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Radio sources in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey - II. Local radio luminosity functions for AGN and star-forming galaxies at 1.4 GHz
We have cross-matched the 1.4-GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) with thefirst 210 fields observed in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS),covering an effective area of 325deg2 (about 20 per cent ofthe final 2dFGRS area). This yields a set of optical spectra of 912candidate NVSS counterparts, of which we identify 757 as genuine radioidentifications - the largest and most homogeneous set of radio sourcespectra ever obtained. The 2dFGRS radio sources span the redshift rangez=0.005 to 0.438, and are a mixture of active galaxies (60 per cent) andstar-forming galaxies (40 per cent). About 25 per cent of the 2dFGRSradio sources are spatially resolved by NVSS, and the sample includesthree giant radio galaxies with projected linear size greater than 1Mpc.The high quality of the 2dF spectra means we can usually distinguishunambiguously between AGN and star-forming galaxies. We make a newdetermination of the local radio luminosity function at 1.4GHz for bothactive and star-forming galaxies, and derive a local star formationdensity of 0.022+/-0.004Msolaryr-1Mpc-3(H0=50kms-1Mpc-1).

Kinematics of AWM and MKW Poor Clusters
We have measured 1365 redshifts to a limiting magnitude of R~15.5 in 15AWM/MKW clusters and have collected another 203 from the literature inMKW 4s, MKW 2, and MKW 2s. In AWM 7 we have extended the redshift sampleto R~18 in the cluster center. We have identified 704 cluster members in17 clusters; 201 are newly identified. We summarize the kinematics anddistributions of the cluster galaxies and provide an initial discussionof substructure, mass and luminosity segregation, spectral segregation,velocity-dispersion profiles, and the relation of the central galaxy toglobal cluster properties. We compute optical mass estimates, which wecompare with X-ray mass determinations from the literature. The clustersare in a variety of dynamical states, reflected in the three classes ofbehavior of the velocity-dispersion profile in the core: rising,falling, or flat/ambiguous. The velocity dispersion of the emission-linegalaxy population significantly exceeds that of the absorption-linegalaxies in almost all of the clusters, and the presence ofemission-line galaxies at small projected radii suggests continuinginfall of galaxies onto the clusters. The presence of a cD galaxy doesnot constrain the global cluster properties; these clusters are similarto other poor clusters that contain no cD. We use the similarity of thevelocity-dispersion profiles at small radii and the cD-like galaxies'internal velocity dispersions to argue that cD formation is a localphenomenon. Our sample establishes an empirical observational baselineof poor clusters for comparison with simulations of similar systems.Observations reported in this paper were obtained at the Multiple MirrorTelescope Observatory, a facility operated jointly by the University ofArizona and the Smithsonian Institution; at the Whipple Observatory, afacility operated jointly by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatoryand Harvard University; and at the WIYN Observatory, a joint facility ofthe University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, YaleUniversity, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

Spectral gradients in central cluster galaxies: further evidence of star formation in cooling flows
We have obtained radial gradients in the spectral features of thelambda4000-Angstroms break (D_4000) and Mg_2 for a sample of 11 centralcluster galaxies (CCGs): eight in clusters with cooling flows and threein clusters without. After careful removal of the emission lines foundwithin the D_4000 and Mg_2 bandpasses for some objects, the new datastrongly confirm the correlations between line-strength indices and thecooling flow phenomenon found in our earlier study. We find that suchcorrelations depend on the presence and characteristics of emissionlines in the inner regions of the CCGs. The nuclear indices arecorrelated with the mass deposition rate (M^.) only when emission linesare found in the central regions of the galaxies. The central D_4000 andMg_2 indices in cooling flow galaxies without emission lines arecompletely consistent with the indices measured in CCGs in clusterswithout cooling flows. CCGs in cooling flow clusters exhibit a clearsequence in the D_4000-Mg_2 plane, with a neat segregation depending onemission-line type and blue morphology. This sequence can be modelled,using stellar population models with a normal initial mass function(IMF), by a recent (~0.1 Gyr old) burst of star formation, althoughmodel uncertainties do not allow us to completely discard continuousstar formation or a series of bursts over the last few Gyr. In CCGs withemission lines, the gradients in the spectral indices are flat orpositive inside the emission-line regions, suggesting the presence ofyoung stars. Outside the emission-line regions, and in cooling flowgalaxies without emission lines, gradients are negative and consistentwith those measured in CCGs in clusters without cooling flows and giantelliptical galaxies. Index gradients measured exclusively in theemission-line region correlate with M^.. Using the same populationmodels we have estimated the radial profiles of the mass transformedinto new stars. The derived profiles are remarkably parallel to theexpected radial behaviour of the mass deposition rate derived from X-rayobservations. Moreover, a large fraction ( probably most) of the coolingflow gas accreted into the emission-line region is converted into stars.In the light of these new data, we discuss the evolutionary sequencesuggested by McNamara, in which radio-triggered star formation burststake place several times during the lifetime of the cooling flow. Weconclude that this scenario is consistent with the availableobservations.

The Southern Sky Redshift Survey
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

A comparative study of morphological classifications of APM galaxies
We investigate the consistency of visual morphological classificationsof galaxies by comparing classifications for 831 galaxies from sixindependent observers. The galaxies were classified on laser print copyimages or on computer screen using scans made with the Automated PlateMeasuring (APM) machine. Classifications are compared using the RevisedHubble numerical type index T. We find that individual observers agreewith one another with rms combined dispersions of between 1.3 and 2.3type units, typically about 1.8 units. The dispersions tend to decreaseslightly with increasing angular diameter and, in some cases, withincreasing axial ratio (b/a). The agreement between independentobservers is reasonably good but the scatter is non-negligible. In spiteof the scatter, the Revised Hubble T system can be used to train anautomated galaxy classifier, e.g. an artificial neural network, tohandle the large number of galaxy images that are being compiled in theAPM and other surveys.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

Intracluster Globular Clusters
Globular cluster populations of supergiant elliptical galaxies are knownto vary widely, from extremely populous systems like that of UGC 9799,the centrally dominant galaxy in Abell 2052, to globular-cluster--poorgalaxies such as NGC 5629 in Abell 2666. Here we propose that thesevariations point strongly to the existence of a population of globularclusters that are not bound to individual galaxies but, rather, movefreely throughout the cores of clusters of galaxies. Such intraclusterglobular clusters may have originated as tidally stripped debris fromgalaxy interactions and mergers, or, alternatively, they may have formedin situ in some scenarios of globular cluster formation.

Kinematics and dynamics of the MKW/AWM poor clusters
We report 472 new redshifts for 416 galaxies in the regions of the 23poor clusters of galaxies originally identified by Morgan, Kayser, andWhite (MKW), and Albert, White, and Morgan (AWM). Eighteen of the poorclusters now have 10 or more available redshifts within 1.5/h Mpc of thecentral galaxy; 11 clusters have at least 20 available redshifts. Basedon the 21 clusters for which we have sufficient velocity information,the median velocity scale is 336 km/s, a factor of 2 smaller than foundfor rich clusters. Several of the poor clusters exhibit complex velocitydistributions due to the presence of nearby clumps of galaxies. We checkon the velocity of the dominant galaxy in each poor cluster relative tothe remaining cluster members. Significantly high relative velocities ofthe dominant galaxy are found in only 4 of 21 poor clusters, 3 of whichwe suspect are due to contamination of the parent velocity distribution.Several statistical tests indicate that the D/cD galaxies are at thekinematic centers of the parent poor cluster velocity distributions.Mass-to-light ratios for 13 of the 15 poor clusters for which we havethe required data are in the range 50 less than or = M/LB(0)less than or = 200 solar mass/solar luminosity. The complex nature ofthe regions surrounding many of the poor clusters suggests that thesegroupings may represent an early epoch of cluster formation. Forexample, the poor clusters MKW7 and MKWS are shown to be gravitationallybound and likely to merge to form a richer cluster within the nextseveral Gyrs. Eight of the nine other poor clusters for which simpletwo-body dynamical models can be carried out are consistent with beingbound to other clumps in their vicinity. Additional complex systems withmore than two gravitationally bound clumps are observed among the poorclusters.

The surface brightness test for the expansion of the universe. III - Reduction of data for the several brightest galaxies in clusters to standard conditions and a first indication that the expansion is real
Petrosian radii, effective radii, apparent magnitudes, and averagesurface brightnesses are presented for the first few ranked galaxies in56 nearby clusters and groups. The correlations between (SB) and both Mand R are derived from the data, and a selection effect that imitates aTolman signal in these data but which is an artifact of the sample isdiscussed. Correction procedures are applied to the high-redshift galaxysample of Djorgovski and Spinrad (1981), and a well-defined Tolmansignal is found in the data. Although this appears to be strong proofthat the universe expands and therefore that the conventionalinterpretation of the redshift is correct, the reliability of theconclusion is cautioned. Methods to optimize the Tolman test in futureobservational programs are discussed.

The components of mid- and far-infrared emission from S0 and early-type shell galaxies
The IRAS database has been used to study detections of about 150early-type elliptical and S0 galaxies exhibiting a shell structure. Nostrong evidence for the expected enhancement of either star formationrates or heating of the interstellar medium is found. It is suggestedthat for some of the sample galaxies either a contribution from warmdust surrounding evolved stars or emission from an active nucleus may besignificant.

Radio emission from shell elliptical galaxies
A subset of the Malin & Carter catalogue of 'shell ellipticalgalaxies' has been surveyed at 20 and 6 cm with the VLA. Forty-two percent of the galaxies were detected, down to a 6-cm flux density limit ofabout 0.6 mJy. This detection rate does not differ significantly from anormal population of mixed elliptical and S0 galaxies. Most of the radiodetections, which are sources coincident with the galaxy nuclei, areunresolved by the C-array and so have angular sizes of less than 3arcsec. The sample contains objects with a wide variety of opticalappearances, suggesting that shell galaxies are not a homogenoeus classwith uniform physical characteristics.

The structure of brightest cluster members. II - Mergers
Surface photometry of 342 bright elliptical galaxies in 103 clusters isanalyzed for evidence of mergers. Structural differences betweenbrightest cluster members (BCMs) and normal ellipticals can besummarized as having enlarged characteristic radii and shallow profileslopes (beta greater than -1.7). Profile morphology criteria for theelliptical types gE, D, and cD are outlined. Comparison of observationswith numerical simulations of mergers strongly suggests a past historyof dynamical growth for BCMs. Weak correlations of global clusterproperties to BCMs supports the hypothesis proposed by Merritt (1984)that mergers are important in early subgroups before virialization andformation of a cluster identity.

CD galaxies of apparent supergiant sizes due to the curvature of space
Evidence for a positively curved universe is examined, and a model isdeveloped by combining two two-dimensional subspaces which are closedinto themselves due to curvature, to create a model of three-dimensionalspace of the same properties. A law of fictitious magnification isproposed. Indirect evidence for spherically curved space (and for thenonexistence of negative curvature) includes superluminal velocities,the existence of supergiant galaxies such as cD's, the superposition ofgalaxies, and the occurrence of background radiation. The theory impliesthe existence of another interpretation of spectra into redshifts. Theoccurrence of a gravitational lens effect, giving amplification of thecontours of foreground galaxy images, results in spectra beingintermixed.

Dynamics of luminous galaxies. II - Surface photometry and velocity dispersions of brightest cluster members
The velocity dispersions for 46 galaxies and CCD surface photometry for27 galaxies presented furnish a greatly improved data set forinvestigation of the brightest galaxies in galaxy clusters. Thebrightest cluster members (BCMs) are noted to be substantially brighterthan predicted by such considerations as their velocity dispersions.Attention is given to the possibility that this may be a selectioneffect due to the spread of M at a given velocity dispersion; it isnevertheless shown that the observed distribution of luminosity excessdoes not correspond to a simple model for selection, unless theelliptical galaxy sample suffers a Malmquist bias of 0.4 mag. The BCMswith largest excess luminosity have the largest effective radii and thelowest surface brightness, as predicted by homologous merger models.

Catalogue of central velocity dispersions of galaxies
A total of 880 measurements of velocity dispersions for 546 galaxieshave been compiled. These data have been used to look for biasesintroduced by the observational techniques and reduction procedures. Twomain effects have been corrected for, due to the reference and the slitwidth. A catalog of homogeneous data has been compiled, where the rawdata are corrected for these effects.

Supplement to the detailed bibliography on the surface photometry of galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...60..517P&db_key=AST

Brightest members of rich and poor clusters of galaxies. I Surface brightness profiles of cD-type galaxies
Surface photometry of a sample of the brightest members of rich and poorclusters of galaxies has been carried out on plates obtained at theprime focus of the CTIO 4 m telescope. Some of the galaxies resembleMorgan's cD types, and most of them have surface brightness profileswhich are well represented by de Vaucouleur's empirical formula atsurface brightnesses brighter than 24 mag/sq arcsec. The de Vaucouleurseffective radius and the surface brightness at the radius for all thegalaxies in the sample are tightly correlated in a manner much like thatrecently discussed by Kormendy. Two inferences follow from thiscorrelation: (1) the central parts of brightest cluster members appearto be indistinguishable from normal giant elliptical galaxies; (2) thearguments for cannibalism suggested by Ostriker and Hausman (1977) andby White (1978) are qualitatively justified.

Redshifts for 115 galaxies near the equator
New redshifts for 115 bright galaxies located near the celestial equatorare reported. The spectra were observed with a blue-sensitivephoton-counting Reticon on the 100-in. DuPont telescope, and theredshifts were derived using the data-analysis system developed for theCfA Redshift Survey. Comparisons with other measured redshifts suggestthat these data are similar in quality to the redshifts measured at Mt.Hopkins for the CfA Redshift Survey; the velocity zero point is good to10 or 15 km/s, with a typical error of 35 km/s for the individualmeasurements.

The Trivariate / Radio Optical X-Ray / Luminosity Function CD Galaxies - Part Two - the Fuelling of Radio Sources
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1983A&A...125..223V&db_key=AST

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Right ascension:14h00m37.20s
Aparent dimensions:1.413′ × 1.202′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 5400

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