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|Study of the Structure of the Coma Cluster Based on a Hierarchical Force Clustering Method|
Six subclusters in the Coma cluster have been selected on the basis of ahierarchical clustering method that takes the gravitational interactionamong galaxies into account. Of these, 3 central subclusters around thegalaxies NGC 4889, NGC 4874, and NGC 4839 have been singled out. We haveused the objective statistical criterion applied by Vennik and Anosovain studies of close groups of galaxies to evaluate each member includedin a subcluster with a high probability. Galaxies with a significantdeficit of hydrogen HI, including objects from the Bravo-Alfaro list,have been identified with members of the subclusters, with the greatestnumber of them in the subclusters around NGC 4874 and NGC 4839. Aquantitative estimate of the hydrogen deficit using the HI index in theRCG3 catalog reveals a statistically significant excess value for thosegalaxies that are members of the subclusters compared to galaxies with ahydrogen deficit in the overall Coma cluster field. A substantial numberof the spiral galaxies with a hydrogen deficit in the subclusters turnedout to be radio galaxies as well.
|The Extinction and Distance of Maffei 1|
We have obtained low- and high-resolution spectra of the core of thehighly reddened elliptical galaxy Maffei 1. From these data, we haveobtained the first measurement of the Mg2 index and havemeasured the velocity dispersion and radial velocity with improvedaccuracy. To evaluate the extinction, a correlation between theMg2 index and effective V-I color has been established forelliptical galaxies. Using a new method for correcting for effectivewavelength shifts, the V-I color excess reveals that the optical depthof Galactic dust at 1 μm is 1.69+/-0.07. Thus,AV=4.67+/-0.19 mag, which is lower by 0.4 mag than previouslythought. To establish the distance, the fundamental plane for ellipticalgalaxies has been constructed in I. The velocity dispersion of Maffei 1,measured to be 186.8+/-7.4 km s-1, in combination with modernwide-field photometry in I, leads to a distance of 2.92+/-0.37 Mpc. TheDn-σ relation, which is independently calibrated, gives3.08+/-0.85 and 3.23+/-0.67 Mpc from photometry in B and K',respectively. The weighted mean of the three estimates is 3.01+/-0.30Mpc, which is lower than distances judged with reference to M32 and thebulge of M31 from the brightest stars seen at K'. Since the luminosityof asymptotic giant branch stars at K' is strongly dependent on age, thelower distance suggests that the last epoch of star formation in Maffei1 occurred farther in the past than in these other systems. The distanceand luminosity make Maffei 1 the nearest giant elliptical galaxy. In theabsence of extinction, the galaxy would be among the brightest in thesky and would have an apparent size 2/3 that of the full Moon. Theradial velocity of Maffei 1 is +66.4+/-5.0 km s-1,significantly higher than the accepted value of -10 km s-1.The Hubble distance corresponding to the mean velocity of Maffei 1,Maffei 2, and IC 342 is 3.5 Mpc. Thus, it is unlikely that Maffei 1 hashad any influence on Local Group dynamics.
|1.65-μm (H -band) surface photometry of galaxies - VIII. The near-IR κ space at z =0|
We present the distribution of a statistical sample of nearby galaxiesin the κ -space (κ 1 ~logM , κ 2~logI e 3 M /L , κ 3 ~logM /L ).Our study is based on near-IR (H -band: λ =1.65μm)observations, for the first time comprising early- and late-typesystems. Our data confirm that the mean effective dynamicalmass-to-light ratio M /L of the E+S0+S0a galaxies increases withincreasing effective dynamical mass M , as expected from the existenceof the Fundamental Plane relation. Conversely, spiral and Im/BCDgalaxies show a broad distribution in M /L with no detected trend of M/L with M , the former galaxies having M /L values about twice largerthan the latter, on average. For all the late-type galaxies, the M /Lincreases with decreasing effective surface intensity I e ,consistent with the existence of the Tully-Fisher relation. Theseresults are discussed on the basis of the assumptions behind theconstruction of the κ -space and their limitations. Our study iscomplementary to a previous investigation in the optical (B -band:λ =0.44μm) and allows us to study wavelength dependences ofthe galaxy distribution in the κ -space. As a first result, wefind that the galaxy distribution in the κ 1 -κ2 plane reproduces the transition from bulgeless tobulge-dominated systems in galaxies of increasing dynamical mass.Conversely, it appears that the M /L of late-types is higher (lower)than that of early-types with the same M in the near-IR (optical). Theorigins of this behaviour are discussed in terms of dust attenuation andstar formation history.
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|A Photometric and Spectroscopic Study of Dwarf and Giant Galaxies in the Coma Cluster. II. Spectroscopic Observations|
This is the second paper in a series studying the photometric andspectroscopic properties of galaxies of different luminosities in theComa Cluster. We present the sample selection, spectroscopicobservations, and completeness functions. To study the spectralproperties of galaxies as a function of their local environment, twofields were selected for spectroscopic observations to cover both thecore (Coma 1) and outskirts (i.e., southwest of the core and centered onNGC 4839; Coma 3) of the cluster. To maximize the efficiency ofspectroscopic observations, two subsamples were defined, consisting of``bright'' and ``faint'' galaxies, both drawn from magnitude-limitedparent samples. Medium-resolution spectroscopy (6-9 Å) was thencarried out for a total of 490 galaxies in both fields (302 in Coma 1and 188 in Coma 3), using the WYFFOS multifiber spectrograph on theWilliam Herschel Telescope. The galaxies cover a range of 122. The completeness functions for our sampleare calculated. These show that the bright sample is 65% complete atR<17 mag, becoming increasingly incomplete toward fainter magnitudes,while the faint sample follows a monotonically decreasing completenessfunction at R>19 mag. Based on observations made with the WilliamHerschel Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the IsaacNewton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos ofthe Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.
|The First Hour of Extragalactic Data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectroscopic Commissioning: The Coma Cluster|
On 1999 May 26, one of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) fiber-fedspectrographs saw astronomical first light. This was followed by thefirst spectroscopic commissioning run during the dark period of 1999June. We present here the first hour of extragalactic spectroscopy takenduring these early commissioning stages: an observation of the Comacluster of galaxies. Our data samples the southern part of this cluster,out to a radius of 1.5d (1.8 h-1 Mpc, approximately to thevirial radius) and thus fully covers the NGC 4839 group. We outline inthis paper the main characteristics of the SDSS spectroscopic systemsand provide redshifts and spectral classifications for 196 Comagalaxies, of which 45 redshifts are new. For the 151 galaxies in commonwith the literature, we find excellent agreement between our redshiftdeterminations and the published values, e.g., for the largesthomogeneous sample of galaxies in common (63 galaxies observed byColless & Dunn) we find a mean offset of 3 km s -1 and anrms scatter of only 24 km s -1. As part of our analysis, wehave investigated four different spectral classification algorithms:measurements of the spectral line strengths, a principal componentdecomposition, a wavelet analysis and the fitting of spectral synthesismodels to the data. We find that these classification schemes are inbroad agreement and can provide physical insight into the evolutionaryhistories of our cluster galaxies. We find that a significant fraction(25%) of our observed Coma galaxies show signs of recent star formationactivity and that the velocity dispersion of these active galaxies(emission-line and poststarburst galaxies) is 30% larger than theabsorption-line galaxies. We also find no active galaxies within thecentral (projected) 200 h-1 kpc of the cluster. The spatialdistribution of our Coma active galaxies is consistent with that foundat higher redshift for the CNOC1 cluster survey. Beyond the core region,the fraction of bright active galaxies appears to rise slowly out to thevirial radius and are randomly distributed within the cluster with noapparent correlation with the potential merger or postmerger of the NGC4839 group. We briefly discuss possible origins of this recent galaxystar formation.
|1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. III. observations of 558 galaxies with the TIRGO 1.5 m telescope|
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm ) surface photometry of 558galaxies in the Coma Supercluster and in the Virgo cluster. This dataset, obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera ARNICA mounted on theGornergrat Infrared Telescope, is aimed at complementing, withobservations of mostly early-type objects, our NIR survey of spiralgalaxies in these regions, presented in previous papers of this series.Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii andlight concentration indices are derived. We confirm the existence of apositive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index andthe galaxy H-band luminosity Based on observations taken at TIRGO(Gornergrat, Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxies|
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) surface brightness profiledecomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies:Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma andA1367 in the ``Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg≤16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD,except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning fromisolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surfacebrightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), withan exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D).From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surfacebrightness (μe) and radius (re) of each component, theasymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration indexC31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Ellipticalgalaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is bestrepresented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pureexponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong functionof the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubbleclassification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositionsdecreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases withluminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 L\odot and become dominantabove 1011 L\odot . Based on observations taken atTIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The tilt of the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies: wavelength dependence|
The photometric parameters R_e and mu_e of 74 early-type (E+S0+S0a)galaxies within 2 deg projected radius from the Coma cluster centre arederived for the first time in the near-infrared H band (1.65 μm).These are used, coupled with measurements of the central velocitydispersion sigma found in the literature, to determine the H-bandFundamental Plane (FP) relation of this cluster: logR_e~Alogsigma+bmu_e. The same procedure is applied to previouslyavailable photometric data in the BVrIK bands, to perform amultiwavelength study of the FP relation. Because systematicuncertainties in the value of the FP parameters are introduced both bythe choice of the fitting algorithm used to derive the FP template, andby the presence of statistical biases connected with the sampleselection procedure, we emphasize the importance of deriving the FPparameters in the six different photometric bands using an identicalfitting algorithm, and appropriate corrections to eliminate the effectsof sample incompleteness. Once these corrections are applied, we findthat the FP b coefficient is stable with wavelength (~0.35+/-0.02),while the A coefficient increases significantly with increasingwavelength: from ~1.35 to ~1.70 (+/-0.1) from the optical to theinfrared, in agreement with an earlier result presented recently byPahre and Djorgovski. Therefore the slope of the FP relation, althoughchanging with wavelength, never approaches the virial theoremexpectation A=2.0 when the central velocity dispersion only is used tobuild the FP. We also find that the magnitude of the slope change can beentirely explained by the presence of the well-known relation betweencolour and magnitude among early-type galaxies. We conclude that thetilt of the Fundamental Plane is significant, and must be the result ofsome form of broken homology among early-type galaxies, while itswavelength dependence derives from whatever mechanism (currently thepreferred one is the existence of a mass-metal content sequence)produces the colour-magnitude relation in those galaxies.
|The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data|
We present central velocity dispersion measurements for 325 early-typegalaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies, including newobservations for 212 galaxies. The clusters and groups are the A262,A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer, and Pegasus Clusters and the NGC 383and NGC 507 Groups. The new measurements were derived frommedium-dispersion spectra that cover 600 Å centered on the Mg I btriplet at lambda ~ 5175 Å. Velocity dispersions were measuredusing the Tonry & Davis cross-correlation method, with a typicalaccuracy of 6%. A detailed comparison with other data sources is made.
|The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Sample Definition and I-Band Photometric Data|
As part of a project to compare the fundamental plane and Tully-Fisherdistance scales, we present here I-band CCD photometry for 636early-type galaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies. These arethe A262, A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer and Pegasus Clusters, andthe NGC 383 and NGC 507 Groups. Sample selection, cluster properties,and cluster membership assignment criteria are discussed. We presentphotometric parameters that are used in the fundamental plane relation,the effective radius r_e, and the effective surface brightness mu_e, asderived from a r^1/4 fit to the observed radial photometric profile ofeach galaxy. A comparison with similar data found in the literature forthe Coma Cluster shows that large systematic uncertainties can beintroduced in the measurement of r_e and mu_e by the particular methodused to derive those parameters. However, the particular combination ofthese two parameters that enters in the fundamental plane relation is aquantity that can be measured with high accuracy.
|The Star Formation Properties of Disk Galaxies: Hα Imaging of Galaxies in the Coma Supercluster|
We present integrated Hα measurements obtained from imagingobservations of 98 late-type galaxies, primarily selected in the Comasupercluster. These data, combined with Hα photometry from theliterature, include a magnitude-selected sample of spiral (Sa to Irr)galaxies belonging to the ``Great Wall'' complete up to m_p = 15.4, andthus composed of galaxies brighter than M_p = -18.8 (H_0 = 100 km s^-1Mpc^-1). The frequency distribution of the Hα equivalent width,determined for the first time from an optically complete sample, isapproximately Gaussian, peaking at EW ~ 25 Å. We find that, at thepresent limiting luminosity, the star formation properties of spiral +Irr galaxy members of the Coma and A1367 Clusters do not differsignificantly from those of the isolated ones belonging to the GreatWall. The present analysis confirms the well-known increase of thecurrent massive star formation rate (SFR) with Hubble type. Moreover,perhaps a more fundamental anticorrelation exists between the SFR andthe mass of disk galaxies: low-mass spirals and dwarf systems havepresent SFRs ~50 times higher than giant spirals. This result isconsistent with the idea that disk galaxies are coeval, evolving as``closed systems'' with exponentially declining SFR, and that the massof their progenitor protogalaxies is the principal parameter governingtheir evolution. Massive systems having high initial efficiency ofcollapse, or a short collapse timescale, have retained little gas tofeed the present epoch of star formation. These findings support theconclusions of Gavazzi & Scodeggio, who studied the color-massrelation of a local galaxy sample, and agree with the analysis by Cowieet al., who traced the star formation history of galaxies up to z >1. Based on observations made at the Observatorio AstronómicoNacional (OAN), San Pedro Mártir, B.C., of the UniversidadNacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).
|The Relative Distance Between the Clusters of Galaxies A2634 and Coma|
The Tully-Fisher (TF) and Fundamental Plane (FP) relations are used toobtain two independent estimates of the relative distance between theclusters A2634 and Coma. Previously published studies of A2634 showed alarge discrepancy between the distance estimates obtained with the TFand the \dns\ relations, questioning the reliability ofredshift-independent distances obtained using these relations. Becauseof the importance of this issue, we have obtained new distance estimatesfor A2634, based on much larger samples than previously used, andselected according to rigorous membership criteria. New I band CCDphotometry for 175 galaxies, new 21 cm observations of 11 galaxies, andnew velocity dispersion measurements for 62 galaxies are used togetherwith previously published data in building these samples. As part of alarger project to compare the TF and FP distance-scales, we haveobtained a new FP template using for the first time I band photometry.The template is derived using a sample of 109 E and S0 galaxies that aremembers of the Coma cluster. Its parameters are in very good agreementwith recent determinations of the FP obtained at shorter wavelengths.The uncertainty with which the FP can provide peculiar velocityestimates for single galaxies is =~ 0.43 mag in the distance modulus, or20% of the distance. This uncertainty is slightly larger than thetypical uncertainty that characterizes TF estimates. However thisdisadvantage is partly compensated by the fact that the sampleincompleteness bias has a less severe effect on FP cluster distanceestimates than it has on the corresponding TF distance estimates. Also,cluster membership is more readily established for early-type objectsthan for spirals. After the appropriate corrections for sampleincompleteness have been taken into account, we find the TF and FPdistance estimates to be in good agreement, both indicating that A2634has a negligibly small peculiar velocity with respect to the CosmicMicrowave Background reference frame. Because of the high accuracy withwhich the two distance estimates have been obtained, their agreementstrongly supports the universality of the TF and FP relations, andtherefore their reliability for the estimate of redshift-independentdistances.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Automated surface photometry for the Coma Cluster galaxies: The catalog|
A homogeneous photometry catalog is presented for 450 galaxies withB25.5 less than or equal to 16 mag located in the 9.8 deg x9.8 deg region centered on the Coma Cluster. The catalog is based onphotographic photometry using an automated surface photometry softwarefor data reduction applied to B-band Schmidt plates. The catalogprovides accurate positions, isophotal and total magnitudes, major andminor axes, and a few other photometric parameters including rudimentarymorphology (early of late type).
|A CCD survey of galaxies. III. Observations with the Loiano 1.5m telescope.|
Continuing a CCD survey of galaxies belonging or projected onto the Comaand Hercules Superclusters and to the A262, Virgo and Cancer clusters,we present isophote maps and photometric profiles in the Johnson systemof 127 galaxies (126 taken in the V, 28 of which also in the B band, oneonly in B). For the objects in common we compare our results with thosein the RC3.
|Groups of galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey|
By applying the Huchra and Geller (1982) objective group identificationalgorithm to the Center for Astrophysics' redshift survey, a catalog of128 groups with three or more members is extracted, and 92 of these areused as a statistical sample. A comparison of the distribution of groupcenters with the distribution of all galaxies in the survey indicatesqualitatively that groups trace the large-scale structure of the region.The physical properties of groups may be related to the details oflarge-scale structure, and it is concluded that differences among groupcatalogs may be due to the properties of large-scale structures andtheir location relative to the survey limits.
|Cross identification of 238 galaxies and use of a colour magnitude relation in the coma cluster|
A catalog of 238 galaxies is obtained by the cross identification ofdata from Kent and Gunn (1982), Godwin and Peach (1977) and Godwin etal. (1983). It contains the radial velocities, bvr magnitudes, colorindices, isophotal radii, and other characteristics of individualgalaxies. This leads to the definition of various samples of radialvelocities complete to various limiting magnitudes depending on radius.The use of a color magnitude relation is discussed to define a class of1340 objects likely to belong to the cluster from their photometry only.
|Taxonomical analysis of superclusters. II - The A1367/Coma supercluster|
The nonhierarchical taxonomical method has been applied to a sample of185 galaxies, complete to m not greater than 15, in the A1367/Comaregion. Once the fore- and background galaxies have been identified, theanalysis of the A1367 cluster shows it composed by two gravitationallybound clumps at essentially the same redshift, 6396 km/s and 6562 km/s,respectively. Central Coma is traced by three different groups whosegravitational binding does not appear clearly. However, accepting theunique dynamical entity of Central Coma, some other neighboring groupswould be part of the cluster. In that case, the average radial velocityand dispersion of the Coma cluster would be 7013 and 423 km/s,respectively. The M/L ratios for the groups evidenced by the taxonomyrange from 13 to 170. The missing mass problem only appears when all thegalaxies in the sample are considered as members of a unique dynamicalstructure. The relationship found in other systems between the redshift,the morphological type and the radioemissivity is also present in thesample.
|Radio continuum survey of the Coma/A1367 supercluster. III - Properties of galaxies in different density environments|
The analysis of a radio continuum survey of 724 galaxies in the ComaSupercluster region is reported. The analysis is based on the radioluminosity function (RLF) and on the distribution of the radio tooptical ratio function of galaxies in different regimes of local galaxydensity and of different morphological types. For low and moderateluminosities, the RLFs of E/SO galaxies in clusters, groups, andmultiple systems are found to be similar. Isolated galaxies are'radio-poor' by a factor of about five. Spirals in rich clusters have atypical luminosity about 10 times higher than galaxies outside clusters.The radio-bright cluster spirals are mostly late morphological types.High radio luminosity in cluster spirals correlates well with indicatorsof star formation and with H I deficiency. This suggests thatinteraction with the cluster medium leads to collapse of molecularclouds, star formation, generation of cosmic rays, and morphologicaldistortions.
|The Coma Cluster - Part One - a Catalogue of Magnitudes Colours Ellipticities and Position Angles for 6724 Galaxies in the Field of the Coma Cluster|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1983MNRAS.202..113G&db_key=AST
|The dynamics of rich clusters of galaxies. I - The Coma cluster|
Self-consistent analytical dynamical models are used to study theendpoint of cluster formation, concentrating on the Coma cluster.Particular attention is paid to the effects of anisotropy in thevelocity dispersion and variations in the energy-distribution functionon the cluster structure, the effect on the core structure of a massivecentral object, the dynamical consequences of morphological segregation,cosmological infall and the edge of a cluster, the distribution of darkmatter in a cluster, and the implications of X-ray observations for thedistribution of gravitating material in a cluster. Radial velocity datais displayed, and new and repeated redshifts are reported for a numberof galaxies in the central regions of the cluster. Cluster membership isdetermined and a velocity-dispersion profile is derived. A compositesurface-density profile is derived, and amazing examples are shown ofmodels with virtually identical surface-density profiles but otherwisecompletely different internal dynamics.
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