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Searching for the Intragroup Medium in Loose Groups of Galaxies
We have conducted a study with the Very Large Array (VLA), the DominionRadio Astrophysical Observatory Synthesis Telescope, and the FarUltraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite to search for theintragroup medium in two loose groups of galaxies: GH 144 and GH 158.The VLA observations provide a census of the dense H I content of thesegroups in the form of individual galaxies and free-floating H I cloudsas traced by the 21 cm H I line, while the FUSE observations trace thediffuse neutral and hot ionized gas that may fill the intragroup medium,populate the halos of individual galaxies, or reside in a skin arounddenser, neutral clouds. While nothing was detected in GH 158, in GH 144we detected two previously unknown H I-rich low surface brightness groupgalaxies. In addition, Lyα, Lyβ, C III, and N V were detectedtoward GH 144. Using this suite of data, we were able to place limits onthe mass of various portions of this group. If virialized, GH 144 has amass of 2×1012 Msolar. Of that mass, 8% liesin the individual cataloged galaxies, and no more than that samefraction again could lie in the dense, neutral medium as constrained byour VLA observations. The absorption lines imply a diffuse gas with avolume density greater than 10-5.2 cm-3 from alayer less than 22 kpc thick, assuming a metallicity of 0.4Zsolar. While the extent of this gas is uncertain, it seemsunlikely that this diffuse gas contributes a significant fraction of thegroup mass. Given the depth of the absorbing material and its separationfrom the nearest galaxies, it seems most likely that it originates froma small clump in the intragroup medium; perhaps an ionized high-velocitycloud, but it may be associated with one of our new H I detections. Thiswas our ambitious first attempt to search for the intergalactic mediumin emission and absorption, and while it was only partially successful,we show what is possible and what more is needed for its success.

A comparison of stellar populations in galaxy spheroids across a wide range of Hubble types
We present line-strengths and kinematics from the central regions of 32galaxies with Hubble types ranging from E to Sbc. Spectral indices,based on the Lick system, are measured in the optical and near-infrared(NIR). The 24 indices measured, in conjunction with models of theeffects of varying abundance ratios, permit the breaking ofage/metallicity degeneracy, and allow estimation of enhancements inspecific light elements (particularly C and Mg). The large range ofHubble types observed allows direct comparison of line-strengths in thecentres of early-type galaxies (E and S0) with those in spiral bulges,free from systematic differences that have plagued comparisons ofresults from different studies. Our sample includes field and Virgocluster galaxies. For early-type galaxies our data are consistent withpreviously reported trends of Mg2 and Mgb with velocitydispersion. In spiral bulges we find trends in all indices with velocitydispersion. We estimate luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities andheavy-element abundance ratios (enhancements) from optical indices.These show that bulges are less enhanced in light (α-capture)elements and have lower average age than early-type galaxies. Trendsinvolving age and metallicity also differ sharply between early and latetypes. An anticorrelation exists between age and metallicity in earlytypes, while, in bulges, metallicity is correlated with velocitydispersion. We consider the implications of these findings for models ofthe formation of these galaxies. We find that primordial collapse modelsof galaxy formation are ruled out by our observations, while severalpredictions of hierarchical clustering (merger) models are confirmed.

Homogenization of the Stellar Population along Late-Type Spiral Galaxies
We present a study of the broadband UBV color profiles for 257 Sbcbarred and nonbarred galaxies, using photoelectric aperture photometrydata from the literature. Using robust statistical methods, we haveestimated the color gradients of the galaxies, as well as the total andbulge mean colors. A comparative photometric study using CCD images wasdone. In our sample, the color gradients are negative (reddish inward)in approximately 59% of the objects, are almost null in 27%, and arepositive in 14%, considering only the face-on galaxies, which representapproximately 51% of the sample. The results do not change, essentially,when we include the edge-on galaxies. As a consequence of this study wehave also found that barred galaxies are overrepresented among theobjects having null or positive gradients, indicating that bars act as amechanism of homogenization of the stellar population. This effect ismore evident in the U-B color index, although it can also be detected inthe B-V color. A correlation between the total and bulge colors wasfound that is a consequence of an underlying correlation between thecolors of bulges and disks found by other authors. Moreover, the meantotal color is the same irrespective of the gradient regime, whilebulges are bluer in galaxies with null or positive gradients, whichindicates an increase of the star formation rate in the central regionsof these objects. We have also made a quantitative evaluation of theamount of extinction in the center of these galaxies. This was doneusing the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and the Near InfraredCamera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Hubble Space Telescope(HST) archival data, as well as CCD B, V, and I images. We show thatalthough the extinction in the V-band can reach values up to 2 mag inthe central region, it is unlikely that dust plays a fundamental role inglobal color gradients. We found no correlation between color and O/Habundance gradients. This result could suggest that the color gradientsare more sensitive to the age rather than to the metallicity of thestellar population. However, the absence of this correlation may becaused by dust extinction. We discuss this result by considering apicture in which bars are a relatively fast, recurrent phenomenon. Theseresults are not compatible with a pure classical monolithic scenario forbulge and disk formation. On the contrary, they favor a scenario inwhich both these components are evolving in a correlated process inwhich stellar bars play a crucial role. Based partly on observationsmade at the Pico dos Dias Observatory (PDO/LNA-CNPq), Brazil.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Correlations among Global Photometric Properties of Disk Galaxies
Using a two-dimensional galaxy image decomposition technique, we extractglobal bulge and disk parameters for a complete sample of early-typedisk galaxies in the near-infrared K band. We find significantcorrelation of the bulge parameter n with the central bulge surfacebrightness μb(0) and with effective radiusre. Using bivariate analysis techniques, we findthat logn, logre, and μb(0) are distributed ina plane with small scatter. We do not find a strong correlation of nwith bulge-to-disk luminosity ratio, contrary to earlier reports. Forthese early-type disk galaxies, re and the diskscale length rd are well correlated, but withlarge scatter. We examine the implications of our results for variousbulge formation scenarios in disk galaxies.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

The effects of a disc field on bulge surface brightness
Collisionless N-body simulations are used in an effort to reproduce theobserved tendency of the surface brightness profile of bulges to changeprogressively from an R exp 1/4 law to an exponential, going from early-to late-type spirals. A possible cause for this is the formation of thedisk later in the history of the galaxy, and this is simulated byapplying on the N-body bulge the force field of an exponential disk thesurface density of which increases with time. It is shown that n, theindex of the Sersic law that best describes the surface brightnessprofile, does indeed decrease from 4 (the de Vaucouleurs law) to smallervalues; this decrease is larger for more massive and more compact disks.A large part of the observed trend of n with B/D ratio is explained, andmany of the actual profiles can be matched exactly by the simulations.The correlation between the disk scale length and bulge effectiveradius, used recently to support the 'secular evolution' origin forbulges, is also shown to arise naturally in a scenario like this. Thismechanism, however, saturates at around n = 2 and exponential bulgescannot be produced; as n gets closer to 1, the profile becomesincreasingly robust against a disk field. These results provide strongsupport to the old-bulge hypothesis for the early-type bulges. Theexponential bulges, however, remain essentially unexplained; the resultshere suggest that they did not begin their lives as R exp 1/4 spheroids,and hence were probably formed, at least in part, by different processesfrom those of early-type spirals.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Hubble constant from sosie galaxies and HIPPARCOS geometrical calibration
New distances, larger than previous ones, have been obtained for M 31and M 81 based on the geometrical zero-point of the CepheidPeriod-luminosity relation provided by the HIPPARCOS satellite. Bycombining them with independent determinations we define reasonableranges for the distances of these important calibrating galaxies. Onthis basis, we determine the Hubble constant from the method of sosies(look-alike) galaxies, galaxies having the same characteristics than thecalibrators. The method is quite secure because it is purelydifferential and it does not depend on any assumption (apart from thenatural one that two sosies galaxies have similar absoluteluminosities). Nevertheless, the Malmquist bias has to be taken intoaccount. The observations behave exactly as predicted from theanalytical formulation of the bias. Thus, rejecting galaxies which areaffected by the Malmquist bias we derive the Hubble constant: H_o = 60+/- 10 (external) km.s^{-1}.Mpc^{-1} If we strictly use the calibrationobtained with HIPPARCOS and if the bias found in the Period-LuminosityRelation is considered, the Hubble constant is smaller than this (~ 55km.s(-1}.Mpc({-1)) ). This gives arguments in favour of thelong-distance scale. We briefly discuss possible improvements aiming atstill reducing the uncertainty.

Near-infrared surface photometry of bulges and disks of spiral galaxies. The data
We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness and colourprofiles, in bands ranging from U to K, for the disk and bulgecomponents of a complete sample of 30 nearby S0 to Sbc galaxies withinclinations larger than 50 deg. We describe in detail the observationsand the determination of colour parameters. Calibrated monochromatic andreal-colour images are presented, as well as colour index maps. Thisdata set, tailored for the study of the population characteristics ofgalaxy bulges, provides useful information on the colours of inner disksas well. In related papers, we have used them to quantify colourgradients in bulges, and age differentials between bulge and inner disk.

Neutral Hydrogen Distributions and Kinematics of Giant Low Surface=20 Brightness Disk Galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1858P&db_key=AST

Ages of Galaxies Bulges and Disks From Optical and Near-Infrared Colors
We compare optical and near-infrared colors of disks and bulges in adiameter-limited sample of inclined, bright, nearby, early-type spirals.Color profiles along wedge apertures at 15^deg^ from the major axis andon the minor axis on the side of the galaxy opposite to the dust laneare used to assign nominal colors for the inner disks (at 2 scalelength) and for the bulges (~0.5r_eff_), respectively. We estimate thatthe effects of dust reddening and the cross-talk between the colors ofthe two components is negligible. We find that color differences(bulge-disk) are very small: {DELTA}(U-R) = 0.126+/-0.165,{DELTA}(R-K)=0078+/-0.165. Disks tend to be bluer by an amount threetimes smaller than that reported by Bothun & Gregg [ApJ,350,73(1990)] for S0s. Color variations from galaxy to galaxy are muchlarger than color differences between disk and bulge in each galaxy.Probably, the underlying old population of disks and bulges is much moresimilar than the population paradigm would lead us to believe. Impliedage differences, assuming identical metallicities, are less than 30%.

The Shape of the Luminosity Profiles of Bulges of Spiral Galaxies
Using a 2D generalization of Kent's model-independent decompositionmethod, we extract the K-band light profiles of the bulges of a sampleof field galaxies with morphological types ranging from S0 to Sbc. Wethen examine the shape of the bulge profiles, by means of fitting aseeing-convolved power law of the form μ(r) is proportional tor^1/n^, where the exponent n is allowed to vary. The best-fittingexponent n is found to vary systematically from values around 1(exponential) to 6 from late- to early- type bulges; the profiles tendto fall off more steeply in the outer parts for the later types. Thesame trend is seen as a function of bulge to disc ratio. Application ofthe method to artificial data proves that this result is not caused bydisc-light contamination. There are also indications that n becomeslarger with increasing total luminosity and radius of the bulge. Asimilar relation has recently been found for elliptical galaxies. Thesmooth trend of n with morphological type shows that the formation of orinteraction with the disc has affected the density distribution of thebulge.

Properties of the class of giant low surface brightness spiral galaxies
We have obtained CCD surface photometry and optical spectroscopy for asample of eight giant low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxiesdiscovered in the course of a large survey for LSB galaxies. We findthat these LSB giants have disks of larger scale length and lowercentral surface brightness than other spiral galaxies, although nonehave parameters as extreme as the prototype Malin 1. We find that theintegrated colors of these LSB giants are redder than the integratedcolors of smaller LSB galaxies, and that the LSB galaxies of all sizesfollow a relation between redder colors and increasing disk scalelength. Two of these eight LSB giants have active nuclei with the broadpermitted lines characteristic of a Seyfert 1 nucleus, and one has thenarrow lines of a Seyfert 2. The colors and absorption line indices ofthe bulges of these giants are indistinguishable from those of highsurface brightness (HSB) spirals, suggesting that their bulges havesimilar stellar populations and evolutionary histories. We also observedfour and detected three of these galaxies in the 21 cm line of H I.These LSB giants generally have high total H I masses, although none isas extreme as Malin 1. Finally, the small-scale environments aroundthese galaxies reveal several nearby companions. These LSB giants are atleast as likely as smaller LSB galaxies to have close companions, andtheir average number of neighbors approaches that of HSB galaxies.

Total and effective colors of 501 galaxies in the Cousins VRI photometric system
Total color indices (V-R)T, (V-I)T and effectivecolor indices (V-R)e, (V-I)e in the Cousins VRIphotometric system are presented for 501 mostly normal galaxies. Thecolors are computed using a procedure outlined in the Third ReferenceCatalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) whereby standard color curvesapproximated by Laplace-Gauss integrals are fitted to observedphotoelectric multiaperture photometry. 11 sources of such photometrywere used for our analysis, each source being assigned an appropriateweight according to a rigorous analysis of residuals of the data fromthe best-fitting standard color curves. Together with the integrated B-Vand U-B colors provided in RC3, our analysis widens the range ofwavelength of homogeneously defined colors of normal galaxies of allHubble types. We present color-color and color-type relations that canbe modeled to understand the star formation history of galaxies.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

Colors and color gradients in bulges of galaxies
We have obtained surface photometry in U, B, R, and I for a completeoptically selected sample of 45 early-type spiral galaxies, toinvestigate the colors and color gradients of spiral bulges. Colorprofiles in U-R, B-R, U-B, and R-I have been determined in wedgesopening on the semiminor axes. Based on several criteria, like thesmoothness of the color profiles, the absence of dust lanes, and thecentral colors, we have defined a subsample of 18 objects whose colorsare largely unaffected by dust. We believe such colors are suitable forinferring properties of the stellar populations of bulges. We find thatthe colors of bulges are predominantly bluer than those of ellipticals.This result holds even when bulges are compared to ellipticals of thesame luminosity, and indicates that bulges are younger and/or more metalpoor than old elliptical galaxies. Most bulges do not reach solarmetallicities. Bulges show predominantly negative color gradients (blueroutward). For bright bulges (MBulgeR is less than-20.0), the magnitude of the gradient increases with bulge luminosity.For fainter bulges, gradients scatter around large negative values. Thebehavior of color gradients as a function of bulge luminosity suggestsdifferent formation mechanisms for faint and bright spheroids. Forbright bulges, the scaling of gradients with luminosity suggests aformation process involving dissipation. The similarity with ellipticalssuggests that the formation of the disk did not affect the stellarpopulations of the bulge in a major way. For small bulges (MRis greater than -20), the existence of pronounced color gradientssuggests a different formation mechanism. For these objects, thepresence of the disk may have severely affected the radial populationdistribution in the bulge.

A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field
A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

The peculiar velocity of the Local Group. I - H I observations of SB and SBC galaxies
H I observations of a sample of 128 Sb and Sbc galaxies ranging inlinear diameter from 9-128 kpc, and in total mass from 6.3 x 10 to the9th solar masses to 1.3 x 10 to the 12th solar masses, are presented.Measurements of H I self-absorption are not found to vary withinclination, though a dependence of observed diameters and luminositieson inclination is noted. Total surface mass density and color index areshown to be highly correlated, implying that star-formation in thesegalaxies is governed by disk density rather than total mass or gasrichness. From 12-arcmin resolution local Galactic H I observations, newcorrection factors for diameters and luminosities are derived to allowfor the effects of galactic obscuration.

A search for QSOs in the fields of nearby galaxies. II - NGC 55, 253, 300 and 5364
The results of a search for QSOs in the fields of NGC 55, 253, 300, and5364, using low-dispersion objective-prism plates (obtained in 20-minexposures with the UK Schmidt Telescope Unit at Coonabarabran,Australia, during 1979-1982) and low-dispersion spectroscopy (obtainedusing the 1.9-m reflector at SAAO in August 1983), are reported. Data on12 candidate objects, of which nine are identified as QSOs with Bmagnitudes 16.1-18.6, are compiled in extensive tables and graphs andbriefly characterized; finding charts are provided.

The extragalactic distance scale derived from 'sosie' galaxies. I - Distances of 167 galaxies which are sosies of 14 nearby galaxies
The method of 'sosie' galaxies is applied to a large sample of galaxiesextracted from the BGP catalog of H I line data and the Second ReferenceCatalog of Bright Galaxies. The sosies of 14 calibrating galaxies(primary calibrators and galaxies in the nearest groups) are defined asthose having the same parameters, either (1) morphological type T, axisratio R, and maximum rotation velocity VM or (2) T, R, andluminosity index lambdac. Distance moduli directly derivedfrom apparent magnitudes and/or diameters are provided on the distancescale whose zero point is defined by the adopted distance moduli of thecalibrators. The external mean error (0.4 mag) is competitive with thebest currently available.

CCD surface photometry of field Galaxies. II - Bulge/disk decompositions
Major- and minor-axis profiles given previously for 105 galaxies of allmorphological types are decomposed into bulge and disk components. Inaddition, three model-independent parameters which measure the meansurface brightness, scale radius, and degree of light concentration arederived. The best correlations are found between Hubble type,concentration, bulge/disk ratio, and mean surface brightness.Correlations between the individual bulge and disk parameters generallyshow large scatter. The properties of S0 galaxies are inconsistent withtheir having been formed from spiral galaxies via gas depletion; theirproperties are intermediate between those of ellipticals and spirals.Most elliptical galaxies probably do not form by the merging of diskgalaxies. The difficulty of distinguishing between elliptical and S0galaxies in some cases is emphasized.

A search for environmental effects on the optical properties of galaxies in groups
Environmental density-related modifications of basic optical properties(luminosities, sizes, axial ratios, and colors) of galaxies belonging toGeller and Huchra's (1983) groups have been investigated. Remarkably, itis found that the broad maxima of the distributions of luminosities anddiameters of spirals and the whole corresponding distributions oflenticulars tend to move to lower values as one goes to groups of highcompactness, whereas the luminosity-diameter relationship of spiralstends to become flatter. No color and axial ratio differences betweengalaxies of high- and low-compactness groups have been detected.

Supplement to the detailed bibliography on the surface photometry of galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...60..517P&db_key=AST

H I line studies of galaxies. IV - Distance moduli of 468 disk galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...59...43B&db_key=AST

CCD surface photometry of field galaxies. I - Observations
Images of 105 galaxies selected from a larger complete sample ofintrinsically luminous galaxies have been obtained for the purpose ofcomputing surface brightness profiles. The intensity profiles along themajor and minor axes are computed by a method in which ellipticalcontours whose position angle and ellipticity are allowed to vary withradius are fitted to the true isophotes of a galaxy. The resultingprofiles and ellipse parameters are listed for each object. An extensivecomparison of the present photometry with that of other workers is madeto assess the reliability of the data. For most objects, additionalphotometric information is given, including an isophotal radius andmagnitude within a limiting isophote of 24.0 mag/sq arcsec, anapproximate total magnitude, the effective radius containing one-halfthe total light, and the mean surface brightness inside this radius. Afull analysis of the data is deferred to a second paper where theprofiles will be decomposed into bulge and disk components.

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Right ascension:15h39m56.80s
Aparent dimensions:3.981′ × 1.349′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 5987

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