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Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Bulge-Disk Decomposition of 659 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxy Brightness Profiles
We present one of the largest homogeneous sets of spiral and lenticulargalaxy brightness profile decompositions completed to date. The 659galaxies in our sample have been fitted with a de Vaucouleurs law forthe bulge component and an inner-truncated exponential for the diskcomponent. Of the 659 galaxies in the sample, 620 were successfullyfitted with the chosen fitting functions. The fits are generally welldefined, with more than 90% having rms deviations from the observedprofile of less than 0.35 mag. We find no correlations of fittingquality, as measured by these rms residuals, with either morphologicaltype or inclination. Similarly, the estimated errors of the fittedcoefficients show no significant trends with type or inclination. Thesedecompositions form a useful basis for the study of the lightdistributions of spiral and lenticular galaxies. The object base issufficiently large that well-defined samples of galaxies can be selectedfrom it.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

A comparative study of morphological classifications of APM galaxies
We investigate the consistency of visual morphological classificationsof galaxies by comparing classifications for 831 galaxies from sixindependent observers. The galaxies were classified on laser print copyimages or on computer screen using scans made with the Automated PlateMeasuring (APM) machine. Classifications are compared using the RevisedHubble numerical type index T. We find that individual observers agreewith one another with rms combined dispersions of between 1.3 and 2.3type units, typically about 1.8 units. The dispersions tend to decreaseslightly with increasing angular diameter and, in some cases, withincreasing axial ratio (b/a). The agreement between independentobservers is reasonably good but the scatter is non-negligible. In spiteof the scatter, the Revised Hubble T system can be used to train anautomated galaxy classifier, e.g. an artificial neural network, tohandle the large number of galaxy images that are being compiled in theAPM and other surveys.

Recalibration of the H-0.5 magnitudes of spiral galaxies
The H-magnitude aperture data published by the Aaronson et al.collaboration over a 10 year period is collected into a homogeneous dataset of 1731 observations of 665 galaxies. Ninety-six percent of thesegalaxies have isophotal diameters and axial ratios determined by theThird Reference Cataloque of Bright Galaxies (RC3; de Vaucouleurs et al.1991), the most self-consistent set of optical data currently available.The precepts governing the optical data in the RC3 are systematicallydifferent from those of the Second Reference Catalogue (de Vaucouleurs,de Vaucouleurs, & Corwin 1976), which were used by Aaronson et al.for their original analyses of galaxy peculiar motions. This in turnleads to systematic differences in growth curves and fiducialH-magnitudes, prompting the present recalibration of the near-infraredTully-Fisher relationship. New optically normalized H-magnitude growthcurves are defined for galaxies of types SO to Im, from which new valuesof fiducial H-magnitudes, Hg-0.5, are measured forthe 665 galaxies. A series of internal tests show that these fourstandard growth curves are defined to an accuracy of 0.05 mag over theinterval -1.5 less than or equal to log (A/Dg) less than orequal to -0.2. Comparisons with the Aaronson et al. values of diameters,axial ratios, and fiducial H-magnitudes show the expected differences,given the different definitions of these parameters. The values ofHg-0.5 are assigned quality indices: a qualityvalue of 1 indicates an accuracy of less than 0.2 mag, quality 2indicates an accuracy of 0.2-0.35 mag, and quality 3 indicates anaccuracy of more than 0.35 mag. Revised values of corrected H I velocitywidths are also given, based on the new set of axial ratios defiend bythe RC3.

Galaxies with f12 > f25
We have compiled a sample of galaxies whose flux density is higher at 12microns (f12) than at 25 microns (f25). It is argued thatf12 >f25effectively selects quiescent galaxies which are less active ininfrared, radio, and optical bands than other types of normal galaxies.Moreover galaxies withf12 >f25 do not exhibit the well-knownrelations that normal galaxies show between far-infrared parameters, forexample, the negative correlation betweenf12/f25 andf60/f100. Thesegalaxies also show different far-infrared and radio properties. In ouropinion this sample of quiescent galaxies is suitable for use as acontrol sample when properties of more active galaxies are discussed. Itmay also be used in modeling galaxies with active star formation or anactive nucleus.

Star-formation histories and the mass-normalized FIR/ratio correlation in late-type galaxies
We study the correlation between the mass-normalized far infrared (FIR)(40-120 microns) and radio continuum (at 1.49GHz) luminosities for asample of 114 normal nearby late-type galaxies. The correlation, whichspans 2-3 orders of magnitude, is found to be quite strong with acorrelation coefficient of 0.87, demonstrating that the well-knowncorrelation between the FIR and radio emissions of galaxies is notmerely a mass-scaling ('richness') effect. Adopting the hypothesis thatthe basic reason of the FIR/radio correlation is the star-formationactivity which ubiquitously exists in late-type galaxies, thedisturbance (i.e. the nonlinearity and the scatter) of the correlationdue to variations of star-formation history is estimated using a simpletheoretical model, which shows that the nonlinearity and a large part ofthe scatter of the correlation can be explained by this effect. Applyingthis model to the median values of the mass-normalized FIR luminosities,we suggest that galaxies of different morphological type havesystematically different star-formation histories on time scales of1010 years, consistent with previous optical studies.

The extended 12 micron galaxy sample
We have selected an all-sky (absolute value of b greater than or equalto 25 deg) 12 micron flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies from the IRASFaint Source Catalog, Version 2 (FSC-2). We have obtained accurate totalfluxes in the IRAS wavebands by using the ADDSCAN procedure for allobjects with FSC-2 12 micron fluxes greater than 0.15 Jy and increasingflux densities from 12 to 60 microns, and defined the sample by imposinga survey limit of 0.22 Jy on the total 12 micron flux. Its completenessis verified, by means of the classical log N - log S andV/Vmax tests, down to 0.30 Jy, below which we have measuredthe incompleteness down to the survey limit, using the log N - log Splot, for our statistical analysis. We have obtained redshifts (mostlyfrom catalogs) for virtually all (98.4%) the galaxies in the sample.Using existing catalogs of active galaxies, we defined a subsample of118 objects consisting of 53 Seyfert 1s and quasars, 63 Seyfert 2s, andtwo blazars (approximately 13% of the full sample), which is the largestunbiased sample of Seyfert galaxies ever assembled. Since the 12 micronflux has been shown to be about one-fifth of the bolometric flux forSeyfert galaxies and quasars, the subsample of Seyferts (includingquasars and blazars) is complete not only to 0.30 Jy at 12 microns butalso with respect to a bolometric flux limit of approximately 2.0 x10-10 ergs/s/sq cm. The average value of V/Vmaxfor the full sample, corrected for incompleteness at low fluxes, is 0.51+/- 0.04, expected for a complete sample of uniformly distributedgalaxies, while the value for the Seyfert galaxy subsample is 0.46 +/-0.10. We have derived 12 microns and far-infrared luminosity functionsfor the AGNs, as well as for the entire sample. We extracted from oursample a complete subsample of 235 galaxies flux-limited (8.3 Jy) at 60microns. The 60 micron luminosity function computed for this subsampleis in satisfactory agreement with the ones derived from the brightgalaxy sample (BGS) and the deep high-galactic latitude sample, bothselected at 60 microns.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Nearby galaxy flows modeled by the light distribution - Distances, model, and the local velocity anomaly
Tables giving measured galaxy distances used to construct a map ofobserved peculiar velocities, and giving a grid of the distribution oflight used to construct a map of expected peculiar velocities arepresented. A preferred model was developed which yielded a best fitbetween these maps, and this model was used to generate output kinematicdistances which are recorded for groups and individual galaxies withV0 of less than 3000 km/s. In terms of the ratio ofpeculiar-to-systemic velocities, the local velocity anomaly is the mostimportant perturbation involving substantial numbers of galaxies forthis case. The ratio of these quantities in this case is larger than forthe more famous cases of the Virgocentric or Great Attractorperturbations. Maps which illustrate the fit of the present mass modelto the velocity data in the local region are provided. A graphicaldemonstration of the relative importance of large-scale streaming tolocal motions within the context of this model is presented.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

Revised supernova rates in Shapley-Ames galaxies
Observations of 855 Shapley Ames galaxies made from November 1, 1980 toOctober 31, 1988, together with improved supernova luminosities, havebeen used to derive the frequency of supernovae of different types, andthe results are presented in tables. From a uniform database of 24supernovae discovered, the following SN rates are found, expressed in SNper century per 10 to the 10th L(B)(solar): SN Ia, 0.3; SN Ib, 0.3; andSN II, 1.0. The present data confirm the relatively high frequency of SNII in late-type galaxies that has been found by many previousinvestigators.

A 1.49 GHz supplementary atlas of spiral galaxies with H-magnitudes
The VLA has been used in its most compact D- and C/D-configurations tomake low-resolution 1.49 GHz maps of spiral galaxies with measuredinfrared magnitudes H(-0.5) and H I velocity widths from the 1982 listof Aaronson and coworkers. Many appear in the 1.49 GHz atlas of allspiral galaxies brighter than B(T) = +12 and north of delta = -45 deg;this supplementary atlas presents maps and radio source parameters ofthe 55 fainter galaxies observed.

The supernova rate in Shapley-Ames galaxies
A visual search for SNs in 748 Shapley-Ames galaxies during the 5-yearperiod from November 1, 1980 to October 31, 1985 has yielded SN rates of0.3h-squared, 0.4h-squared, and 1.1h-squared for objects of types Ia,Ib, and II, respectively. These data are judged to imply that Tammann's(1974, 1982) SN rates are probably too high by a factor of about 3. Fora Galactic luminosity of 2 x 10 to the 10th solar L(B), the predicted SNrates in the Milky Way system are 0.6h-squared, 0.8h-squared, and2.2h-squared/century, respectively, for the three aforementioned types.

H I observations of galaxies in between the Local and the Hydra/Centaurus superclusters
H I observations obtained with the 300-ft NRAO and 100-m Effelsbergradio telescopes in 1984-1985 are reported for 440 galaxies, ofmorphological types S0/a or later and diameter at least 2 arcmin in thecatalog of de Vaucouleurs et al., 1976, from the region between theLocal and Hya/Cen superclusters. The data are compiled in tables alongwith published data on 310 galaxies to form a data base for studies offilamentary structures in the intercluster region. More than 50 percentof the galaxies are detected in H I, and the redshift distribution isfound to be consistent with the existence of filaments.

The structure of the Virgo cluster of galaxies
A new detailed analysis of galaxies in the Virgo area shows that theconventional Virgo cluster comprises two different clouds of galaxies:the Virgo cluster I and the Southern cloud II by the definition proposedhere. Excluding the galaxies in the Southern cloud II, the Virgo clusterI centered at 12 h 27.6 m, +13 deg 07 arcmin (1950), has a mean radialvelocity of 980 + or - 60 km/s and there is no significant velocitydifference between elliptical-lenticular and spiral-irregular galaxiesin the Virgo cluster I. The Southern cloud II is centered at about 12 h25 m, +7 deg 30 arcmin (1950) and all types of galaxies in the cloud arediffusely distributed, while elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster Iare concentrated to the center. The mean radial velocity within a radiusof 3.5 deg of the Southern cloud II is +1240 + or - 80 km/s, which issignificantly higher than the mean velocity of the Virgo cluster I.

The dependence on distance and redshift of the velocity vectors of the sun, the Galaxy, and the Local Group with respect to different extragalactic frames of reference
The solar apex S is confirmed to move steadily from S-prime toS-asterisk, when the mean redshift of the reference frame increases fromsmall to large values, on the basis of a new analysis of the solarmotion and Hubble ratio. Most of the change takes place in the 0-4000km/sec interval. The velocity vectors increase steadily, and thedirections of the apexes drift progressively as the mean distance orredshift of the reference frame increases. The frame of referencedefined by galaxies at z greater than 0.01 is essentially at rest withrespect to background radiation, suggesting that any intrinsic dipolaranisotropy of the background radiation is probably less than about0.0001.

Infall of galaxies into the Virgo cluster and some cosmological constraints
The observed infall of galaxies in the Virgo Southern Extension towardthe Virgo Cluster is characterized by a family of mass models satisfyingthe requirement of an explanation of the Milky Way's motion with respectto the Virgo Cluster, in order to furnish constraints of cosmologicalinterest. If the age of the universe is 10-15 Gyr, there is a roughcoincidence of the mass required to explain the infall pattern ofgalaxies near the cluster, the mass needed to account for the motion ofthe Milky Way, and the mass implied for the central cluster by thevirial theorem, in which case most of the supercluster's mass mustreside in the Virgo Cluster. With the mass-age models and a census ofthe distribution of galaxies near the Virgo Cluster, it is possible toestimate the near-future accretion rate of galaxies into the centralcluster.

H I line studies of galaxies. III - Distance moduli of 822 disk galaxies
The distance scale established on the basis of a distance moduli catalog(for 822 galaxies) that was derived from 21-cm line widths via theB-band Tully-Fisher relation is compared with several independent scaleshaving a common zero point, that are based on the indicators forluminosity index, redshift, ring diameters, brightest superassociations,and effective diameters. These are in excellent systematic agreement,and confirm the linearity of the H I scale in the 24-35 modulusinterval, but indicate a small systematic zero point difference of about0.2 mag, which must be added to the H I moduli to place them on the same'short' distance scale defined by the others.

Inner ring structures in galaxies as distance indicators. III - Distances to 453 spiral and lenticular galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1983ApJS...51..149B&db_key=AST

A catalog of infrared magnitudes and H I velocity widths for nearby galaxies
Integrated infrared (1.6 micron) magnitudes and 21 cm velocity widthsare presented for 308 nearby spiral galaxies. Positions, types,inclinations, diameters, H I velocities and flux density integrals, anddistances are also listed. These data form the basis for a recentanalysis of the velocity field in the Local supercluster.

An H i Study of Scd Galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1975ApJ...198..527S&db_key=AST

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:13h05m07.70s
Aparent dimensions:3.162′ × 1.175′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 4951

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