thetwo main components of A2197 (A2197W and A2197E) by using archival X-rayobservations and demonstrate that the A2199 supercluster is simple (themass of A2199 is 5 and 12 times larger than A2197W and A2197E,respectively) and thus that the caustic technique should yield anaccurate mass profile. The masses of A2199, A2197W, and A2197E withinr500 (the radius within which the enclosed density is 500times the critical density) are 22.0, 3.8, and 1.7 times 1013h-1 Msolar, respectively. The mass profile isuncertain by ~30% within 3 h-1 Mpc and by a factor of 2within 8 h-1 Mpc and is one of only a few for a superclusteron such large scale. Independent X-ray mass estimates agree with ourresults at all radii where they overlap. The mass profile stronglydisagrees with an isothermal sphere profile but agrees with profilessuggested by simulations. We discuss the interplay of the superclusterdynamics and the dynamics of the bound subclusters. The agreementbetween the infall mass profile and other techniques shows that thecaustic technique is surprisingly robust for simple superclusters.
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|Optical and CO Radio Observations of Poor Cluster Zwicky 1615.8+3505|
The cluster Zwicky 1615.8+3505 is considered to be a dynamically youngpoor cluster. To investigate the morphology and star-formation activityof galaxies under the environment of a dynamically young poor cluster,we have performed V, R, and I surface photometry, optical low-resolutionspectroscopy, and 12CO (J=1-0) line observations for membergalaxies. Our data show that more than 90% of the observed galaxies showregular morphologies and no star-formation activities, indicating thatthe environment does not affect these galaxy properties. Among sixteengalaxies observed, only NGC 6104 shows a significant star-formationactivity, and shows a distorted morphology, indicating a tidalinteraction. This galaxy contains double knots, and only one knotpossesses Seyfert activity, though the sizes and luminosities aresimilar to each other; we also discuss this feature. Based onobservations made at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO), KisoObservatory (KISO), and Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO). KISO isoperated by Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University ofTokyo. OAO and NRO are branches of the National AstronomicalObservatory, an inter-university research institute operated by theMinistry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture.
|The peculiar motions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions - II. The spectroscopic data|
We present the spectroscopic data for the galaxies studied in the EFARproject, which is designed to measure the properties and peculiarmotions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions. We have obtained1319 spectra of 714 early-type galaxies over 33 observing runs on 10different telescopes. We describe the observations and data reductionsused to measure redshifts, velocity dispersions and the Mgb and Mg_2Lick linestrength indices. Detailed simulations and intercomparison ofthe large number of repeat observations lead to reliable error estimatesfor all quantities. The measurements from different observing runs arecalibrated to a common zero-point or scale before being combined,yielding a total of 706 redshifts, 676 velocity dispersions, 676 Mgblinestrengths and 582 Mg_2 linestrengths. The median estimated errors inthe combined measurements are Delta cz=20 km s^-1, Delta sigma sigma=9.1 per cent, Delta Mgb Mgb=7.2 per cent and Delta Mg_2=0.015 mag.Comparison of our measurements with published data sets shows nosystematic errors in the redshifts or velocity dispersions, and onlysmall zero-point corrections to bring our linestrengths on to thestandard Lick system. We have assigned galaxies to physical clusters byexamining the line-of-sight velocity distributions based on EFAR andZCAT redshifts, together with the projected distributions on the sky. Wederive mean redshifts and velocity dispersions for these clusters, whichwill be used in estimating distances and peculiar velocities and to testfor trends in the galaxy population with cluster mass. The spectroscopicparameters presented here for 706 galaxies combine high-quality data,uniform reduction and measurement procedures, and detailed erroranalysis. They form the largest single set of velocity dispersions andlinestrengths for early-type galaxies published to date.
|The Dynamics of Poor Systems of Galaxies|
We assemble and observe a sample of poor galaxy systems that is suitablefor testing N-body simulations of hierarchical clustering and otherdynamical halo models. We (1) determine the parameters of the densityprofile rho(r) and the velocity dispersion profile sigma_p(R), (2)separate emission-line galaxies from absorption-line galaxies, examiningthe model parameters and as a function of spectroscopic type, and (3)for the best-behaved subsample, constrain the velocity anisotropyparameter, beta, which determines the shapes of the galaxy orbits. Oursample consists of 20 systems, 12 of which have extended X-ray emissionin the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We measure the 877 optical spectra ofgalaxies brighter than m_R~15.4 within 1.5 h^-1 Mpc of the systemcenters (we take H_0=100 h km s^-1 Mpc^-1). Thus, we sample the systemmembership to a radius typically three times larger than other recentoptical group surveys. The average system population is 30 galaxies, andthe average line-of-sight velocity dispersion is ~300 km s^-1. TheNavarro, Frenk, & White universal profile and the Hernquist modelboth provide good descriptions of the spatial data. In most cases anisothermal sphere is ruled out. Systems with declining sigma_p(R) arewell-matched by theoretical profiles in which the star-forming galaxieshave predominantly radial orbits (beta>0) many of these galaxies areprobably falling in for the first time. There is significant evidencefor spatial segregation of the spectroscopic classes regardless ofsigma_p(R).
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|The peculiar motions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions. III - The photometric data|
We present R-band CCD photometry for 776 galaxies observed in the EFARproject. The photometry is compared with photoelectric data, showingthat a common zero-point good to better than 1 per cent and a precisionof 0.03 mag per zero-point have been achieved. We give the circularlyaveraged surface brightness profiles and the photometric parameters ofthe 762 program galaxies, D(n) diameters, half-luminosity radii, totalmagnitudes, and average effective surface brightnesses. More than 80percent of the profiles have a global S/N ratio larger than 300. Theextrapolation needed to derive total magnitudes is less than 10 percentfor 80 percent of the fits. More than 80 percent of the galaxies havemean effective surface brightness larger than the observed skybrightness. In 90 percent of the profiles the estimate of thecontamination of the sky by the galaxy light is less than 1 percent. Wederive total magnitudes and half-luminosity radii to better than 0.15mag and 25 percent, respectively, for 90 percent of our sample. Incontrast, external comparisons show that data in the literature can bestrongly affected by systematic errors due to large extrapolations,small radial range, sky subtraction errors, seeing effects, and the useof a simple R exp 1/4 fit. The resulting errors can easily amount tomore than 0.5 mag in the total magnitudes and 50 percent in thehalf-luminosity radii.
|The Peculiar Motions of Early-Type Galaxies in Two Distant Regions. I. Cluster and Galaxy Selection|
The EFAR project is a study of 736 candidate elliptical galaxies in 84clusters lying in two regions, toward Hercules-Corona Borealis andPerseus-Pisces-Cetus, at distances cz ~ 6000-15,000 km s^-1^. In thispaper (the first of a series), we present an introduction to the EFARproject and describe in detail the selection of the clusters andgalaxies in our sample. Fundamental data for the galaxies and clustersare given, including accurate new positions for each galaxy andredshifts for each cluster. The galaxy selection functions aredetermined by using diameters measured from Schmidt sky survey imagesfor 2185 galaxies in the cluster fields. Future papers in this serieswill present the spectroscopic and photometric observations of thissample, investigate the properties of the fundamental plane forelliptical galaxies, and determine the large- scale peculiar velocityfields in these two regions of the universe.
|The CfA Redshift Survey: Data for the NGP +36 Zone|
We have assembled redshifts for a complete sample of 719 galaxies withm_zw_ <= 15.5 in the declination range 32.5^deg^ <= δ <=38.5^deg^ and right ascension range 8^h^ <= α <= 17^h^. Wehave determined morphological types for all galaxies in the magnitudelimited sample by direct inspection of the POSS-O plates. 576 of theredshifts are measurements from Mount Hopkins, and 405 are newredshifts. We also include new redshifts for 77 fainter galaxies in thesame strip.
|Galaxy structures in the Hercules region|
216 redshifts have been obtained in a region of 981 sq deg south of theHercules supercluster. 172 of these redshifts are of galaxies withmpg less than or equal to 15.1, 110 of which had no previousvelocity measurement. 44 new redshifts are of galaxies fainter thanmpg = 15.1. With these new data we have been able to define asample in a vast region (approximately 1700 sq deg) around Herculeslimited to mpg less than or equal to 15.1 with a velocitycompleteness of 81.5%. 189 galaxies have been morphologically classifiedso that all galaxies in the sample with known velocity now also haveknown morphology. The magnitude limited sample, including 556 galaxies,is then used to identify and describe galaxy structures in the region.We find that the overdense volume is small, that its overall appearanceis that of a coral branch floating in a sea of nothing and that earlyand late type galaxies defined different structures.
|Photoelectric and CCD photometry of E and S0 galaxies|
We present BR photoelectric photometry for 352 E and S0 galaxies thatare part of a large survey of the properties and peculiar motions ofgalaxies in distant clusters. Repeat measurements show our internalerrors to be 2-3 percent in B and R and 1-2 percent in B-R. Comparisonsof BR and BVR reductions for 10 galaxies also observed in V show smallsystematic errors due to differences between the spectral energydistributions of stars and galaxies. External comparisons with B-Vcolors in the literature confirm that these colors are good to 1percent. We also describe R-band CCD observations for 95 of the galaxiesand place these on a BR photometric system for photoelectric and CCDphotomerry, with a common zero-point good to better than 1 percent. Wefind the rms precision of both our photoelectric and CCD R magnitudes tobe 2-3 percent for galaxies as faint as R = 15.
|KISO survey for ultraviolet-excess galaxies. X.|
Presented here are the tenth list and identification charts of theultraviolet-excess galaxies which have been detected on the multi-colorplates taken with the Kiso Schmidt telescope for 10 survey fields. Inthe sky area of some 300 square degrees 490 objects are catalogued downto the photographic magnitude of about 18.
|A VLA 20 CM survey of poor groups of galaxies|
The paper reports on VLA 20 cm observations of an extensive sample ofgalaxies in 139 poor groups. These groups, composed of galaxies down tothe limit of the Zwicky et al. (CGCG) catalog, were chosen using apercolation algorithm set at a high surface-density threshold.Approximately 50 percent of the groups have measured redshifts. Thesegroups were surveyed using a 'snapshot' mode of the VLA with aresolution of about 13 arcsec. Analysis of the resulting radio andoptical properties reveals that the presence of a nearby companiongalaxy has an important role in generating radio emission in a galaxy.CCD observations of two radio-loud, disturbed galaxies with companionsare presented and are used to discuss models of radio-source production.Nine tailed radio galaxies are found in the poor groups, which is muchmore than had been expected from previous work on rich clusters and fromtheoretical models. The paper discusses previous statistical biases andproposes a method for bending head-tail sources in poor groups. From theconfinement of extended radio features associated with tailed sources,the presence of a substantial intracluster medium that should radiatesignificantly at soft-X-ray energies is predicted.
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