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 Low Carbon Abundance in Type Ia SupernovaeWe investigate the quantity and composition of unburned material in theouter layers of three normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia): 2000dn,2002cr, and 2004bw. Pristine matter from a white dwarf progenitor isexpected to be a mixture of oxygen and carbon in approximately equalabundance. Using near-infrared (NIR, 0.7-2.5 μm) spectra, we findthat oxygen is abundant, while carbon is severely depleted with lowupper limits in the outer third of the ejected mass. Strong featuresfrom the O I line at λrest=0.7773 μm are observedthrough a wide range of expansion velocities~(9-18)×103 km s-1. This large velocitydomain corresponds to a physical region of the supernova with a largeradial depth. We show that the ionization of C and O will besubstantially the same in this region. C I lines in the NIR are expectedto be 7-50 times stronger than those from O I, but there is onlymarginal evidence of C I in the spectra and none of C II. We deduce thatfor these three normal SNe Ia, oxygen is more abundant than carbon byfactors of 102-103. Mg II is also detected in avelocity range similar to that of O I. The presence of O and Mg combinedwith the absence of C indicates that for these SNe Ia, nuclear burninghas reached all but the extreme outer layers; any unburned material musthave expansion velocities greater than 18×103 kms-1. This result favors deflagration to detonation transition(DD) models over pure deflagration models for SNe Ia. Late-Time Spectroscopy of SN 2002cx: The Prototype of a New Subclass of Type Ia SupernovaeWe present Keck optical spectra of SN 2002cx, the most peculiar knownType Ia supernova (SN Ia), taken 227 and 277 days past maximum light.Astonishingly, the spectra are not dominated by the forbidden emissionlines of iron that are a hallmark of thermonuclear SNe in the nebularphase. Instead, we identify numerous P Cygni profiles of Fe II at verylow expansion velocities of ~700 km s-1, which are withoutprecedent in SNe Ia. We also report the tentative identification oflow-velocity O I in these spectra, suggesting the presence of unburnedmaterial near the center of the exploding white dwarf. SN 2002cx is theprototype of a new subclass of SNe Ia, with spectral characteristicsthat may be consistent with recent pure deflagration models ofChandrasekhar-mass thermonuclear SNe. These are distinct from themajority of SNe Ia, for which an alternative explosion mechanism, suchas a delayed detonation, may be required. Supernovae 2005N, 2005O, and 2005PIAUC 8472 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. The ISOPHOT 170 μm Serendipity Survey II. The catalog of optically identified galaxies%The ISOPHOT Serendipity Sky Survey strip-scanning measurements covering≈15% of the far-infrared (FIR) sky at 170 μm were searched forcompact sources associated with optically identified galaxies. CompactSerendipity Survey sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in at leasttwo ISOPHOT C200 detector pixels were selected that have a positionalassociation with a galaxy identification in the NED and/or Simbaddatabases and a galaxy counterpart visible on the Digitized Sky Surveyplates. A catalog with 170 μm fluxes for more than 1900 galaxies hasbeen established, 200 of which were measured several times. The faintest170 μm fluxes reach values just below 0.5 Jy, while the brightest,already somewhat extended galaxies have fluxes up to ≈600 Jy. For thevast majority of listed galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes were measured forthe first time. While most of the galaxies are spirals, about 70 of thesources are classified as ellipticals or lenticulars. This is the onlycurrently available large-scale galaxy catalog containing a sufficientnumber of sources with 170 μm fluxes to allow further statisticalstudies of various FIR properties.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (CISS) areMPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca, AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena,Imperial College London.Full Table 4 and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/39 Classifications of the Host Galaxies of Supernovae, Set IIClassifications on the DDO system are given for an additional 231 hostgalaxies of supernovae that have been discovered during the course ofthe Lick Observatory Supernova Search with the Katzman Automatic ImagingTelescope (KAIT). This brings the total number of hosts of supernovae(SNe) discovered (or independently rediscovered) by KAIT, which have sofar been classified on a homogeneous system, to 408. The probabilitythat SNe Ia and SNe II have a different distribution of host-galaxyHubble types is found to be 99.7%. A significant difference is alsofound between the distributions of the host galaxies of SNe Ia and ofSNe Ibc (defined here to include SNe Ib, Ib/c, and Ic). However, nosignificant difference is detected between the frequency distributionsof the host galaxies of SNe II and SNe IIn. This suggests that SNe IInare generally not SNe Ia embedded in circumstellar material that aremasquerading as SNe II. Furthermore, no significant difference is foundbetween the distribution of the Hubble types of the hosts of SNe Ibc andof SNe II. Additionally, SNe II-P and SNe II-L are found to occur amongsimilar stellar populations. The ratio of the number of SNe Ia-pec tonormal SNe Ia appears to be higher in early-type galaxies than it is ingalaxies of later morphological types. This suggests that the ancestorsof SNe Ia-pec may differ systematically in age or composition from theprogenitors of normal SNe Ia. Unexpectedly, five SNe of Types Ib/c, II,and IIn (all of which are thought to have massive progenitors) are foundin host galaxies that are nominally classified as types E and S0.However, in each case the galaxy classification is uncertain, or newlyinspected images show evidence suggesting a later classification. Amongthese five objects, NGC 3720, the host galaxy of SN 2002at, wasapparently misidentified in the Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies. Searching for supernovae.Not Available Cosmological Results from High-z SupernovaeThe High-z Supernova Search Team has discovered and observed eight newsupernovae in the redshift interval z=0.3-1.2. These independentobservations, analyzed by similar but distinct methods, confirm theresults of Riess and Perlmutter and coworkers that supernova luminositydistances imply an accelerating universe. More importantly, they extendthe redshift range of consistently observed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia)to z~1, where the signature of cosmological effects has the oppositesign of some plausible systematic effects. Consequently, thesemeasurements not only provide another quantitative confirmation of theimportance of dark energy, but also constitute a powerful qualitativetest for the cosmological origin of cosmic acceleration. We find a ratefor SN Ia of(1.4+/-0.5)×10-4h3Mpc-3yr-1at a mean redshift of 0.5. We present distances and host extinctions for230 SN Ia. These place the following constraints on cosmologicalquantities: if the equation of state parameter of the dark energy isw=-1, then H0t0=0.96+/-0.04, andΩΛ-1.4ΩM=0.35+/-0.14. Includingthe constraint of a flat universe, we findΩM=0.28+/-0.05, independent of any large-scalestructure measurements. Adopting a prior based on the Two Degree Field(2dF) Redshift Survey constraint on ΩM and assuming aflat universe, we find that the equation of state parameter of the darkenergy lies in the range -1.48-1, we obtain w<-0.73 at 95% confidence.These constraints are similar in precision and in value to recentresults reported using the WMAP satellite, also in combination with the2dF Redshift Survey.Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc.,under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This research is primarily associatedwith proposal GO-8177, but also uses and reports results from proposalsGO-7505, 7588, 8641, and 9118.Based in part on observations taken with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. CTIO: Based in part on observations taken at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.Keck: Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. KeckObservatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among theCalifornia Institute of Technology, the University of California, and theNational Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was madepossible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.UH: Based in part on observations with the University of Hawaii 2.2 mtelescope at Mauna Kea Observatory, Institute for Astronomy, University ofHawaii. UKIRT: Based in part on observations with the United KingdomInfrared Telescope (UKIRT) operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalfof the UK. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. VLT: Based inpart on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory,Paranal, Chile, under programs ESO 64.O-0391 and ESO 64.O-0404. WIYN: Based in part on observations taken at the WIYN Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. The far-infrared/radio correlation in the ISO era. The warm and cold far-infrared/radio correlationsWe present the correlation between the far-infrared (FIR) and radioemissions from a composite sample of 72 nearby normal galaxies observedwith the ISOPHOT instrument on board the Infrared Space Observatory. Thegalaxies in the sample have measurements at three FIR wavelengths (60,100 and 170 mu m), which allowed a direct determination of the warm andcold FIR emission components. This is the first time that thecorrelation has been established for the total FIR luminosity, of whichmost is carried by the cold dust component predominantly emittinglongwards of the spectral coverage of IRAS. The slope of thiscorrelation is slightly non-linear (1.10+/- 0.03). Separate correlationsbetween the warm and cold FIR emission components and the radio emissionhave also been derived. The slope of the warm FIR/radio correlation wasfound to be linear (1.03 +/- 0.03). For the cold FIR/radio correlationwe found a slightly non-linear (1.13 +/- 0.04) slope. We qualitativelyinterpret the correlations in terms of star formation rate and find thatboth the FIR and radio emissions may be consistent with a non-lineardependence on star formation rate for galaxies not undergoing starburstactivity.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA member States (especially the PIcountries: France, Germany, The Netherlands, and the UK) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA.Table \ref{Tab2} and Appendices A and B are only available in electronicform at http://www.edpsciences.org Classifications of the Host Galaxies of SupernovaeClassifications on the DDO system are given for the host galaxies of 177supernovae (SNe) that have been discovered since 1997 during the courseof the Lick Observatory Supernova Search with the Katzman AutomaticImaging Telescope. Whereas SNe Ia occur in all galaxy types, it isfound, at a high level of statistical confidence, that SNe Ib, Ic, andII are strongly concentrated in late-type galaxies. However, attentionis drawn to a possible exception provided by SN 2001I. This SN IInoccurred in the E2 galaxy UGC 2836, which was not expected to harbor amassive young supernova progenitor. Supernova 2002ed in NGC 5468IAUC 7947 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Supernova 2002ed in NGC 5468IAUC 7943 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Supernova 2002ed in NGC 5468IAUC 7940 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Supernova 2002cr in NGC 5468IAUC 7891 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Supernova 2002cr in NGC 5468IAUC 7891 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Supernova 2002cr in NGC 5468IAUC 7891 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Supernova 2002cr in NGC 5468IAUC 7890 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Bar Galaxies and Their EnvironmentsThe prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment. Galaxies with RowsThe results of a search for galaxies with straight structural elements,usually spiral-arm rows (“rows” in the terminology ofVorontsov-Vel'yaminov), are reported. The list of galaxies that possess(or probably possess) such rows includes about 200 objects, of whichabout 70% are brighter than 14m. On the whole, galaxies with rows makeup 6 8% of all spiral galaxies with well-developed spiral patterns. Mostgalaxies with rows are gas-rich Sbc-Scd spirals. The fraction ofinteracting galaxies among them is appreciably higher than amonggalaxies without rows. Earlier conclusions that, as a rule, the lengthsof rows are similar to their galactocentric distances and that theangles between adjacent rows are concentrated near 120° areconfirmed. It is concluded that the rows must be transient hydrodynamicstructures that develop in normal galaxies. A High Intrinsic Peculiarity Rate among Type IA SupernovaeWe have compiled a sample of 45 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discoveredby the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) and the BeijingAstronomical Observatory Supernova Survey (BAOSS), and determined therate of spectroscopically peculiar SNe Ia (i.e., SN 1986G-like, SN1991bg-like, and SN 1991T-like objects) and the luminosity function ofSNe Ia. Because of the nature of the two surveys (distance-limited withsmall baselines and deep limiting magnitudes), nearly all SNe Ia havebeen discovered in the sample galaxies of LOSS and BAOSS; thus, theobserved peculiarity rate and luminosity function of SNe Ia areintrinsic. We find that 36%+/-9% of nearby SNe Ia are peculiar;specifically, the luminosity function of SNe Ia consists of 20% SN1991T-like, 64% normal, and 16% SN 1991bg-like objects. We have comparedour results to those found by earlier studies, and to those found athigh redshift. The apparent dearth of SN 1991T-like objects at highredshift may be due to extinction, and especially to the difficulty ofrecognizing them from spectra obtained past maximum brightness or fromspectra with low signal-to-noise ratios. Implications of the highpeculiarity rate for the progenitor systems of SNe Ia are also brieflydiscussed. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. Uniformity of (V-Near-Infrared) Color Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae and Implications for Host Galaxy Extinction DeterminationFrom an analysis of SNe 1972E, 1980N, 1981B, 1981D, 1983R, 1998bu,1999cl, and 1999cp, we find that the intrinsic V-K colors of Type Ia SNeof typical luminosity (i.e., with multicolor light-curve shape (MLCS)parameter -0.4<~Δ<~+0.2 mag) suggest a uniform color curve.V-K colors become bluer linearly with time from roughly one week beforeB-band maximum until one week after maximum, after which they reddenlinearly until four weeks after maximum. V-H colors exhibit very similarcolor evolution. V-J colors exhibit slightly more complex evolution,with greater scatter. The existence of V-near-infrared (NIR) colorrelations allows the construction of near-infrared light-curve templatesthat are an improvement on those of Elias et al. from 1985. We provideoptical BVRI and infrared JHK photometry of the Type Ia supernovae1999aa, 1999cl, and 1999cp. SN 1999aa is an overluminous slowdecliner'' (with Δ=-0.47 mag). SN 1999cp is a moderately bright SNunreddened in its host. SN 1999cl is extremely reddened in its host. TheV-NIR colors of SN 1999cl yield AV=2.01+/-0.11 mag. Thisleads to a distance for its host galaxy (M88) in agreement with otherdistance measurements for members of the Virgo Cluster. The ISOPHOT 170 μ m serendipity survey. I. Compact sources with galaxy associationsThe first set of compact sources observed in the ISOPHOT 170 μmSerendipity Survey is presented. From the slew data with low(I100 μm <= 15 MJy/sr) cirrus background, 115well-observed sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in all detectorpixels having a galaxy association were extracted. Of the galaxies withknown optical morphologies, the vast majority are classified as spirals,barred spirals, or irregulars. The 170 μm fluxes measured from theSerendipity slews have been put on an absolute flux level by usingcalibration sources observed additionally with the photometric mappingmode of ISOPHOT. For all but a few galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes aredetermined for the first time, which represents a significant increasein the number of galaxies with measured Far-Infrared (FIR) fluxes beyondthe IRAS 100 μm limit. The 170 μm fluxes cover the range 2 <~F170 μm la 100 Jy. Formulae for the integrated FIR fluxesF40-220μm and the total infrared fluxesF1-1000μm incorporating the new 170 μm fluxes areprovided. The large fraction of sources with a high F170μm / F100 μm flux ratio indicates that a cold(TDust la 20 K) dust component is present in many galaxies.The detection of such a cold dust component is crucial for thedetermination of the total dust mass in galaxies, and, in cases with alarge F170 μm / F100 μm flux ratio,increases the dust mass by a significant factor. The typical mass of thecoldest dust component is MDust = 107.5 +/- 0.5Msun , a factor 2-10 larger than that derived from IRASfluxes alone. As a consequence, the majority of the derived gas-to-dustratios are much closer to the canonical value of ~ 160 for the MilkyWay. By relaxing the selection criteria, it is expected that theSerendipity Survey will eventually lead to a catalog of 170 μm fluxesfor ~ 1000 galaxies. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project withinstruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries:France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOTSerendipity Survey (CISS) are MPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca,AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena, Imperial College London. Supernova 1999co in Anonymous GalaxyIAUC 7206 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Supernovae 1999co and 1999cpIAUC 7205 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Investigation of Barred Galaxies. V. Surroundings of SB and SA GalaxiesNot Available Bulge-Disk Decomposition of 659 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxy Brightness ProfilesWe present one of the largest homogeneous sets of spiral and lenticulargalaxy brightness profile decompositions completed to date. The 659galaxies in our sample have been fitted with a de Vaucouleurs law forthe bulge component and an inner-truncated exponential for the diskcomponent. Of the 659 galaxies in the sample, 620 were successfullyfitted with the chosen fitting functions. The fits are generally welldefined, with more than 90% having rms deviations from the observedprofile of less than 0.35 mag. We find no correlations of fittingquality, as measured by these rms residuals, with either morphologicaltype or inclination. Similarly, the estimated errors of the fittedcoefficients show no significant trends with type or inclination. Thesedecompositions form a useful basis for the study of the lightdistributions of spiral and lenticular galaxies. The object base issufficiently large that well-defined samples of galaxies can be selectedfrom it. The Southern Sky Redshift SurveyWe report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory. Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxiesWe present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
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