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|An Unusual Discontinuity in the X-Ray Surface Brightness Profile of NGC 507: Evidence of an Abundance Gradient?|
We present results from a 45 ks Chandra ACIS-I observation of the nearby(z=0.01646) NGC 507 group. The X-ray surface brightness profile of theouter region of the group is well described by an isothermalβ-profile consistent with earlier ROSAT observations. We find asharp edge or discontinuity in the radial surface brightness profile 55kpc east and southeast of NGC 507 covering an ~125° arc. At thesharpest part of the discontinuity, the surface brightness declines by afactor of ~2 over a distance of 6.9 kpc (~15"). The inner and outer gastemperatures across the discontinuity differ by only about 0.2 keV(interior and exterior gas temperatures are 1.2 and 1.4 keV,respectively). Spectral analysis indicates that there is a gradient inthe elemental abundance across the discontinuity, and comparison withthe low-resolution NRAO VLA Sky Survey radio maps suggests that thediscontinuity is aligned with a low surface brightness radio lobe. Weconclude that the appearance of this discontinuity may be the result oftwo phenomena: the transonic (M~0.75-1) expansion/inflation of the radiolobe close to our line of sight and the transport of high-abundancematerial from the center of the galaxy due to this expansion.
|ROSAT HRI Investigation of the NGC 507 X-Ray Halo|
We present an X-ray investigation of the elliptical galaxy NGC 507 inthe Pisces cluster. We make use of archival ROSAT HRI and Chandra data,and of previously published PSPC data, to connect the large-scalestructure of the halo to the core morphology. Our analysis, based on abidimensional double beta model of the halo surface brightness, showsthat the halo core (r<2-3re) and the external halo(r>3re) are characterized by different dynamicalproperties and suggests a different origin of the two components. Thehalo core has a complex morphology with a main X-ray emission peak,coincident with the center of the optical galaxy, and several secondarypeaks. The spatial and spectral analysis of the central peak shows thatthis feature is produced by denser hot gas in the galaxy core. Whileboth homogeneous and inhomogeneous cooling flow models predict adeposited mass exceeding the observed amount, our data support thescenario in which the gas is kinetically heated by stellar mass losses.Comparison with previously published studies suggests that the core ofan X-ray extended galaxy is associated with the stellar distribution andhas properties similar to the X-ray halos of compact galaxies. Thesecondary peaks are due instead to interactions between theradio-emitting plasma and the surrounding ISM, producing densityfluctuations in the hot gas. We find that the energy input by thecentral radio source in the ISM is large enough to prevent gas coolingand may explain the failure of the cooling flow models. The total massprofile derived from the bidimensional model shows that a significantamount of dark matter is present at large radii. The dark halo extendson cluster scales and is likely associated with the whole cluster ratherthan with NGC 507. This structure is typical of many X-ray-brightearly-type galaxies and may explain the spatial and spectral differenceswith X-ray compact galaxies largely debated in the literature. Thelarge-scale surface brightness distribution is irregular and moreextended in the northeast direction. The displacement of the clusterhalo from the optical galaxy and the filamentary structures observed inthe halo core further suggest that the galaxy may be slowly movingwithin the group potential. Finally, we found that ~20% of the sourcesdetected by Kim & Fabbiano in the NGC 507 halo are due to pointsources, while the nature of the remaining population is not clear. Ifassociated with NGC 507, they could be either accreting binaries hostinga massive black hole or density clumps of the X-ray halo.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data|
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The ENEARc Cluster Sample|
This paper presents data on the ENEARc subsample of the larger ENEARsurvey of nearby early-type galaxies. The ENEARc galaxies belong toclusters and were specifically chosen to be used for the construction ofa Dn-σ template. The ENEARc sample includes newmeasurements of spectroscopic and photometric parameters (redshift,velocity dispersion, line index Mg2, and the angular diameterdn), as well as data from the literature. New spectroscopicdata are given for 229 cluster early-type galaxies, and new photometryis presented for 348 objects. Repeat and overlap observations withexternal data sets are used to construct a final merged catalogconsisting of 640 early-type galaxies in 28 clusters. Objectivecriteria, based on catalogs of groups of galaxies derived from completeredshift surveys of the nearby universe, are used to assign galaxies toclusters. In a companion paper, these data are used to construct thetemplate Dn-σ distance relation for early-typegalaxies, which has been used to estimate galaxy distances and derivepeculiar velocities for the ENEAR all-sky sample. Based on observationsat Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement betweenthe Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory,National Optical Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (ESO), partially under the ESO-ON agreement; theFred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Observatório do Pico dosDias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísicaand the MDM Observatory at Kitt Peak.
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|The Frequency of Active and Quiescent Galaxies with Companions: Implications for the Feeding of the Nucleus|
We analyze the idea that nuclear activity, either active galactic nuclei(AGNs) or star formation, can be triggered by interactions by studyingthe percentage of active, H II, and quiescent galaxies with companions.Our sample was selected from the Palomar survey and avoids selectionbiases faced by previous studies. This sample was split into fivedifferent groups, Seyfert galaxies, LINERs, transition galaxies, H IIgalaxies, and absorption-line galaxies. The comparison between the localgalaxy density distributions of the different groups showed that in mostcases there is no statistically significant difference among galaxies ofdifferent activity types, with the exception that absorption-linegalaxies are seen in higher density environments, since most of them arein the Virgo Cluster. The comparison of the percentage of galaxies withnearby companions showed that there is a higher percentage of LINERs,transition galaxies, and absorption-line galaxies with companions thanSeyfert and H II galaxies. However, we find that when we consider onlygalaxies of similar morphological types (elliptical or spiral), there isno difference in the percentage of galaxies with companions amongdifferent activity types, indicating that the former result was due tothe morphology-density effect. In addition, only small differences arefound when we consider galaxies with similar Hα luminosities. Thecomparison between H II galaxies of different Hα luminositiesshows that there is a significantly higher percentage of galaxies withcompanions among H II galaxies with L(Hα)>1039 ergss-1 than among those with L(Hα)<=1039ergs s-1, indicating that interactions increase the amount ofcircumnuclear star formation, in agreement with previous results. Thefact that we find that galaxies of different activity types have thesame percentage of companions suggests that interactions betweengalaxies is not a necessary condition to trigger the nuclear activity inAGNs. We compare our results with previous ones and discuss theirimplications.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|A neutral hydrogen survey of polar ring galaxies. III. Nançay observations and comparison with published data|
A total of 50 optically selected polar ring galaxies, polar ring galaxycandidates and related objects were observed in the 21-cm H i line withthe Nançay decimetric radio telescope and 31 were detected. Theobjects, selected by their optical morphology, are all north ofdeclination -39o, and generally relatively nearby (V< 8000km s-1) and/or bright (mB< 15.5). The H i linedata are presented for all 74 galaxies observed for the survey with theEffelsberg, Green Bank or Nanç radio telescopes, as well as allother published H i line parameters of these objects. Three objects wereobserved and detected by us at Parkes. A total of 59 objects weredetected. For each object a brief description is given based on aliterature search.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data|
We present central velocity dispersion measurements for 325 early-typegalaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies, including newobservations for 212 galaxies. The clusters and groups are the A262,A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer, and Pegasus Clusters and the NGC 383and NGC 507 Groups. The new measurements were derived frommedium-dispersion spectra that cover 600 Å centered on the Mg I btriplet at lambda ~ 5175 Å. Velocity dispersions were measuredusing the Tonry & Davis cross-correlation method, with a typicalaccuracy of 6%. A detailed comparison with other data sources is made.
|The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Sample Definition and I-Band Photometric Data|
As part of a project to compare the fundamental plane and Tully-Fisherdistance scales, we present here I-band CCD photometry for 636early-type galaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies. These arethe A262, A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer and Pegasus Clusters, andthe NGC 383 and NGC 507 Groups. Sample selection, cluster properties,and cluster membership assignment criteria are discussed. We presentphotometric parameters that are used in the fundamental plane relation,the effective radius r_e, and the effective surface brightness mu_e, asderived from a r^1/4 fit to the observed radial photometric profile ofeach galaxy. A comparison with similar data found in the literature forthe Coma Cluster shows that large systematic uncertainties can beintroduced in the measurement of r_e and mu_e by the particular methodused to derive those parameters. However, the particular combination ofthese two parameters that enters in the fundamental plane relation is aquantity that can be measured with high accuracy.
|Environments of Redshift Survey Compact Groups of Galaxies|
Redshift survey compact groups (RSCGs) are tight knots of N >= 3galaxies selected from the CfA2+SSRS2 redshift survey. The selection isbased on physical extent and association in redshift space alone. Wemeasured 300 new redshifts of fainter galaxies within 1 h^-1 Mpc of 14RSCGs to explore the relationship between RSCGs and their environments.Thirteen of 14 RSCGs are embedded in overdense regions of redshiftspace. The systems range from a loose group of five members to an Abellcluster. The remaining group, RSCG 64, appears isolated. RSCGs areisolated and distinct from their surroundings to varying degrees, as arethe Hickson compact groups. Among the 13 embedded RSCGs, three aredistinct from their general environments (RSCG 9, RSCG 11, and RSCG 85).
|A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters|
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp 184.108.40.206. Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|Galaxy clusters in the Perseus-Pisces region. I - Spectroscopic and photometric data for early-type galaxies|
We present new spectroscopic and photometric data for 137 early-typegalaxies in nine clusters and for a set of nearby standard galaxies. Ourspectroscopic data comprise radial velocities, central velocitydispersions, and magnesium line strength indices. We demonstrate thatour new velocity dispersion data can be brought into consistency withthe standard system, to an uncertainty of percent 0.01 dex. From R-bandCCD photometry, we derive the effective diameter, the mean surfacebrightness within the effective diameter, and an R-band diameterequivalent to the Dn parameter of Dressler et al. Internal comparisonsindicate an average error of 0.005 in each measurement of log Dn. Thephotometric data can be brought on to a system consistent with externaldata at the level of 0.5 per cent in distance.
|The luminosity function of dwarf galaxies in four spiral- rich clusters|
We measure luminosity functions in the cores of four spiral-rich, poorclusters of galaxies at median redshift z=0.016. In the red magnituderange -14
|The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.|
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.
|A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update|
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.
|ROSAT PSPC observations of the early-type galaxies NGC 507 and NGC 499: Central cooling and mass determination|
We present the results of a deep observation of NGC 507 and NGC 499 withthe ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). The X-rayemission of NGC 507 is extended at least out to 1000 sec (458 kpc at adistance of 94.5 Mpc). The radial profile of X-ray surface brightnessgoes as Sigmax is approximately r-1.8 outside thecore region. The radial profile is a function of energy such that thesofter X-rays have a smaller core radius and a flatter slope. Spectralanalysis reveals that the emission temperature, with an average of 1keV, peaks at an intermediate radius of 2-3 min and falls toward thecenter (possibly decreases outward as well). The absorption columndensity is consistent with the Galactic line-of-sight value. The X-rayemission of NGC 499 is extended to 300 sec and suggests a similarlycooler core. The cooler cores of NGC 507 and NGC 499 are strong evidenceof the presence of cooling flows in these galaxies. Assuming hydrostaticequilibrium outside the cooling radius, the estimated mass-to-lightratio of NGC 507 is 97 +/- 16 within 458 kpc, indicative of the presenceof a heavy halo. Similarly, the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 499 is 89 +/-14 within 137 kpc. Near the edge of the X-ray-emitting region of NGC 507we detect 19 soft, unresolved sources. These sources do not have opticalcounterparts and are significantly in excess of the expected number ofbackground serendipitous sources. We speculate that they may representcooling clumps in the halo of NGC 507. If there are many undetectedcooling clumps distributed at large radii, then the radial profile ofthe X-ray surface brightness does not directly reflect the potential,adding uncertainty to the measurement of the binding mass; the gas masscould also be overestimated.
|Metallicity gradients in early-type galaxies|
A study of medium-to-bright early-type galaxies in six bandpasses from3500 A to 2.2 microns is presented in order to quantify their colors andcolor gradients and relate these to metallicity and properties of theunderlying stellar population. The Stromgren filter system chosen makesit possible to introduce a new calibration to the Mg(2) system from thepresent narrow-band v - y indices. A comparison is presented ofnarrow-band colors centered on particular spectral features vs a colordominated by the mean temperature of the giant branch (i.e., J - K) totest the effects of light vs heavy element abundances on knowledge ofthe total system metallicity, Z, and the effects of reddening. A goodcorrelation is found between v - y and Mg(2); it provides a connectionbetween one light element metallicity indicator (v - y centers on the CNblend) and another, Mg. The color-magnitude relations for all fiveoptical and near-IR colors are shown. The strongest correlation existsfor the metallicity colors, v - y and J - K.
|On the external origin for dust in elliptical galaxies|
Large samples of elliptical galaxies, observed at high signal-to-noiseratio with CCDs, are used with ADDSCAN 100 micron fluxes from IRAS toexamine evidence for the external origin of dust in these galaxies. Foursmall sets of galaxies are picked which show features stronglyindicative of a merger, that is, infalling H I gas, extensive dustlanes, and kinematically peculiar cores and shells. Though somecounterexamples exist, it is shown that the dust and isophotalproperties are consistent with the current merger model for thesegalaxies.
|On the relationship between radio emission and optical properties in early-type galaxies|
To study the origin of radio activity in early-type galaxies, thepossible dependence of their radio emission on basic optical parameters,such as the absolute magnitude, the central velocity dispersion sigma,and the mean surface brightness mu is explored. A sample of 743 E and SOgalaxies is used which is based on three independent radio surveys ofoptically selected galaxies with virtually complete information onmagnitudes, morphological types, redshift distances, diameters, andradio fluxes. For both E and SO galaxies, only the absolute magnitudeappears to be directly related to the radio activity, while sigma and mudo not. Also, a significant dependence of the apparent flattening onradio power is confirmed for E galaxies. Some relevant implications ofthese results are discussed.
|Hierarchical pairs and the evolution of elliptical galaxies|
Consideration is given to the photometric and kinematic characteristicsof galaxies in eight close pairs of ellipticals consisting of a brightgalaxy and a compact faint companion. Redshifts and central velocitydispersions are determined from high-dispersion spectra. Evidence ispresented for interaction in the pairs. The mean surface brightness andcentral velocity dispersions of the galaxies are tightly correlated withluminosity. Two sequences of ellipticals are defined, based on the workof Michard (1979). The galaxies in this study are sequence I galaxies.It is suggested that sequence II galaxies evolve toward sequence Igalaxies through dissipation of internal energy and loss of angularmomentum.
|Isophote shapes of elliptical galaxies. II - Correlations with global optical, radio and X-ray properties|
The relations between isophote shapes and other global properties ofmassive elliptical galaxies are discussed. Only weak correlationsbetween the classical optical parameters and isophote shapes are found.In contrast, there exist striking relations between the isophote shapesand the radio- and X-ray properties of elliptical galaxies. Objectswhich are radio-loud and/or surrounded by gaseous X-ray halos generallyhave boxy or irregular isophotes. Elliptical galaxies with pointedisophotes are mostly radio-quiet and show no X-ray emission in excess ofthe discrete source contribution. Elliptical galaxies with box-shaped orirregular isophotes seem to have systematically higher mass-to-lightratios than ellipticals with weak disk components.
|Central Parts of Some Irregular Type-II Candidate Galaxies|
|A VLA 20 CM survey of poor groups of galaxies|
The paper reports on VLA 20 cm observations of an extensive sample ofgalaxies in 139 poor groups. These groups, composed of galaxies down tothe limit of the Zwicky et al. (CGCG) catalog, were chosen using apercolation algorithm set at a high surface-density threshold.Approximately 50 percent of the groups have measured redshifts. Thesegroups were surveyed using a 'snapshot' mode of the VLA with aresolution of about 13 arcsec. Analysis of the resulting radio andoptical properties reveals that the presence of a nearby companiongalaxy has an important role in generating radio emission in a galaxy.CCD observations of two radio-loud, disturbed galaxies with companionsare presented and are used to discuss models of radio-source production.Nine tailed radio galaxies are found in the poor groups, which is muchmore than had been expected from previous work on rich clusters and fromtheoretical models. The paper discusses previous statistical biases andproposes a method for bending head-tail sources in poor groups. From theconfinement of extended radio features associated with tailed sources,the presence of a substantial intracluster medium that should radiatesignificantly at soft-X-ray energies is predicted.
|Accurate positions of Zwicky galaxies. I|
Accurate optical positions, obtained from POSS prints with the BolognaInstituto di Radioastronomia position measuring machine, are given for1007 galaxies in the 502-505, 519-523, 536-539 Zwicky Catalogue fieldsaround the Abnell cluster A 262 (0150 + 3555) region. The adoptedmeasurement procedure, with a precision of about one arcsec rms, isdiscussed, and the measurements are compared with previously obtainedpositions (Dressel and Condon, 1976). With a few exceptions, the averagedeviation of the absolute value of position is 4.5 arcsec in RA and 3.4arcsec in DEC.
|A catalog of stellar velocity dispersions. I - Compilation and standard galaxies|
A catalog of central stellar velocity dispersion measurements ispresented, current through June 1984. The catalog includes 1096measurements of 725 galaxies. A set of 51 standard galaxies is definedwhich consists of galaxies with at least three reliable, concordantmeasurements. It is suggested that future studies observed some of thesestandard galaxies in the course of their observations so that differentstudies can be normalized to the same system. Previous studies arecompared with the derived standards to determine relative accuracies andto compute scale factors where necessary.
|Catalogue of central velocity dispersions of galaxies|
A total of 880 measurements of velocity dispersions for 546 galaxieshave been compiled. These data have been used to look for biasesintroduced by the observational techniques and reduction procedures. Twomain effects have been corrected for, due to the reference and the slitwidth. A catalog of homogeneous data has been compiled, where the rawdata are corrected for these effects.
|Mass-to-light ratio of elliptical galaxies|
Two virial formulas, which take into account the observed flattening,are established for oblate ellipticals obeying the r to the 1/4th powerlaw and used to derive the mean mass to light ratios in their centralpart. One of them, which requires the knowledge of only one kinematicalparameter, the central (stellar) velocity dispersion, is applied to 197ellipticals. The other one, which uses in addition the maximum stellarrotation velocity, is shown to be less sensitive to the unknown trueflattenings and to possible velocity anisotropies. It is applied to 30ellipticals. Both methods give a mean blue mass to luminosity ratio ofabout 13, without any clear correlation with the absolute luminosity ofthe galaxy.
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