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# NGC 5308

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 The SAURON project - VI. Line strength maps of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxiesWe present absorption line strength maps of 48 representative ellipticaland lenticular galaxies obtained as part of a survey of nearby galaxiesusing our custom-built integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, operating onthe William Herschel Telescope. Using high-quality spectra, spatiallybinned to a constant signal-to-noise ratio, we measure four key age,metallicity and abundance ratio sensitive indices from the Lick/IDSsystem over a two-dimensional field extending up to approximately oneeffective radius. A discussion of calibrations and offsets is given,along with a description of error estimation and nebular emissioncorrection. We modify the classical Fe5270 index to define a new index,Fe5270S, which maximizes the useable spatial coverage ofSAURON. Maps of Hβ, Fe5015, Mgb and Fe5270S arepresented for each galaxy. We use the maps to compute average linestrengths integrated over circular apertures of one-eighth effectiveradius, and compare the resulting relations of index versus velocitydispersion with previous long-slit work. The metal line strength mapsshow generally negative gradients with increasing radius roughlyconsistent with the morphology of the light profiles. Remarkabledeviations from this general trend exist, particularly the Mgb isoindexcontours appear to be flatter than the isophotes of the surfacebrightness for about 40 per cent of our galaxies without significantdust features. Generally, these galaxies exhibit significant rotation.We infer from this that the fast-rotating component features a highermetallicity and/or an increased Mg/Fe ratio as compared to the galaxy asa whole. The Hβ maps are typically flat or show a mild positiveoutwards radial gradient, while a few galaxies show strong central peaksand/or elevated overall Hβ strength likely connected to recent starformation activity. For the most prominent post-starburst galaxies, eventhe metal line strength maps show a reversed gradient. The SAURON project - V. Integral-field emission-line kinematics of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxiesWe present the emission-line fluxes and kinematics of 48 representativeelliptical and lenticular galaxies obtained with our custom-builtintegral-field spectrograph, SAURON, operating on the William HerschelTelescope. Hβ, [OIII]λλ4959,5007 and[NI]λλ5198,5200 emission lines were measured using a newprocedure that simultaneously fits both the stellar spectrum and theemission lines. Using this technique we can detect emission lines downto an equivalent width of 0.1 Å set by the current limitations indescribing galaxy spectra with synthetic and real stellar templates,rather than by the quality of our spectra. Gas velocities and velocitydispersions are typically accurate to within 14 and 20 kms-1, respectively, and at worse to within 25 and 40 kms-1. The errors on the flux of the [OIII] and Hβ linesare on average 10 and 20 per cent, respectively, and never exceed 30 percent. Emission is clearly detected in 75 per cent of our samplegalaxies, and comes in a variety of resolved spatial distributions andkinematic behaviours. A mild dependence on the Hubble type and galacticenvironment is observed, with higher detection rates in lenticulargalaxies and field objects. More significant is the fact that only 55per cent of the galaxies in the Virgo cluster exhibit clearly detectedemission. The ionized-gas kinematics is rarely consistent with simplecoplanar circular motions. However, the gas almost never displayscompletely irregular kinematics, generally showing coherent motions withsmooth variations in angular momentum. In the majority of the cases, thegas kinematics is decoupled from the stellar kinematics, and in half ofthe objects this decoupling implies a recent acquisition of gaseousmaterial. Over the entire sample however, the distribution of the meanmisalignment values between stellar and gaseous angular momenta isinconsistent with a purely external origin. The distribution ofkinematic misalignment values is found to be strongly dependent on theapparent flattening and the level of rotational support of galaxies,with flatter, fast rotating objects hosting preferentially corotatinggaseous and stellar systems. In a third of the cases, the distributionand kinematics of the gas underscore the presence of non-axisymmetricperturbations of the gravitational potential. Consistent with previousstudies, the presence of dust features is always accompanied by gasemission while the converse is not always true. A considerable range ofvalues for the [OIII]/Hβ ratio is found both across the sample andwithin single galaxies. Despite the limitations of this ratio as anemission-line diagnostic, this finding suggests either that a variety ofmechanisms is responsible for the gas excitation in E and S0 galaxies orthat the metallicity of the interstellar material is quiteheterogeneous. Stellar Populations in Nearby Lenticular GalaxiesWe have obtained two-dimensional spectral data for a sample of 58 nearbyS0 galaxies with the Multi-Pupil Fiber/Field Spectrograph of the 6 mtelescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the RussianAcademy of Sciences. The Lick indices Hβ, Mg b, and arecalculated separately for the nuclei and for the bulges taken as therings between R=4'' and 7", and the luminosity-weighted ages,metallicities, and Mg/Fe ratios of the stellar populations are estimatedby comparing the data to single stellar population (SSP) models. Fourtypes of galaxy environments are considered: clusters, centers ofgroups, other places in groups, and the field. The nuclei are found tobe on average slightly younger than the bulges in any type ofenvironment, and the bulges of S0 galaxies in sparse environments areyounger than those in dense environments. The effect can be partlyattributed to the well-known age correlation with the stellar velocitydispersion in early-type galaxies (in our sample the galaxies in sparseenvironments are on average less massive than those in denseenvironments), but for the most massive S0 galaxies, withσ*=170-220 km s-1, the age dependence on theenvironment is still significant at the confidence level of 1.5 σ.Based on observations collected with the 6 m telescope (BTA) at theSpecial Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy ofSciences (RAS). The X-ray emission properties and the dichotomy in the central stellar cusp shapes of early-type galaxiesThe Hubble Space Telescope has revealed a dichotomy in the centralsurface brightness profiles of early-type galaxies, which havesubsequently been grouped into two families: core, boxy, anisotropicsystems; and cuspy (power-law'), discy, rotating ones. Here weinvestigate whether a dichotomy is also present in the X-ray propertiesof the two families. We consider both their total soft emission(LSX,tot), which is a measure of the galactic hot gascontent, and their nuclear hard emission (LHX,nuc), mostlycoming from Chandra observations, which is a measure of the nuclearactivity. At any optical luminosity, the highest LSX,totvalues are reached by core galaxies; this is explained by their beingthe central dominant galaxies of groups, subclusters or clusters, inmany of the logLSX,tot (ergs-1) >~ 41.5 cases.The highest LHX,nuc values, similar to those of classicalactive galactic nuclei (AGNs), in this sample are hosted only by core orintermediate galaxies; at low luminosity AGN levels, LHX,nucis independent of the central stellar profile shape. The presence ofoptical nuclei (also found by HST) is unrelated to the level ofLHX,nuc, even though the highest LHX,nuc are allassociated with optical nuclei. The implications of these findings forgalaxy evolution and accretion modalities at the present epoch arediscussed. Reddening, Absorption, and Decline Rate Corrections for a Complete Sample of Type Ia Supernovae Leading to a Fully Corrected Hubble Diagram to v < 30,000 km s-1Photometric (BVI) and redshift data corrected for streaming motions arecompiled for 111 Branch-normal,'' four 1991T-like, seven 1991bg-like,and two unusual supernovae of Type Ia (SNe Ia). Color excessesE(B-V)host of normal SNe Ia, due to the absorption of thehost galaxy, are derived by three independent methods, giving excellentagreement leading to the intrinsic colors at maximum of(B-V)00=-0.024+/-0.010 and (V-I)00=-0.265+/-0.016if normalized to a common decline rate of Δm15=1.1. Thestrong correlation between redshift absolute magnitudes (based on anarbitrary Hubble constant of H0=60 km s-1Mpc-1), corrected only for the extrinsic Galactic absorption,and the derived E(B-V)host color excesses leads to thewell-determined yet abnormal absorption-to-reddening ratios ofRBVI=3.65+/-0.16, 2.65+/-0.15, and 1.35+/-0.21.Comparison with the canonical Galactic values of 4.1, 3.1, and 1.8forces the conclusion that the law of interstellar absorption in thepath length to the SN in the host galaxy is different from the localGalactic law, a result consistent with earlier conclusions by others.Improved correlations of the fully corrected absolute magnitudes (on thesame arbitrary Hubble constant zero point) with host galaxymorphological type, decline rate, and intrinsic color are derived. Werecover the result that SNe Ia in E/S0 galaxies are ~0.3 mag fainterthan in spiral galaxies for possible reasons discussed in the text. Thenew decline rate corrections to absolute magnitudes are smaller thanthose by some authors for reasons explained in the text. The fourspectroscopically peculiar 1991T-type SNe are significantly overluminousas compared to Branch-normal SNe Ia. The overluminosity of the seven1999aa-like SNe is less pronounced. The seven 1991bg types in the sampleconstitute a separate class of SNe Ia, averaging in B 2 mag fainter thanthe normal Ia. New Hubble diagrams in B, V, and I are derived out to~30,000 km s-1 using the fully corrected magnitudes andvelocities, corrected for streaming motions. Nine solutions for theintercept magnitudes in these diagrams show extreme stability at the0.02 mag level using various subsamples of the data for both low andhigh extinctions in the sample, proving the validity of the correctionsfor host galaxy absorption. We shall use the same precepts for fullycorrecting SN magnitudes for the luminosity recalibration of SNe Ia inthe forthcoming final review of our Hubble Space Telescope Cepheid-SNexperiment for the Hubble constant. The SAURON project - III. Integral-field absorption-line kinematics of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxiesWe present the stellar kinematics of 48 representative elliptical andlenticular galaxies obtained with our custom-built integral-fieldspectrograph SAURON operating on the William Herschel Telescope. Thedata were homogeneously processed through a dedicated reduction andanalysis pipeline. All resulting SAURON data cubes were spatially binnedto a constant minimum signal-to-noise ratio. We have measured thestellar kinematics with an optimized (penalized pixel-fitting) routinewhich fits the spectra in pixel space, via the use of optimal templates,and prevents the presence of emission lines to affect the measurements.We have thus generated maps of the mean stellar velocity V, the velocitydispersion σ, and the Gauss-Hermite moments h3 andh4 of the line-of-sight velocity distributions. The mapsextend to approximately one effective radius. Many objects displaykinematic twists, kinematically decoupled components, central stellardiscs, and other peculiarities, the nature of which will be discussed infuture papers of this series. Companions to Isolated Elliptical Galaxies: Revisiting the Bothun-Sullivan SampleWe investigate the number of physical companion galaxies for a sample ofrelatively isolated elliptical galaxies. The NASA/IPAC ExtragalacticDatabase (NED) has been used to reinvestigate the incidence of satellitegalaxies for a sample of 34 elliptical galaxies, first investigated byBothun & Sullivan using a visual inspection of Palomar Sky Surveyprints out to a projected search radius of 75 kpc. We have repeatedtheir original investigation using data cataloged in NED. Nine of theseelliptical galaxies appear to be members of galaxy clusters; theremaining sample of 25 galaxies reveals an average of +1.0+/-0.5apparent companions per galaxy within a projected search radius of 75kpc, in excess of two equal-area comparison regions displaced by 150-300kpc. This is significantly larger than the +0.12+/-0.42companions/galaxy found by Bothun & Sullivan for the identicalsample. Making use of published radial velocities, mostly availablesince the completion of the Bothun-Sullivan study, identifies thephysical companions and gives a somewhat lower estimate of +0.4companions per elliptical galaxy. This is still 3 times larger than theoriginal statistical study, but given the incomplete and heterogeneousnature of the survey redshifts in NED, it still yields a firm lowerlimit on the number (and identity) of physical companions. An expansionof the search radius out to 300 kpc, again restricted to sampling onlythose objects with known redshifts in NED, gives another lower limit of4.5 physical companions per galaxy. (Excluding five elliptical galaxiesin the Fornax Cluster, this average drops to 3.5 companions perelliptical.) These physical companions are individually identified andlisted, and the ensemble-averaged radial density distribution of theseassociated galaxies is presented. For the ensemble, the radial densitydistribution is found to have a falloff consistent withρ~R-0.5 out to approximately 150 kpc. For non-FornaxCluster companions the falloff continues out to the 300 kpc limit of thesurvey. The velocity dispersion of these companions is found to reach amaximum of 350 km s-1 at around 120 kpc, after which theyfall at a rate consistent with Keplerian falloff. This falloff may thenindicate the detection of a cut-off in the mass-density distribution inthe elliptical galaxies' dark matter halo at ~100 kpc. Stellar Kinematics of Boxy Bulges: Large-Scale Bars and Inner DisksLong-slit stellar kinematic observations were obtained along the majoraxis of 30 edge-on spiral galaxies, 24 with a boxy or peanut-shaped(B/PS) bulge and six with other bulge types for comparison. Such B/PSbulges are identified in at least 45% of highly inclined systems, and agrowing body of theoretical and observational work suggests that theyare the edge-on projection of thickened bars. Profiles of the meanstellar velocity V, the velocity dispersion σ, as well as theasymmetric (h3) and symmetric (h4) deviations froma pure Gaussian are presented for all objects. Comparing these profileswith stellar kinematic bar diagnostics developed from N-bodysimulations, we find bar signatures in 24 of our sample galaxies (80%).Galaxies with a B/PS bulge typically show a double-humped rotation curvewith an intermediate dip or plateau. They also frequently show a ratherflat central velocity dispersion profile accompanied by a secondary peakor plateau, and numerous galaxies have a local central σ minimum(>~40%). The h3 profiles display up to three slopereversals. Most importantly, h3 is normally correlated with Vover the presumed bar length, contrary to expectations from axisymmetricdisks. These characteristic bar signatures strengthen the case for aclose relationship between B/PS bulges and bars and leave little roomfor other explanations of the bulges' shape. We also find thath3 is anticorrelated with V in the very center of mostgalaxies (>~60%), indicating that these objects additionally harborcold and dense decoupled (quasi-) axisymmetric central stellar disks,which may be related to the central light peaks. These central diskscoincide with previously identified star-forming ionized-gas disks(nuclear spirals) in gas-rich systems, and we argue that they formed outof gas accumulated by the bar at its center through inflow. As suggestedby N-body models, the asymmetry of the velocity profile (h3)appears to be a reliable tracer of asymmetries in disks, allowing us todiscriminate between axisymmetric and barred disks seen in projection.B/PS bulges (and thus a large fraction of all bulges) appear to be madeup mostly of disk material, which has acquired a large vertical extentthrough bar-driven vertical instabilities. Their formation is thusprobably dominated by secular evolution processes rather than merging. HST observations of nuclear stellar disksWe present observations of four nearby early-type galaxies withpreviously known nuclear stellar disks using two instruments on-boardthe Hubble Space Telescope. We observed NGC 4128, NGC 4612, and NGC 5308with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, and the same three galaxies,plus NGC 4570, with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We havedetected a red nucleus in NGC 4128, a blue nucleus in NGC 4621, and ablue disk in NGC 5308. Additionally, we have discovered a blue disk-likefeature with position angle 15° from the major axis in NGC4621. In NGC 5308 there is evidence for a blue region along the minoraxis. We discovered a blue transient on the images of NGC 4128 atposition 0.14 arcsec west and 0.32 arcsec north from the nucleus. Theextracted kinematic profiles belong to two groups: fast (NGC 4570 andNGC 5308) and kinematically disturbed rotators (NGC 4128 and NGC 4621).We report the discovery of a kinematically decoupled core in NGC 4128.Galaxies have mostly old (10-14 Gyr) stellar populations with largespread in metallicities (sub- to super-solar). We discuss the possibleformation scenarios, including bar-driven secular evolution and theinfluence of mergers, which can explain the observed color and kinematicfeatures.Appendix A is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/ cgi-bin/ qcat?J/A+A/428/877Appendix B, Tables \ref{t:wfpc2}, \ref{t:filters},\ref{t:stis_obs}-\ref{t:lsi} and Figs. \ref{f:isophote},\ref{f:ngc5308_slit}-\ref{f:chi2}, \ref{f:ngc4128}-\ref{f:ngc5308} areonly available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Properties of isolated disk galaxiesWe present a new sample of northern isolated galaxies, which are definedby the physical criterion that they were not affected by other galaxiesin their evolution during the last few Gyr. To find them we used thelogarithmic ratio, f, between inner and tidal forces acting upon thecandidate galaxy by a possible perturber. The analysis of thedistribution of the f-values for the galaxies in the Coma cluster leadus to adopt the criterion f ≤ -4.5 for isolated galaxies. Thecandidates were chosen from the CfA catalog of galaxies within thevolume defined by cz ≤5000 km s-1, galactic latitudehigher than 40o and declination ≥-2.5o. Theselection of the sample, based on redshift values (when available),magnitudes and sizes of the candidate galaxies and possible perturberspresent in the same field is discussed. The final list of selectedisolated galaxies includes 203 objects from the initial 1706. The listcontains only truly isolated galaxies in the sense defined, but it is byno means complete, since all the galaxies with possible companions underthe f-criterion but with unknown redshift were discarded. We alsoselected a sample of perturbed galaxies comprised of all the diskgalaxies from the initial list with companions (with known redshift)satisfying f ≥ -2 and \Delta(cz) ≤500 km s-1; a totalof 130 objects. The statistical comparison of both samples showssignificant differences in morphology, sizes, masses, luminosities andcolor indices. Confirming previous results, we found that late spiral,Sc-type galaxies are, in particular, more frequent among isolatedgalaxies, whereas Lenticular galaxies are more abundant among perturbedgalaxies. Isolated systems appear to be smaller, less luminous and bluerthan interacting objects. We also found that bars are twice as frequentamong perturbed galaxies compared to isolated galaxies, in particularfor early Spirals and Lenticulars. The perturbed galaxies have higherLFIR/LB and Mmol/LB ratios,but the atomic gas content is similar for the two samples. The analysisof the luminosity-size and mass-luminosity relations shows similartrends for both families, the main difference being the almost totalabsence of big, bright and massive galaxies among the family of isolatedsystems, together with the almost total absence of small, faint and lowmass galaxies among the perturbed systems. All these aspects indicatethat the evolution induced by interactions with neighbors would proceedfrom late, small, faint and low mass Spirals to earlier, bigger, moreluminous and more massive spiral and lenticular galaxies, producing atthe same time a larger fraction of barred galaxies but preserving thesame relations between global parameters. The properties we found forour sample of isolated galaxies appear similar to those of high redshiftgalaxies, suggesting that the present-day isolated galaxies could bequietly evolved, unused building blocks surviving in low densityenvironments.Tables \ref{t1} and \ref{t2} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Infrared Observations of Galaxies in the Local Universe. II. 391 Calibrated Images with Photometric and Structural MeasurementsThis paper presents empirical results from a deep imaging survey ofgalaxies in the local universe at the J and Ks wavelengths.Three hundred ninety-one images have been obtained and calibrated usingthe same camera and filter set with the Steward Observatory 1.6 m KuiperTelescope on Mount Bigelow and the 2.3 m Bok Telescope on Kitt Peak. Thelimiting magnitude is typically 22 mag arcsec-1 at J and 21mag arcsec-1 at Ks. The central surfacebrightness, apparent magnitudes, sizes, scale lengths, and inclinationsare tabulated from measurements made using these data. The purpose ofthis paper is to provide basic near-infrared data on a variety of galaxytypes. Cosmological Results from High-z SupernovaeThe High-z Supernova Search Team has discovered and observed eight newsupernovae in the redshift interval z=0.3-1.2. These independentobservations, analyzed by similar but distinct methods, confirm theresults of Riess and Perlmutter and coworkers that supernova luminositydistances imply an accelerating universe. More importantly, they extendthe redshift range of consistently observed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia)to z~1, where the signature of cosmological effects has the oppositesign of some plausible systematic effects. Consequently, thesemeasurements not only provide another quantitative confirmation of theimportance of dark energy, but also constitute a powerful qualitativetest for the cosmological origin of cosmic acceleration. We find a ratefor SN Ia of(1.4+/-0.5)×10-4h3Mpc-3yr-1at a mean redshift of 0.5. We present distances and host extinctions for230 SN Ia. These place the following constraints on cosmologicalquantities: if the equation of state parameter of the dark energy isw=-1, then H0t0=0.96+/-0.04, andΩΛ-1.4ΩM=0.35+/-0.14. Includingthe constraint of a flat universe, we findΩM=0.28+/-0.05, independent of any large-scalestructure measurements. Adopting a prior based on the Two Degree Field(2dF) Redshift Survey constraint on ΩM and assuming aflat universe, we find that the equation of state parameter of the darkenergy lies in the range -1.48-1, we obtain w<-0.73 at 95% confidence.These constraints are similar in precision and in value to recentresults reported using the WMAP satellite, also in combination with the2dF Redshift Survey.Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc.,under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This research is primarily associatedwith proposal GO-8177, but also uses and reports results from proposalsGO-7505, 7588, 8641, and 9118.Based in part on observations taken with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. CTIO: Based in part on observations taken at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.Keck: Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. KeckObservatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among theCalifornia Institute of Technology, the University of California, and theNational Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was madepossible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.UH: Based in part on observations with the University of Hawaii 2.2 mtelescope at Mauna Kea Observatory, Institute for Astronomy, University ofHawaii. UKIRT: Based in part on observations with the United KingdomInfrared Telescope (UKIRT) operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalfof the UK. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. VLT: Based inpart on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory,Paranal, Chile, under programs ESO 64.O-0391 and ESO 64.O-0404. WIYN: Based in part on observations taken at the WIYN Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic DataWe present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere. Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture PhotometryWe present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak. A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxiesWe have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of normality''. Thedefinition of a normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5 Galaxy cores as relics of black hole mergersWe investigate the hypothesis that the cores of elliptical galaxies andbulges are created from the binding energy liberated by the coalescenceof supermassive binary black holes during galaxy mergers. Assuming thatthe central density profiles of galaxies were initially steep powerlaws, ρ ~r -2 , we define the mass deficit' as the massin stars that had to be removed from the nucleus in order to produce theobserved core. We use non-parametric deprojection to compute the massdeficit in a sample of 35 early-type galaxies with high-resolutionimaging data. We find that the mass deficit correlates well with themass of the nuclear black hole, consistent with the predictions ofmerger models. We argue that cores in haloes of non-interacting darkmatter particles should be comparable in size to those observed in thestars. The dynamics of S0 galaxies and their Tully-Fisher relationThis paper investigates the detailed dynamical properties of arelatively homogeneous sample of disc-dominated S0 galaxies, with a viewto understanding their formation, evolution and structure. By using highsignal-to-noise ratio long-slit spectra of edge-on systems, we have beenable to reconstruct the complete line-of-sight velocity distributions ofstars along the major axes of the galaxies. From these data, we havederived both model distribution functions (the phase density of theirstars) and the approximate form of their gravitational potentials. Thederived distribution functions are all consistent with these galaxiesbeing simple disc systems, with no evidence for a complex formationhistory. Essentially no correlation is found between the characteristicmass scalelengths and the photometric scalelengths in these galaxies,suggesting that they are dark-matter dominated even in their innerparts. Similarly, no correlation is found between the mass scalelengthsand asymptotic rotation speed, implying a wide range of dark matter haloproperties. By comparing their asymptotic rotation speeds with theirabsolute magnitudes, we find that these S0 galaxies are systematicallyoffset from the Tully-Fisher relation for later-type galaxies. Theoffset in luminosity is what one would expect if star formation had beensuddenly switched off a few Gyr ago, consistent with a simple picture inwhich these S0s were created from ordinary later-type spirals which werestripped of their star-forming interstellar medium when they encountereda dense cluster environment. The SAURON project - II. Sample and early resultsEarly results are reported from the SAURON survey of the kinematics andstellar populations of a representative sample of nearby E, S0 and Sagalaxies. The survey is aimed at determining the intrinsic shape of thegalaxies, their orbital structure, the mass-to-light ratio as a functionof radius, the age and metallicity of the stellar populations, and thefrequency of kinematically decoupled cores and nuclear black holes. Theconstruction of the representative sample is described, and itsproperties are illustrated. A comparison with long-slit spectroscopicdata establishes that the SAURON measurements are comparable to, orbetter than, the highest-quality determinations. Comparisons arepresented for NGC 3384 and 4365, where stellar velocities and velocitydispersions are determined to a precision of 6kms-1, and theh3 and h4 parameters of the line-of-sight velocitydistribution to a precision of better than 0.02. Extraction of accurategas emission-line intensities, velocities and linewidths from the datacubes is illustrated for NGC 5813. Comparisons with published linestrengths for NGC 3384 and 5813 reveal uncertainties of <~0.1Åon the measurements of the Hβ, Mg b and Fe5270 indices.Integral-field mapping uniquely connects measurements of the kinematicsand stellar populations to the galaxy morphology. The maps presentedhere illustrate the rich stellar kinematics, gaseous kinematics, andline-strength distributions of early-type galaxies. The results includethe discovery of a thin, edge-on, disc in NGC 3623, confirm theaxisymmetric shape of the central region of M32, illustrate the LINERnucleus and surrounding counter-rotating star-forming ring in NGC 7742,and suggest a uniform stellar population in the decoupled core galaxyNGC 5813. Nuclear Cusps and Cores in Early-Type Galaxies as Relics of Binary Black Hole MergersWe present an analysis of the central cusp slopes and core parameters ofearly-type galaxies using a large database of surface brightnessprofiles obtained from Hubble Space Telescope observations. We examinethe relation between the central cusp slopes, core parameters, and blackhole masses in early-type galaxies, in light of two models that attemptto explain the formation of cores and density cusps via the dynamicalinfluence of black holes. Contrary to the expectations fromadiabatic-growth models, we find that the cusp slopes do not steepenwith increasing black hole mass fraction. Moreover, a comparison ofkinematic black hole mass measurements with the masses predicted by theadiabatic models shows that they overpredict the masses by a factor of~3. Simulations involving binary black hole mergers predict that boththe size of the core and the central mass deficit correlate with thefinal black hole mass. These relations are qualitatively supported bythe present data. Bar Galaxies and Their EnvironmentsThe prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment. A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxiesWe present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations. Observations of five supernovae in 1995 1997We present the results of photometric observations of the type Iasupernovae SN 1995al, 1996bo, 1996bk, the type Ib/c supernova SN 1997X,and the type II supernova SN 1996an. The photometric characteristics ofSN 1995al are close to the average for type Ia supernovae. Our analysishas revealed possible peculiarities in the light-curve shape anddeviations from the average photometric parameters for SN 1996bk and1996bo. Sn 1996an probably belongs to type IIP. The light curve of SN1997X resembles that of the type Ic supernova SN 1994I. Light-curveparameters and absolute magnitude estimates are presented. Reconciliation of the Surface Brightness Fluctuation and Type Ia Supernova Distance ScalesWe present Hubble Space Telescope measurements of surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) distances to early-type galaxies that have hosted TypeIa supernovae (SNe Ia). The agreement in the relative SBF and SN Iamulticolor light-curve shape and delta-m15 distances isexcellent. There is no systematic scale error with distance, andprevious work has shown that SBFs and SNe Ia give consistent ties to theHubble flow. However, we confirm a systematic offset of ~0.25 mag in thedistance zero points of the two methods, and we trace this offset totheir respective Cepheid calibrations. SBFs have in the past beencalibrated with Cepheid distances from the H0 Key Projectteam, while SNe Ia have been calibrated with Cepheid distances from theteam composed of Sandage, Saha, and collaborators. When the two methodsare calibrated in a consistent way, their distances are in superbagreement. Until the conflict over the long'' and short''extragalactic Cepheid distances among many galaxies is resolved, wecannot definitively constrain the Hubble constant to better than ~10%,even leaving aside the additional uncertainty in the distance to theLarge Magellanic Cloud, common to both Cepheid scales. However, recenttheoretical SBF predictions from stellar population models favor the KeyProject Cepheid scale, while the theoretical SN Ia calibration liesbetween the long and short scales. In addition, while the current SBFdistance to M31/M32 is in good agreement with the RR Lyrae and red giantbranch distances, calibrating SBFs with the longer Cepheid scale wouldintroduce a 0.3 mag offset with respect to the RR Lyrae scale. Based onobservations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at theSpace Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposals8212, 5990, and 6587. The Progenitors of Subluminous Type Ia SupernovaeWe find that spectroscopically peculiar subluminous Type Ia supernovae(SNe Ia) come from an old population. Of the 16 subluminous SNe Iaknown, 10 are found in E/S0 galaxies, and the remainder are found inearly-type spiral galaxies. The probability that this is a chanceoccurrence is only 0.2%. The finding that subluminous SNe Ia areassociated with an older stellar population indicates that for asufficiently large look-back time (already accessible in currenthigh-redshift searches) they will not be found. Due to a scarcity in oldpopulations, hydrogen and helium main-sequence stars and He red giantstars that undergo Roche lobe overflow are unlikely to be theprogenitors of subluminous SNe Ia. Earlier findings that overluminousSNe Ia [Δm15(B)<~0.95] come from a young progenitorpopulation are confirmed. The fact that subluminous SNe Ia andoverluminous SNe Ia come from different progenitor populations and alsohave different properties is a prediction of the CO white dwarf mergerprogenitor scenario. Dusty Nuclear Disks and Filaments in Early-Type GalaxiesWe examine the dust properties of a nearby distance-limited sample ofearly-type galaxies using WFPC2 of the Hubble Space Telescope. Dust isdetected in 29 out of 67 galaxies (43%), including 12 with small nucleardusty disks. In a separate sample of 40 galaxies biased for thedetection of dust by virtue of their detection in IRAS 100 μm band,dust is found in ~78% of the galaxies, 15 of which contain dusty disks.In those galaxies with detectable dust, the apparent mass of the dustcorrelates with radio and far-infrared luminosity, becoming moresignificant for systems with filamentary dust. A majority of IRAS andradio detections are also associated with dusty galaxies rather thandustless galaxies. This indicates that thermal emission from clumpy,filamentary dust is the main source of the far-IR radiation inearly-type galaxies. Dust in small disklike morphology tends to be wellaligned with the major axis of the host galaxies, while filamentary dustappears to be more randomly distributed with no preference for alignmentwith any major galactic structure. This suggests that, if the dustydisks and filaments have a common origin, the dust originates externallyand requires time to dynamically relax and settle in the galaxypotential in the form of compact disks. More galaxies with visible dustthan without dust display emission lines, indicative of ionized gas,although such nuclear activity does not show a preference for dusty diskover filamentary dust. There appears to be a weak relationship betweenthe mass of the dusty disks and central velocity dispersion of thegalaxy, suggesting a connection with a similar recently recognizedrelationship between the latter and the black hole mass. Based onobservations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at theSpace Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contractNAS5-26555. WFPC2 Images of the Central Regions of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The DataWe present high-resolution R-band images of the central regions of 67early-type galaxies obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2(WFPC2) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This homogeneouslyselected sample roughly doubles the number of early-type galaxies thathave now been imaged at HST resolution and complements similar data onthe central regions of radio galaxies and the bulges of spiral galaxies.Our sample strikingly confirms the complex morphologies of the centralregions of early-type galaxies which have become apparent from previousstudies with HST. In particular, we detect dust, either in the form ofnuclear disks or with a filamentary distribution, in 43% of allgalaxies, in good agreement with previous estimates. In addition, wefind evidence for embedded stellar disks in a remarkably large fractionof 51%. In 14 of those galaxies the disklike structures are misalignedwith the main galaxy, suggesting that they correspond to stellar bars inS0 galaxies. We analyze the luminosity profiles of the galaxies in oursample and classify galaxies according to their central cusp slope. To alarge extent we confirm the results from previous HST surveys in thatearly-type galaxies reveal a clear dichotomy: the bright ellipticals(MB<~-20.5) are generally boxy and have luminosityprofiles that break from steep outer power laws to shallow inner cusps(referred to as core'' galaxies). The fainter ellipticals, on theother hand, typically have disky isophotes and luminosity profiles thatlack a clear break and have a steep central cusp (referred to aspower-law'' galaxies). The advantages and shortcomings ofclassification schemes utilizing the extrapolated central cusp slopeγ are discussed, and it is shown that γ might be aninadequate representation for galaxies whose luminosity profile slopechanges smoothly with radius rather than resembling a broken power law.Thus, we introduce a new, alternative parameter and show how thisaffects the classification. In fact, we find evidence for anintermediate'' class of galaxies that cannot unambiguously beclassified as either core or power-law galaxies and that have centralcusp slopes and absolute magnitudes intermediate between those of coreand power-law galaxies. It is unclear at present, however, whether thesegalaxies make up a physically distinct class or whether distance and/orresolution effects cause them to lose their distinct core or power-lawcharacteristics. The UK Nova/Supernova Patrol-The First 25 YearsThe history, accomplishments, and activities of the UK Nova/SupernovaPatrol are described. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. On the Relation between Peak Luminosity and Parent Population of Type IA Supernovae: A New Tool for Probing the Ages of Distant GalaxiesWe study the properties of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as functions ofthe radial distance from their host galaxy centers. Using a sample of 62SNe Ia with reliable luminosity, reddening, and decline ratedeterminations, we find no significant radial gradients of SNe Ia peakabsolute magnitudes or decline rates in elliptical+S0 galaxies,suggesting that the diversity of SN properties is not related to themetallicity of their progenitors. We do find that the range inbrightness and light curve width of supernovae in spiral galaxiesextends to brighter, broader values. These results are interpreted assupport for an age, but not metallicity, related origin of the diversityin SNe Ia. If confirmed with a larger and more accurate sample of data,the age-luminosity relation would offer a new and powerful tool to probethe ages and age gradients of stellar populations in galaxies atredshift as high as z~1-2. The absence of significant radial gradientsin the peak (B-V)0 and (V-I)0 colors of SNe Iasupports the reddening correction method of Phillips et al. We find noradial gradient in residuals from the SN Ia luminosity-width relation,suggesting that the relation is not affected by properties of theprogenitor populations and supporting the reliability of cosmologicalresults based upon the use of SNe Ia as distance indicators. A Search for Environmental Effects on Type IA SupernovaeWe use integrated colors and B and V absolute magnitudes of Type Iasupernova (SN) host galaxies in order to search for environmentaleffects on the SN optical properties. With the new sample of 44 SNe weconfirm the conclusion by Hamuy et al. that bright events occurpreferentially in young stellar environments. We find also that thebrightest SNe occur in the least luminous galaxies, a possibleindication that metal-poor neighborhoods produce the more luminousevents. The interpretation of these results is made difficult, however,because of the fact that galaxies with younger stellar populations arealso lower in luminosity. In an attempt to remove this ambiguity, we usemodels for the line strengths in the absorption spectrum of fiveearly-type galaxies, in order to estimate metallicities and ages of theSN host galaxies. With the addition of abundance estimates from nebularanalysis of the emission spectra of three spiral galaxies, we findpossible further evidence that luminous SNe are produced in metal-poorneighborhoods. Further spectroscopic observations of the SN hostgalaxies will be necessary to test these results and assist indisentangling the age and metallicity effects on Type Ia SNe.
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