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Galaxies with Rows
The results of a search for galaxies with straight structural elements,usually spiral-arm rows (“rows” in the terminology ofVorontsov-Vel'yaminov), are reported. The list of galaxies that possess(or probably possess) such rows includes about 200 objects, of whichabout 70% are brighter than 14m. On the whole, galaxies with rows makeup 6 8% of all spiral galaxies with well-developed spiral patterns. Mostgalaxies with rows are gas-rich Sbc-Scd spirals. The fraction ofinteracting galaxies among them is appreciably higher than amonggalaxies without rows. Earlier conclusions that, as a rule, the lengthsof rows are similar to their galactocentric distances and that theangles between adjacent rows are concentrated near 120° areconfirmed. It is concluded that the rows must be transient hydrodynamicstructures that develop in normal galaxies.

Statistical study of M 51-type galaxies
We present a statistical analysis of a new sample of M 51-type galaxies.Using the MCG and VV catalogues, we selected 32 such binary systems. Wefound that a typical M 51-type pair consists of a bright L*spiral galaxy and a satellite with blue luminosity 1/30-1/3 of theprimary one. The main galaxies in such pairs are often barred and havetwo well-defined spiral arms. M 51-type systems show an enhanced starformation rate (from FIR luminosities). We found a weak dependence ofthe star formation rate of the system on relative luminosity of thecompanion. M 51-type galaxies are relatively frequent: about 1/12 of allpairs are of M 51-type.

A Dynamical Study of Galaxies in the Hickson Compact Groups
To investigate dynamical properties of spiral galaxies in the Hicksoncompact groups (HCGs), we present rotation curves of 30 galaxies in 20HCGs. We found as follows: (1) There is no significant relation betweendynamical peculiarity and morphological peculiarity in HCG spiralgalaxies. (2) There is no significant relation between the dynamicalproperties and the frequency distribution of nuclear activities in HCGspiral galaxies. (3) There are no significant correlations between thedynamical properties of HCG spiral galaxies and any group properties(i.e., size, velocity dispersion, galaxy number density, and crossingtime). (4) Asymmetric and peculiar rotation curves are more frequentlyseen in the HCG spiral galaxies than in field spiral galaxies or incluster ones. However, this tendency is more obviously seen in late-typeHCG spiral galaxies. These results suggest that the dynamical propertiesof HCG spiral galaxies do not strongly correlate with the morphology,the nuclear activity, and the group properties. Our results also suggestthat more frequent galaxy collisions occur in the HCGs than in the fieldand in the clusters.

The Nuclear Activity of Galaxies in the Hickson Compact Groups
In order to investigate the nuclear activity of galaxies residing incompact groups of galaxies, we present results of our opticalspectroscopic program made at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. We haveperformed optical spectroscopy of 69 galaxies belonging to 31 Hicksoncompact groups (HCGs) of galaxies. Among them, three galaxies havediscordant redshifts and, moreover, spectral quality is too poor toclassify another three galaxies. Therefore, we describe our results forthe remaining 63 galaxies. Our main results are summarized as follows:(1) We have found in our sample 28 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 16 HII nuclei, and 19 normal galaxies showing no emission line. We used thisHCG sample for statistical analyses. (2) Comparing the frequencydistributions of activity types between the HCGs and the field galaxieswhose data are taken from Ho, Filippenko, & Sargent (382 fieldgalaxies), we find that the frequency of H II nuclei in the HCGs issignificantly less than that in the field. However, this difference maybe due to selection bias to the effect that our HCG sample contains moreearly-type galaxies than the field, because it is known that H II nucleiare rarer in early-type galaxies than in later ones. (3) Applying acorrection to this morphological bias to the HCG sample, we find thatthere is no statistically significant difference in the frequency ofoccurrence of emission-line galaxies between the HCGs and the field.This implies that the dense galaxy environment in the HCGs does notaffect the triggering of either the AGN activity and the nuclearstarburst. We discuss some implications on the nuclear activity in theHCG galaxies.

An Imaging and Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxies within Prominent Nearby Voids. II. Morphologies, Star Formation, and Faint Companions
We analyze the optical properties of ~300 galaxies within and aroundthree prominent voids of the Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey. Wedetermine CCD morphologies and Hα equivalent widths from ourimaging and spectroscopic survey. We also describe a redshift survey of250 neighboring galaxies in the imaging survey fields. We assess themorphology-density relation, EW(Hα)-density relation, and theeffects of nearby companions for galaxies in low-density environmentsselected with a smoothed large-scale (5 h-1 Mpc) galaxynumber density n. Both the morphological mix and the Hα line widthdistribution of galaxies at modest underdensities, 0.5R=16.13, demonstrates that the incidence ofa close companion in redshift space is insensitive to global densityover the range we investigate (0.163 σ) fromΔcz>~200 km s-1 at 0.5-1 at n<=0.5n. In the lowest densityenvironments, galaxies with companions clearly (~4 σ) havestronger star formation than comparable galaxies at larger globaldensity (0.5-1 kpc and 1000 km s-1) varies little over theentire density range. These results, combined with the luminosity- andcolor-density relations of this sample (Paper I), suggest that theformation and evolution of field galaxies are insensitive to large-scaleunderdensity down to a threshold of roughly half the mean density. Thedifferences in galaxy properties at the lowest global densities we canexplore (n<=0.5n) may be explained by (1) a relative scarcity of thesmall-scale primordial density enhancements needed to form massiveearly-type/absorption-line galaxies and (2) present-day galaxyencounters that are relatively more effective because of the lowervelocity dispersion on small scales (<~200 h-1 kpc) weobserve in these regions. In the voids, where the luminous galaxiespresumably formed more recently, there should be more gas and dustpresent for active star formation triggered by nearby companions.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

An Imaging and Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxies within Prominent Nearby Voids. I. The Sample and Luminosity Distribution
We study the optical properties of a large sample of galaxies inlow-density regions of the nearby universe. We make a 5 h-1Mpc smoothed map of the galaxy density throughout the Center forAstrophysics Redshift Survey (CfA2) to identify galaxies within threeprominent nearby ``voids'' with diameter >~30 h-1 Mpc. Weaugment the CfA2 void galaxy sample with fainter galaxies found in thesame regions from the more recent and deeper Century and Redshiftsurveys . We obtain B and R CCD images and high signal-to-noiselong-slit spectra for the resulting sample of 149 void galaxies, as wellas for an additional 131 galaxies on the periphery of these voids. Herewe describe the photometry for the sample, including B isophotalmagnitudes and B-R colors. For the 149 galaxies that lie in regionsbelow the mean survey density, the luminosity functions in B and R arewell fit by Schechter functions with respective parameters(αB=-0.5+/-0.3, B*=-18.9+/-0.2) and(αR=-0.9+/-0.3, R*=-20.4+/-0.3). The Bluminosity function (LF) is consistent with typical survey LFs (e.g.,the Southern Sky Redshift Survey), and the R LF is consistent with theCentury Survey. The B and R LFs of 131 galaxies in the ``voidperiphery''-regions between the mean density and twice the mean-havesimilar Schechter parameters. The CfA2 LF is inconsistent with bothsamples at the 3.5 σ level. When we narrow our analysis to the 46galaxies in regions below half the mean density, the LF is significantlysteeper: α~-1.4+/-0.5. The typical survey LFs are inconsistentwith this subsample at the ~2 σ level. The B-R color distributionof galaxies in the lowest density regions is also shifted significantly(~3 σ) blueward of the higher density samples. The most luminousred galaxies (R<~-21) are absent from the lowest density regions at the2.5 σ level.

The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: 21 Centimeter H I Line Data
A compilation of 21 cm line spectral parameters specifically designedfor application of the Tully-Fisher (TF) distance method is presentedfor 1201 spiral galaxies, primarily field Sc galaxies, for which opticalI-band photometric imaging is also available. New H I line spectra havebeen obtained for 881 galaxies. For an additional 320 galaxies, spectraavailable in a digital archive have been reexamined to allow applicationof a single algorithm for the derivation of the TF velocity widthparameter. A velocity width algorithm is used that provides a robustmeasurement of rotational velocity and permits an estimate of the erroron that width taking into account the effects of instrumental broadeningand signal-to-noise. The digital data are used to establish regressionrelations between measurements of velocity widths using other commonprescriptions so that comparable widths can be derived throughconversion of values published in the literature. The uniform H I linewidths presented here provide the rotational velocity measurement to beused in deriving peculiar velocities via the TF method.

The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging Data
Properties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field.

The luminosity function around isolated spiral galaxies
We determine the companion galaxy luminosity function (LF) for regionsaround isolated spiral galaxies. If we assume that any excess in thegalaxy number counts in the vicinity of a spiral galaxy is due togalaxies at the same distance, then a system LF can be determined fromthe variation of excess numbers with apparent magnitude. By studying theexcess over many field 'center' galaxies, a good statistical accuracycan be obtained for the companion galaxy LF. Since redshift informationis not required for the faint galaxies, it is possible to sample furtherdown the LF as compared with redshift surveys. For 23 primary galaxiesof known redshift, we find a dwarf satellite Schechter LF with acharacteristic magnitude of -19 and a faint-end slope of -1.7, down toMv = -14 (H0 = 50 km/s Mpc).

Extensive Spiral Structure and Corotation Resonance
Spiral density wave theories demand that grand-design spiral structurebe bounded, at most, between the inner and outer Lindblad resonances ofthe spiral pattern. The corotation resonance lies between the outer andthe inner Lindblad resonances. The locations of the resonances are atradii whose ratios to each other are rather independent of the shape ofthe rotation curve. The measured ratio of outer to inner extent ofspiral structure for a given spiral galaxy can be compared to thestandard ratio of corotation to inner Lindblad resonance radius. In thecase that the measured ratio far exceeds the standard ratio, it islikely that the corotation resonance is within the bright optical disk.Studying such galaxies can teach us how the action of resonances sculptsthe appearance of spiral disks. This paper reports observations of 140disk galaxies, leading to resonance ratio tests for 109 qualified spiralgalaxies. It lists candidates that have a good chance of having thecorotation resonance radius within the bright optical disk.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Molecular gas in galaxies of Hickson compact groups
We have observed 70 galaxies belonging to 45 Hickson compact groups inthe \CO{1}{0} and \CO{2}{1} lines, in order to determine their molecularcontent. We detected 57 galaxies, corresponding to a detection rate of81%. We compare the gas content relative to blue and L_FIR luminositiesof galaxies in compact groups with respect to other samples in theliterature, including various environments and morphological types. Wefind that there is some hint of enhanced MH_2/L_B andM_dust/L_B ratios in the galaxies from compact group with respect to ourcontrol sample, especially for the most compact groups, suggesting thattidal interactions can drive the gas component inwards, by removing itsangular momentum, and concentrating it in the dense central regions,where it is easily detected. The molecular gas content in compact groupgalaxies is similar to that in pairs and starburst samples. However, thetotal L_FIR luminosity of HCGs is quite similar to that of the controlsample, and therefore the star formation efficiency appears lower thanin the control galaxies. However this assumes that the FIR spatialdistributions are similar in both samples which is not the case at radiofrequencies. Higher spatial resolution FIR data are needed to make avalid comparison. Given their short dynamical friction time-scale, it ispossible that some of these systems are in the final stage beforemerging, leading to ultra-luminous starburst phases. We also find forall galaxy samples that the H_2 content (derived from CO luminosity andnormalised to blue luminosity) is strongly correlated to the L_FIRluminosity, while the total gas content (H_2+HI) is not.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Far infrared properties of Hickson compact groups of galaxies. I. High resolution IRAS maps and fluxes.
The Far Infrared (FIR) properties of galaxies which are members ofcompact groups bear relevant information on the dynamical status and thephysical properties of these structures. All studies published so farhave been undermined by the poor sensitivity and spatial resolution ofthe IRAS-PSC and IRAS Sky Survey data. We used the HIRAS softwareavailable at the IRAS server at the Laboratory for Space Research inGroningen to fully exploit the redundancy of the IRAS data and toapproach the theoretical diffraction limit of IRAS. Among the 97 groupswhich were observed by IRAS, 62 were detected in at least one band,while reliable upper limits were derived for all the others. Among thedetected groups, 49 were fully or partially resolved, i.e. it waspossible to discriminate which member or members emit most of the FIRlight. At 60μm, for instance, 87 individual sources were detected in62 groups. In order to ease the comparison with data obtained at otherwavelengths - and in particular in the X and radio domains - we giveco-added and HIRAS maps for all the detected groups.

The nature of discordant redshift galaxies in compact groups
We have analysed the sample of 92 compact groups in Hickson's revisedcatalogue to investigate whether the numbers and properties of thediscordant redshift galaxies in these groups are consistent with theprojection hypothesis. The main conclusion of our analysis is that thenumbers, sizes, magnitudes and morphological types of the discordantredshift galaxies in the Hickson compact groups are as expected if theseare due to chance projections of unrelated galaxies on the groups. Thedistribution of positions for the discordant galaxies in quintets,however, is more centrally concentrated than that predicted for auniform distribution of field interlopers. One of the possibleexplanations for this discrepancy is that compact groups can act asgravitational lenses, causing the brightening of background galaxiesthat would otherwise fall below the magnitude cut-off of the group.Distances to two galaxies in the Hickson compact group 61, one of them adiscordant redshift galaxy, have been determined using the Tully-Fisherrelation. Both objects were found to be at distances consistent withtheir redshifts and an expanding Universe. All these results support theview of a cosmological origin for galaxy redshifts.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

Galaxy structures in the Hercules region
216 redshifts have been obtained in a region of 981 sq deg south of theHercules supercluster. 172 of these redshifts are of galaxies withmpg less than or equal to 15.1, 110 of which had no previousvelocity measurement. 44 new redshifts are of galaxies fainter thanmpg = 15.1. With these new data we have been able to define asample in a vast region (approximately 1700 sq deg) around Herculeslimited to mpg less than or equal to 15.1 with a velocitycompleteness of 81.5%. 189 galaxies have been morphologically classifiedso that all galaxies in the sample with known velocity now also haveknown morphology. The magnitude limited sample, including 556 galaxies,is then used to identify and describe galaxy structures in the region.We find that the overdense volume is small, that its overall appearanceis that of a coral branch floating in a sea of nothing and that earlyand late type galaxies defined different structures.

ROSAT X-ray survey of an area 10 degrees square around the active radio galaxy Centaurus A
Diffuse X-ray material extends in an irregular, broad filament for morethan 5 degrees north east of the giant radio elliptical, NGC 5128 (CenA). In the opposite direction the X-ray extension is clearly traced forabout 2 degrees, making an overall line of X-rays of greater than 7degon the sky originating from Cen A. The direction of this line coincidesalmost exactly with the direction of the X-ray jet, and its associatedradio jet, in the interior of Cen A. At a slightly different angle,within the accuracy of measurement along the X-ray counter jet, isencountered the radio and X-ray galaxy NGC 5090. Its presence in theX-ray ejection from Cen A supports the precedent from other associationsthat NGC 5090 is physically associated with Cen A. In the hardest X-raysthere is some indication that the radio lobes from Cen A are edgebrightened. Positions and known identifications of sources in the fieldare given. Some preliminary estimates of the properties of thisextensive X-ray material which has apparently been ejected from thisactive galaxy are given.

Searching for a far-infrared enhancement in compact groups of galaxies
We test the claim that an FIR enhancement is observed from galaxies incompact groups. We present three kinds of evidence that the FIR sourcesin many groups are likely the combined contribution of two or moremembers. We conclude that the level of FIR emission from group galaxieshas been overestimated in previous work. The overestimate arises becauseof the limited resolution of the IRAS survey. Correction for this effectwill lessen the already weak evidence for an FIR enhancement in groups.This result poses difficulties for models that see the groups as compactconfigurations in the process of merger.

On actual presence of discordant-redshift galaxies in compact groups
Hickson's compact galaxy groups were classified using the statisticalcriterion which includes the radial velocities of galaxies as well astheir relative positions. These groups on the whole and their componentsare identified as the confident and probable non-chance ones as well asprobable and confident chance ones. All confident chance objects havethe discordant radial velocities with the differences of radialvelocities (DV) Epsilon between 1,000 km/s and 20,000 km/s. The specialclass of objects 'bright discordants' is selected. These galaxies havethe discordant radial velocities with DV Epsilon between 825 km/s and8440 km/s and have a strong tendency to be the brightest components oftheir groups. The lowest difference of radial velocities for the lastclass of objects mean value of DV = (1.0 +/- 0.2) x 103 km/sand we accept this value of DV as the lowest value of discordant radialvelocities. It is found that the biggest part of Hickson's compactgroups consist of non-chance aggregations of galaxies and some of thecases of discordant-redshifts require a special study in order toexplain their origin from a dynamic or some other point of view.

A photometric study of interacting galaxies. 2: Analysis of the results
We present the results of a detailed photometric study in theRC band of 73 galaxies in close interacting systems. Thesample for this study was selected mainly from the Atlas of PeculiarGalaxies by Arp on the basis of the optical morphology of galaxies. Theobserved systems exhibit: an excess of early type spirals (Sa) anddeficiency of late type ones (Sm/Irr), and excess of brighter galaxiesas compared with field galaxies. From the decomposition of theequivalent profiles we found the following principal results: (a)Interacting ellipticals and bulges of SO galaxies are systematicallydisplaced in the plane mue - Re from the relationfor normal galaxies. This displacement may be explained in terms ofbulges of interacting galaxies being more compact. (b) Bulges ofinteracting spirals are located in the effective parameters plane in thesame region of bulges of non-interacting galaxies. (c) Disks of stronglyinteracting spirals are 2-3 times thicker as compared with disks ofnormal galaxies. (d) The central surface brightnesses (mu0 ofthe disks of interacting galaxies are, on average, brighter than forfield spirals. (e) There is no clear dependence of the globalphotometric characteristics of galaxies on the interaction strength.There is a weak tendency for galactic disks to be slightly brighter andshorter than in strongly interacting systems.

H I observations of galaxies in the Hercules supercluster. II - Additional UGC galaxies and galaxies in selected CGCG fields
The second installment of a H I redshift survey in the region of theHercules supercluster is presented. This part of the survey presents 218H I spectra of galaxies selected from the UGC which extends thepreviously begun survey of UGC galaxies in that region. In addition,spectra of 136 galaxies from selected CGCG fields are given. The CGCGfields were chosen to cover the projected position of the Hercules void.Measured H I parameters from the spectra are given. This survey wasconducted for application of the Tully-Fisher relation to search forstreaming motion around the void in front of the supercluster. Theselection effects affecting such a search are discussed in detail.

Dynamical properties of compact groups of galaxies
Radial velocities are presented for 457 galaxies in the 100 Hicksoncompact groups. More than 84 percent of the galaxies measured havevelocities within 1000 km/s of the median velocity in the group.Ninety-two groups have at least three accordant members, and 69 groupshave at least four. The radial velocities of these groups range from1380 to 42,731 km/s with a median of 8889 km/s, corresponding to amedian distance of 89/h Mpc. The apparent space density of these systemsranges from 300 to as much as 10 exp 8 sq h/sq Mpc, which exceeds thedensities in the centers of rich clusters. The median projectedseparation between galaxies is 39/h kpc, comparable to the sizes of thegalaxies themselves. A significant correlation is found between crossingtime and the fraction of gas-rich galaxies in the groups, and a weakanticorrelation is found between crossing time and the luminositycontrast of the first-ranked galaxy.

A photometric catalog of compact groups of galaxies
The paper presents astrometry, photometry, and morphological types,derived from CCD images, for 463 galaxies in the 100 compact groupsselected by Hickson. Some minor revisions to the membership of theoriginal catalog are made, based on these new images. The completenessof the catalog is considered as a function of group magnitude andGalactic latitude. At high Galactic latitude the catalog is estimated tobe 90 percent complete for groups with total B(T) magnitude 13.0 orless. It is less complete at lower Galactic latitude because ofobscuration and high stellar density.

Infrared emission from compact groups of galaxies
A search of the IRAS Point Source Catalog, Version 2 has revealedinfrared sources within 1 arcmin of the optical centers of 54 galaxiesin Hickson's catalog of compact groups of galaxies. The 60-micronluminosity function for these galaxies has the same shape as theluminosity function of the IRAS bright galaxy sample. The space densityof IRAS galaxies in compact groups is 60 times smaller than the spacedensity of IRAS bright galaxies, indicating that of order 1 percent ofall bright IRAS galaxies are in compact groups. The infrared emissionfrom these galaxies is compared with the emission from samples ofisolated galaxies by Keel et al. (1985) and cluster galaxies studied byBicay and Giovanelli (1987). The fractional distribution of the ratio offar-infrared to optical luminosity of compact group galaxies issignificantly larger than that of the isolated galaxies and comparableto that of the cluster galaxies. These results indicate that infraredemission is enhanced in the compact group galaxies, probably because ofinteractions.

The neighborhood of a compact group of galaxies
Complete and statistical samples of galaxies in well definedneighborhoods surrounding the 100 Hickson (1983) compact groups havebeen identified and structural properties estimated by visual inspectionof Palomar Sky Survey prints. Among these 100 neighborhoods, two-thirdsare statistically indistinguishable from superposed field galaxies, butone-third contain galaxies in the physical neighborhood of the compactgroup. The morphological types of the galaxies in these physicalneighborhoods are statistically later than the galaxy types in thecompact groups.

An extragalactic database. I - The Catalogue of Principal Galaxies
The Catalogue of Principal Galaxies is described, which lists equatorialcoordinates (for the equinoxes 1950 and 2000) and cross-identificationsfor 73,197 galaxies. The 40,932 coordinates have standard deviationssmaller than 10 arcsec. A total of 131,601 names from the 38 most commonsources are listed. In addition, mean data for each object are givenwhen available: 49,102 morphological descriptions, 52,954 apparent majorand minor axes, 67,116 apparent magnitudes, 20,046 radial velocities and24,361 position angles. This information was used for facilitatingproper identification. Finally, distribution options are explained.

Neutral hydrogen in compact groups of galaxies
Integrated H I profiles were detected for 34 of 51 Hickson compactgroups (HCGs) of galaxies, and sensitive upper limits to the H I fluxdensity were measured for the other 17. About 60 percent of the galaxieswithin compact groups are spirals, and a significant tendency exists forthe fraction of elliptical galaxies to increase with group surfacebrightness. The amount of dark matter within the compact group region isnegligibly small. An HCG on average contains half as much neutralhydrogen as a loose group with a similar spectrum of galaxy luminositiesand morphological types, implying that compact groups are independentdynamical entities and not transient or projected configurations ofloose groups. The observed fraction of galaxies which are luminousenough to be possible merger products of compact groups is smallcompared with the fraction required by the theory of dynamical friction.A clear discrepancy thus exists between solid empirical evidence and astraightforward prediction of Newtonian dynamical theory in a settingwhich does not permit a dark matter explanation.

Radial Velocities of the Galaxies in Compact Groups
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Right ascension:15h02m42.10s
Aparent dimensions:1.445′ × 1.122′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 5829

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