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 FLASH redshift survey - I. Observations and catalogueThe FLAIR Shapley-Hydra (FLASH) redshift survey catalogue consists of4613 galaxies brighter than bJ= 16.7 (corrected for Galacticextinction) over a 700-deg2 region of sky in the generaldirection of the Local Group motion. The survey region is a70°× 10° strip spanning the sky from the ShapleySupercluster to the Hydra cluster, and contains 3141 galaxies withmeasured redshifts. Designed to explore the effect of the galaxyconcentrations in this direction (in particular the Supergalactic planeand the Shapley Supercluster) upon the Local Group motion, the 68 percent completeness allows us to sample the large-scale structure betterthan similar sparsely-sampled surveys. The survey region does notoverlap with the areas covered by ongoing wide-angle (Sloan or 2dF)complete redshift surveys. In this paper, the first in a series, wedescribe the observation and data reduction procedures, the analysis forthe redshift errors and survey completeness, and present the surveydata. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames GalaxiesCompanion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters. Tidal dwarf candidates in a sample of interacting galaxies. II. Properties and kinematics of the ionized gasWe present low-resolution spectroscopy of the ionized gas in a sample ofoptical knots located along the tidal features of 14 interactinggalaxies previously selected as candidate Tidal Dwarf Galaxies (TDGs).From redshift measurements, we are able to confirm their physicalassociation with the interacting system in almost all cases. For mostknots, the oxygen abundance does not depend on the blue luminosity. Theaverage, 12+log (O/H) =8.34+/-0.20, is typical of TDGs and is comparableto that measured in the outer stellar disk of spirals from which theywere formed. A few knots showing low metallicities are probablypre-existing low-mass companions. The estimated Hα luminosity ofthe TDG candidates is higher than that of typical individual H Iiregions in spiral disks and is comparable to the global Hαluminosity of dwarf galaxies. We find several instances of velocitygradients with amplitudes apparently larger than 100 km s-1in the ionized gas in the tidal knots and discuss various possibleorigins for the large velocity amplitudes. While we can exclude tidalstreaming motions and outflows, we cannot rule out projection effectswith the current resolution. The velocity gradients could be indicativeof the internal kinematic characteristic of self-gravitating objects.Higher resolution spectra are required to confirm whether the tidalknots in our sample have already acquired their dynamical independenceand are therefore genuine Tidal Dwarf Galaxies. Based on observationscollected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO No64.N-0361).Figures \ref{fig:chart:AM0529-565} to\ref{fig:chart:AM1325-292}, Table \ref{tab:newTDGcandPhot} andAppendices A and B are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Local velocity field from sosie galaxies. I. The Peebles' modelPratton et al. (1997) showed that the velocity field around clusterscould generate an apparent distortion that appears as tangentialstructures or radial filaments. In the present paper we determine theparameters of the Peebles' model (1976) describing infall of galaxiesonto clusters with the aim of testing quantitatively the amplitude ofthis distortion. The distances are determined from the concept of sosiegalaxies (Paturel 1984) using 21 calibrators for which the distanceswere recently calculated from two independent Cepheid calibrations. Weuse both B and I-band magnitudes. The Spaenhauer diagram method is usedto correct for the Malmquist bias. We give the equations for theconstruction of this diagram. We analyze the apparent Hubble constant indifferent regions around Virgo and obtain simultaneously the Local Groupinfall and the unperturbed Hubble constant. We found:[VLG-infall = 208 ± 9 km s-1] [\log H =1.82 ± 0.04 (H ≈ 66 ± 6 km s-1Mpc-1).] The front side and backside infalls can be seenaround Virgo and Fornax. In the direction of Virgo the comparison ismade with the Peebles' model. We obtain: [vinfall} =CVirgo/r0.9 ± 0.2] withCVirgo=2800 for Virgo and CFornax=1350 for Fornax,with the adopted units (km s-1 and Mpc). We obtain thefollowing mean distance moduli: [μVirgo=31.3 ± 0.2(r=18 Mpc )] [μFornax=31.7 ± 0.3 (r=22 Mpc). ] Allthese quantities form an accurate and coherent system. Full Table 2 isonly available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/57 Radial and Transverse Velocities of Nearby GalaxiesAnalysis of the peculiar velocities of the galaxies should take accountof the uncertainties in both redshifts and distances. We show how thiscan be done by a numerical application of the action principle. Themethod is applied to an improved catalog of the galaxies and tightsystems of galaxies within 4h-175 Mpc,supplemented with a coarser sample of the major concentrations at4h-175 Mpc to 20h-175 Mpcdistance. Inclusion of this outer zone improves the fit of the masstracers in the inner zone to their measured redshifts and distances,yielding best fits with reduced χ2 in redshift anddistance in the range 1.5-2. These solutions are based on the assumptionthat the galaxies in and near the Local Group trace the mass, and apowerful test would be provided by observations of proper motions of thenearby galaxies. Predicted transverse galactocentric velocities of someof the nearby galaxies are confined to rather narrow ranges of values,and are on the order of 100 km s-1, large enough to bedetected and tested by the proposed SIM and GAIA satellite missions. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. StatisticsWe present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Tidal dwarf candidates in a sample of interacting galaxiesWe present deep optical B,V ,R images of a sample of 10 interactingsystems which were selected for their resemblance to disturbed galaxiesat high redshift. Photometry is performed on knots in the tidal featuresof the galaxies. We calculate a grid of evolutionary synthesis modelswith two metallicities and various burst strengths for systemsconsisting of some fraction of the stellar population of a progenitorspiral plus starburst. By comparison with two-color diagrams weinterpret the photometric data, select from a total of about 100condensations 36 star-forming objects that are located in the tidalfeatures and predict their further evolution. Being more luminous by 4mag than normal H Ii regions we argue that these objects could be tidaldwarf galaxies or their progenitors, although they differ in number andmean luminosity from the already known tidal dwarf galaxies typicallylocated at the end of tidal tails in nearby giant interacting systems.From comparison with our models we note that all objects show youngburst ages. The young stellar component formed in these tidal dwarfcandidates contributes up to 18% to the total stellar mass at the end ofthe starburst and dominates the optical luminosity. This may result infading by up to 2.5 mag in B during the next 200 Myrs after the burst.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile (ESO No 058.A-0260). Tables 5-14 are only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to 130.79.128.5 or viahttp://cds.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Kinematics of the local universe. VII. New 21-cm line measurements of 2112 galaxiesThis paper presents 2112 new 21-cm neutral hydrogen line measurementscarried out with the meridian transit Nan\c cay radiotelescope. Amongthese data we give also 213 new radial velocities which complement thoselisted in three previous papers of this series. These new measurements,together with the HI data collected in LEDA, put to 6 700 the number ofgalaxies with 21-cm line width, radial velocity, and apparent diameterin the so-called KLUN sample. Figure 5 and Appendices A and B forcorresponding comments are available in electronic form at thehttp://www.edpsciences.com On the morphology of peculiar ring galaxiesIt is proposed that peculiar ring galaxies can be divided into fiveprincipal types according to the morphology of the ring and bulge, basedon the visual inspection of 489 selected objects. Those objects havebeen named peculiar'' following the Catalogue of Southern PeculiarGalaxies and Associations'' by \cite[Arp & Madore (1986]{am6}) Table2 with its notes is only available electronically via anonymous ftp130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr. Surface photometry of binary galaxies. I. A multicolour study of morphologies due to the interaction.We present the multicolour (B, V, R) surface photometry of 53 doublegalaxies. All the pairs belong to the catalogue of Reduzzi &Rampazzo (1995) containing objects selected according to theKarachentsev (1972) criteria. We comment on the morphological,structural and photometric characteristics of pairs and their members.Different classes of interaction induced phenomena, both among early andlate-type galaxies, are considered. We found that few early-typegalaxies show fine structures. Grand design structure is more frequentlydetected in binary than in field spirals both for barred and non barred,confirming Elmegreen & Elmegreen's (1982) study. The colour of thetails is consistent with the stripping hypothesis since it is similar tothe progenitor galaxy outskirts. Among our objects we have no evidentsign of induced star formation in tails. Rings appear on average bluerthan the disc as a whole. Candidates for a southern extension of the Karachentsev catalogue of isolated pairs of galaxies.Not Available The Shapley Supercluster. I. Spectroscopic Observations in the Central RegionWe present a new analysis of the kinematics of the Shapley superclusterbased on radial velocities for 1087 galaxies in the clusters A3558(Shapley 8), A3528 (Klemola 21), A3532 (Klemola 22), A3530, A3556 (SC1321-314), A3559 (CE 1327-292), A3560, A3562, SC 1329-314 and in theintercluster region of the core of the supercluster, of which 367 arenew measurements. We also present accurate positions from APM and MAMAscans of the ESO/SERC Southern Sky Survey photographic plates. We obtainnew velocity dispersions and estimate the masses of the member clusters,evaluating dynamical models of the supercluster. The supercluster isfound to be significantly flattened. We find that for {OMEGA}_0_ = 0.3,H_0_= 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^, the gravitational pull of the superclustermay account for up to 25% of the peculiar velocity of the Local Grouprequired to explain the dipole anisotropy of the Cosmic MicrowaveBackground radiation, in which case the mass of the supercluster wouldbe dominated by intercluster dark matter. This fractional contributionwould be considerably higher for combinations of significantly lowervalues of {OMEGA}_0_ and higher values of H_0_. The real astrophysical zoo : colliding galaxies.Not Available General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groupsWe present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog. Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group membersThis paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent. The supergalactic plane redshift surveyRedshift measurements, about 1000 of which are new, are presented for1314 galaxies in a survey toward the apex of the large-scale streamingflow for ellipticals. The velocity histogram shows that the excess ingalaxy number counts in this area is due to a substantial concentrationof galaxies with discrete peaks at V about 3000 km/s and V about 4500km/s. After correction for the sampling function, the centroid of thedensity distribution is found to be near V about 4500 km/s.Normalization to the more extensive SSRS survey, which was selected bythe same criteria, shows that the region studied contains a considerableoverdensity of galaxies from 2000 to 6000 km/s. This result is in goodagreement with the 'great attractor' model suggested by Lynden-Bell etal. (1988) which attributes the peculiar motions of elliptical galaxiesover a large region of space to an extensive mass overdensity whichincludes the Hydra-Centaurus and Pavo-Indus superclusters. The centroidof the density enhancement is also consistent with new data by Dresslerand Faber (1990) of peculiar motions of elliptical and spiral galaxies,both of which show a zero crossing of the Hubble line at approximately4500-5000 km/s. The group environment of Seyfert galaxies. II - Spectrophotometry of galaxies in groupsMedium-resolution spectrophotometric data of 104 galaxies have beenobtained. These galaxies are members of 22 loose groups of less thanabout 1 Mpc size. Thirteen of these groups contain Seyfert galaxies.This paper presents calibrated emission-line data and absolute opticalspectra of the individual galaxies as well as plates of each group. The group environment of Seyfert galaxies.On Palomar and ESO Schmidt plates loose groups of 1 Mpc size areidentified. Spectroscopy of 15 such groups containing a Seyfert galaxyand 9 loose groups without a Seyfert galaxy comprising a total number of113 galaxies is presented. Using qualitative and absolute opticalspectroscopic criteria, the activity pattern in groups is described.Galaxies with strong emission-line activity are found in Seyfert groupsout to distances 300 kpc away from the Seyfert galaxy while innon-Seyfert groups such galaxies are virtually absent. The theoreticalimplications of these results with regard to the structural anddynamical conditions for tidally induced starburst and Seyfert activityare discussed. Redshifts for galaxies in southern clustersRedshifts for galaxies, including the clusters ZW 9-19 and Klemola 27,in the ESO/SRC survey field 444 are presented based on observationscarried out in May 1980 and April 1981 with the 1.52-m ESO telescope inLa Silla. Satisfactory agreement is found with previous data. Thesurveyed sky area contains the Hydra/Centaurus supercluster with meanradial velocities between 3000 and 5000 km/s, behind which seems to be alarge empty space extending out to a redshift of about 9000 km s. Static properties of galaxies in the Shapley-Centaurus cluster. I - The catalogueA catalogue of the positions, sizes, orientations, ellipticities, andmorphological descriptions of 127 galaxies measured in the Southern SkySurvey Field 444 is given. The measurement errors, both internal andexternal, are discussed. Redshift observations in the Centaurus-Hydra supercluster region. IThe paper presents 111 new redshifts in the region of theCentaurus-Hydra supercluster. Also presented is the growth of theHydra-Centaurus structures as a function of the percolation vector, thesurface distribution of galaxies in this region, and the distribution inredshift of the observed galaxies. Nitrogen and oxygen evolution in dwarf irregular galaxiesIn the present computation of numerical chemical evolution models for asample of 40 dwarf irregular galaxies, assuming bursts of star formationand taking account of galactic winds, N and O evolution is followed upin light of the most recent results on stellar evolution. The N and Oabundances observed are well reproduced by theoretical models with suchimplications as the ability to explain the N/O vs O diagrams of dwarfirregulars, as well as those of halo stars in the Galaxy, by means of aprimary fraction of N ranging from 30 to 50 percent. A Salpeter (1955)initial mass function is applicable to all these galaxies, whilefunctions strongly varying with metallicity do not yield the observeddata. Southern Galaxy Catalogue.Not Available A comparison of distance scales for early-type galaxiesThe distance scales of elliptical and lenticular galaxies areintercompared, based on the velocity dispersion indicator derived from arevised Faber-Jackson relation. The scales are found to be in nearperfect agreement with scales derived from the luminosity index and fromthe 21 cm line width indicator. The scales are also in excellentagreement with the distance scale derived by Michard (1979). Additionsare offered for the general catalog of 424 early-type galaxies, and aseries of reduction equations is presented which reduces the externalerrors in the distance moduli. Redshifts in Klemola 27Observational data for galaxies in the galaxy cluster Klemola 27gathered over the last few years are presented. These are mostly newredshifts and further, accurate coordinates and morphological types fora large number of 'prominent' galaxies in the ESO/SRC-Survey fields 444and 445. A few preliminary H I radial velocities are also reported. Thedata available for this cluster are briefly discussed.
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