Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 4816



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

The Epochs of Early-Type Galaxy Formation as a Function of Environment
The aim of this paper is to set constraints on the epochs of early-typegalaxy formation through the ``archaeology'' of the stellar populationsin local galaxies. Using our models of absorption-line indices thataccount for variable abundance ratios, we derive ages, totalmetallicities, and element ratios of 124 early-type galaxies in high-and low-density environments. The data are analyzed by comparison withmock galaxy samples created through Monte Carlo simulations taking thetypical average observational errors into account, in order to eliminateartifacts caused by correlated errors. We find that all threeparameters, age, metallicity, and α/Fe ratio, are correlated withvelocity dispersion. We show that these results are robust againstrecent revisions of the local abundance pattern at high metallicities.To recover the observed scatter we need to assume an intrinsic scatterof about 20% in age, 0.08 dex in [Z/H], and 0.05 dex in [α/Fe].All low-mass objects withM*<~1010Msolar (σ<~130kms-1) show evidence for the presence of intermediate-agestellar populations with low α/Fe ratios. About 20% of theintermediate-mass objects with1010<~M*/Msolar<~1011[110<~σ/(kms-1)<~230 both elliptical andlenticular galaxies] must have either a young subpopulation or a bluehorizontal branch. On the basis of the above relationships, valid forthe bulk of the sample, we show that the Mg-σ relation is mainlydriven by metallicity, with similar contributions from the α/Feratio (23%) and age (17%). We further find evidence for an influence ofthe environment on the stellar population properties. Massive early-typegalaxies in low-density environments seem on average ~2 Gyr younger andslightly (~0.05-0.1 dex) more metal-rich than their counterparts inhigh-density environments. No offsets in the α/Fe ratios areinstead detected. With the aid of a simple chemical evolution model, wetranslate the derived ages and α/Fe ratios into star formationhistories. We show that most star formation activity in early-typegalaxies is expected to have happened between redshifts ~3 and 5 inhigh-density environments and between redshifts 1 and 2 in low-densityenvironments. We conclude that at least 50% of the total stellar massdensity must have already formed at z~1, in good agreement withobservational estimates of the total stellar mass density as a functionof redshift. Our results suggest that significant mass growth in theearly-type galaxy population below z~1 must be restricted to lessmassive objects, and a significant increase of the stellar mass densitybetween redshifts 1 and 2 should be present, caused mainly by the fieldgalaxy population. The results of this paper further imply the presenceof vigorous star formation episodes in massive objects at z~2-5 andevolved elliptical galaxies around z~1, both observationally identifiedas SCUBA galaxies and extremely red objects, respectively.

Study of the Structure of the Coma Cluster Based on a Hierarchical Force Clustering Method
Six subclusters in the Coma cluster have been selected on the basis of ahierarchical clustering method that takes the gravitational interactionamong galaxies into account. Of these, 3 central subclusters around thegalaxies NGC 4889, NGC 4874, and NGC 4839 have been singled out. We haveused the objective statistical criterion applied by Vennik and Anosovain studies of close groups of galaxies to evaluate each member includedin a subcluster with a high probability. Galaxies with a significantdeficit of hydrogen HI, including objects from the Bravo-Alfaro list,have been identified with members of the subclusters, with the greatestnumber of them in the subclusters around NGC 4874 and NGC 4839. Aquantitative estimate of the hydrogen deficit using the HI index in theRCG3 catalog reveals a statistically significant excess value for thosegalaxies that are members of the subclusters compared to galaxies with ahydrogen deficit in the overall Coma cluster field. A substantial numberof the spiral galaxies with a hydrogen deficit in the subclusters turnedout to be radio galaxies as well.

The build-up of the Coma cluster by infalling substructures
We present a new multiwavelength analysis of the Coma clustersubclustering based on recent X-ray data and on a compilation of nearly900 redshifts. We characterize subclustering using the Serna &Gerbal (1996, A&A, 309, 65) hierarchical method, which makes use ofgalaxy positions, redshifts, and magnitudes, and identify 17 groups. Oneof these groups corresponds to the main cluster, one is the well knowngroup associated with the infalling galaxy NGC 4839, and one isassociated with NGC 4911/NGC 4926. About one third of the 17 groups havevelocity distributions centered on the velocities of the very brightcluster galaxies they contain (magnitudes R < 13). In order to searchfor additional substructures, we made use of the isophotes of X-raybrightness residuals left after the subtraction of the best-fitβ-model from the overall X-ray gas distribution (Neumann et al.2003, A&A, 400, 811). We selected galaxies within each of theseisophotes and compared their velocity distributions with that of thewhole cluster. We confirm in this way the two groups associated,respectively, with NGC 4839, and with the southern part of the extendedwestern substructure visible in X-rays. We discuss the group propertiesin the context of a scenario in which Coma is built by the accretion ofgroups infalling from the surrounding large-scale structure. We estimatethe recent mass accretion rate of Coma and compare it with hierarchicalmodels of cluster evolution.

A dichotomy in the orientation of dust and radio jets in nearby low-power radio galaxies
We examine the properties of central dust in nearby quiescent and activeearly-type galaxies. The active galaxies are low-power radio galaxieswith Fanaroff & Riley type I or I/II radio jets. We focus on (a) thecomparison of the dust distributions in the active and quiescent galaxysamples; and (b) the relation between the radio jet and dustorientations. Our main observational conclusions are: (i) in line withprevious studies, the dust detection rate is higher in radio-jetgalaxies than in non radio-jet galaxies; (ii) radio galaxies contain ahigher fraction of regular dust “ellipses” compared toquiescent galaxies which contain more often irregular dustdistributions; (iii) the morphology, size and orientation of dustellipses and lanes in quiescent early-types and active early-types withkpc-scale radio jets is very similar; (iv) dust ellipses are alignedwith the major axis of the galaxy, dust lanes do not show a preferredalignment except for large (>kpc) dust lanes which are aligned withthe minor axis of the galaxy; and (v) as projected on the sky, jets donot show a preferred orientation relative to the galaxy major axis (andhence dust ellipses), but jets are preferentially perpendicular to dustlanes. We show that the dust ellipses are consistent with being nearlycircular thin disks viewed at random viewing angles. The lanes arelikely warped dust structures, which may be in the process of settlingdown to become regular disks or are being perturbed by anon-gravitational force. We use the observed dust-jet orientations toconstrain the three-dimensional angle θDJ between jetand dust. For dust-lane galaxies, the jet is approximately perpendicularto the dust structure, while for dust-ellipse galaxies there is a muchwider distribution of θDJ. We discuss two scenariosthat could explain the dust/jet/galaxy orientation dichotomy. If lanesare indeed settling, then the jet orientation apparently is roughlyaligned with the angular momentum of the dust before it settles. Iflanes are perturbed by a jet-related force, it appears that it causesthe dust to move out of its equilibrium plane in the galaxy into a planewhich is perpendicular to the jet.

Nuclear stellar discs in low-luminosity elliptical galaxies: NGC 4458 and 4478
We present the detection of nuclear stellar discs in the low-luminosityelliptical galaxies, NGC 4458 and 4478, which are known to host akinematically decoupled core. Using archival Hubble Space Telescopeimaging, and available absorption line-strength index data based onground-based spectroscopy, we investigate the photometric parameters andthe properties of the stellar populations of these central structures.Their scalelength, h, and face-on central surface brightness,μc0, fit on the μc0-hrelation for galaxy discs. For NGC 4458, these parameters are typicalfor nuclear discs, while the same quantities for NGC 4478 lie betweenthose of nuclear discs and the discs of discy ellipticals. We presentLick/Image Dissector Scanner (IDS) absorption line-strength measurementsof Hβ, Mgb and along the major and minor axes of thegalaxies. We model these data with simple stellar populations thataccount for the α/Fe overabundance. The counter-rotating centraldisc of NGC 4458 is found to have similar properties to the decoupledcores of bright ellipticals. This galaxy has been found to be uniformlyold despite being counter-rotating. In contrast, the cold central discof NGC 4478 is younger, richer in metals and less overabundant than themain body of the galaxy. This points to a prolonged star formationhistory, typical of an undisturbed disc-like, gas-rich (possiblypre-enriched) structure.

Intergalactic Globular Clusters and the Faint End of the Galaxy Number Counts in A1656 (Coma)
The existence of an intergalactic globular cluster population in theComa cluster of galaxies has been tested using surface brightnessfluctuations. The main result is that the intergalactic globular clustersurface density (NIGC) does not correlate with the distanceto the center of Coma and hence with the environment. Furthermore,comparing these results with different Coma mass distribution modelpredictions, it is suggested that NIGC must in fact be zeroall over Coma. On the other hand, the results for NIGC andthe faint end of the galaxy number counts (beyond mR=23.5)are connected. So NIGC=0 settles the slope of this function,which turns out to be γ=0.36+/-0.01 down to mR=26.5.The fact that NIGC=0 all over Coma suggests that globularclusters were formed only, or almost only, from protogalactic clouds.None, or perhaps very few, could have formed in isolated regions. Italso seems inappropriate to advocate a relationship betweenintergalactic globular clusters and dark matter distributions, althoughit is true that the relationship could still exist but not be strongenough to have been detected. Finally, since our conclusion is thatintergalactic globular clusters do not exist in Coma, accretion ofintergalactic globular clusters might not be significant in galaxyformation and evolutionary processes in the Coma galaxies.

Spatially resolved spectroscopy of Coma cluster early-type galaxies. III. The stellar population gradients
Based on Paper I of this series (Mehlert et al. \cite{Mehlert00}), wederive central values and logarithmic gradients for the Hβ, Mg andFe indices of 35 early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster. We find thatpure elliptical galaxies have on average slightly higher velocitydispersions, lower Hβ, and higher metallic line-strengths thangalaxies with disks (S0). The latter form two families, one comparableto the ellipticals and a second one with significantly higher Hβ,and weaker metallic lines. Our measured logarithmic gradients within theeffective radius are ~ -0.037, ~ -0.029, ~ +0.017 and ~ -0.063. The gradients strongly correlate with the gradientsof sigma , but only weakly with the central index values and galaxyvelocity dispersion. Using stellar population models with variableelement abundance ratios from Thomas et al. (\cite{Thomas03a}) we deriveaverage ages, metallicities and [α/Fe] ratios in the center and atthe effective radius. We find that the α/Fe ratio correlates withvelocity dispersion and drives 30% of the Mg-sigma relation, theremaining 70% being caused by metallicity variations. We confirmprevious findings that part of the lenticular galaxies in the Comacluster host very young ( ~ 2 Gyr) stellar populations, hence must haveexperienced relatively recent star formation episodes. Again inaccordance with previous work we derive negative metallicity gradients (~ -0.16 dex per decade) that are significantly flatter than what isexpected from gaseous monolithic collapse models, pointing to theimportance of mergers in the galaxy formation history. Moreover, themetallicity gradients correlate with the velocity dispersion gradients,confirming empirically earlier suggestions that the metallicity gradientin ellipticals is produced by the local potential well. The gradients inage are negligible, implying that no significant residual star formationhas occurred either in the center or in the outer parts of the galaxies,and that the stellar populations at different radii must have formed ata common epoch. For the first time we derive the gradients of theα/Fe ratio and find them very small on average. Hence, α/Feenhancement is not restricted to galaxy centers but it is a globalphenomenon. Our results imply that the Mg-sigma local relation inside agalaxy, unlike the global Mg-sigma relation, must be primarily drivenby metallicity variations alone. Finally we note that none of thestellar population parameters or their gradients depend on the densityprofile of the Coma cluster, even though it spans 3 dex in density.Appendix A (Tables A.1-A.3) is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

1.65-μm (H -band) surface photometry of galaxies - VIII. The near-IR κ space at z =0
We present the distribution of a statistical sample of nearby galaxiesin the κ -space (κ 1 ~logM , κ 2~logI e 3 M /L , κ 3 ~logM /L ).Our study is based on near-IR (H -band: λ =1.65μm)observations, for the first time comprising early- and late-typesystems. Our data confirm that the mean effective dynamicalmass-to-light ratio M /L of the E+S0+S0a galaxies increases withincreasing effective dynamical mass M , as expected from the existenceof the Fundamental Plane relation. Conversely, spiral and Im/BCDgalaxies show a broad distribution in M /L with no detected trend of M/L with M , the former galaxies having M /L values about twice largerthan the latter, on average. For all the late-type galaxies, the M /Lincreases with decreasing effective surface intensity I e ,consistent with the existence of the Tully-Fisher relation. Theseresults are discussed on the basis of the assumptions behind theconstruction of the κ -space and their limitations. Our study iscomplementary to a previous investigation in the optical (B -band:λ =0.44μm) and allows us to study wavelength dependences ofthe galaxy distribution in the κ -space. As a first result, wefind that the galaxy distribution in the κ 1 -κ2 plane reproduces the transition from bulgeless tobulge-dominated systems in galaxies of increasing dynamical mass.Conversely, it appears that the M /L of late-types is higher (lower)than that of early-types with the same M in the near-IR (optical). Theorigins of this behaviour are discussed in terms of dust attenuation andstar formation history.

New clues to the evolution of dwarf early-type galaxies
Surface photometry of 18 Virgo cluster dwarf elliptical (dE) and dwarflenticular (dS0) galaxies, made by Gavazzi et al. in the H band(1.65μm) and in the B band (0.44μm), shows that the ratio of theeffective radii of these stellar systems in the B and H bands, r eB /r eH , ranges between 0.7 and 2.2. In particular,dwarf ellipticals and lenticulars with a red total colour index B -H(i.e. with 3.2

A catalogue and analysis of local galaxy ages and metallicities
We have assembled a catalogue of relative ages, metallicities andabundance ratios for about 150 local galaxies in field, group andcluster environments. The galaxies span morphological types from cD andellipticals, to late-type spirals. Ages and metallicities were estimatedfrom high-quality published spectral line indices using Worthey &Ottaviani (1997) single stellar population evolutionary models. Theidentification of galaxy age as a fourth parameter in the fundamentalplane (Forbes, Ponman & Brown 1998) is confirmed by our largersample of ages. We investigate trends between age and metallicity, andwith other physical parameters of the galaxies, such as ellipticity,luminosity and kinematic anisotropy. We demonstrate the existence of agalaxy age-metallicity relation similar to that seen for local galacticdisc stars, whereby young galaxies have high metallicity, while oldgalaxies span a large range in metallicities. We also investigate theinfluence of environment and morphology on the galaxy age andmetallicity, especially the predictions made by semi-analytichierarchical clustering models (HCM). We confirm that non-clusterellipticals are indeed younger on average than cluster ellipticals aspredicted by the HCM models. However we also find a trend for the moreluminous galaxies to have a higher [Mg/Fe] ratio than the lowerluminosity galaxies, which is opposite to the expectation from HCMmodels.

Globular Cluster Specific Frequencies in Coma
Globular cluster systems (GCSs) have been observed in 17 ellipticalgalaxies located in Coma. Surface brightness fluctuations (SBF) and a2.5-m ground-based telescope (INT, La Palma) have been used to determinetotal populations of Globular clusters (GCs) and specific frequency(SN) has been evaluated for each individual galaxy.

Globular Cluster Systems in Elliptical Galaxies of Coma
Globular cluster systems of 17 elliptical galaxies have been studied inthe Coma Cluster of galaxies. Surface-brightness fluctuations have beenused to determine total populations of globular clusters, and specificfrequency (SN) has been evaluated for each individual galaxy.Enormous differences in SN between similar galaxies arefound. In particular, SN results vary by an order ofmagnitude from galaxy to galaxy. Extreme cases are the following: (1) atthe lower end of the range, NGC 4673 has SN=1.0+/-0.4, asurprising value for an elliptical galaxy, but typical for spiral andirregular galaxies; (2) at the upper extreme, MCG +5-31-063 hasSN=13.0+/-4.2 and IC 4051 has SN=12.7+/-3.2, andthey are more likely to belong to supergiant cD galaxies than to``normal'' elliptical galaxies. Furthermore, NGC 4874, the centralsupergiant cD galaxy of the Coma Cluster, also exhibits a relativelyhigh specific frequency (SN=9.0+/-2.2). The other galaxiesstudied have SN in the range [2, 7], the mean value beingSN=5.1. No single scenario seems to account for the observedspecific frequencies, so the history of each galaxy must be deducedindividually by suitably combining the different models (in situ,mergers, and accretions). The possibility that Coma is formed by severalsubgroups is also considered. If only the galaxies of the main subgroupdefined by Gurzadyan & Mazure are used, a trend in SNarises in the sense of SN being bigger in higher-densityregions. This result needs further confirmation.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The ENEARc Cluster Sample
This paper presents data on the ENEARc subsample of the larger ENEARsurvey of nearby early-type galaxies. The ENEARc galaxies belong toclusters and were specifically chosen to be used for the construction ofa Dn-σ template. The ENEARc sample includes newmeasurements of spectroscopic and photometric parameters (redshift,velocity dispersion, line index Mg2, and the angular diameterdn), as well as data from the literature. New spectroscopicdata are given for 229 cluster early-type galaxies, and new photometryis presented for 348 objects. Repeat and overlap observations withexternal data sets are used to construct a final merged catalogconsisting of 640 early-type galaxies in 28 clusters. Objectivecriteria, based on catalogs of groups of galaxies derived from completeredshift surveys of the nearby universe, are used to assign galaxies toclusters. In a companion paper, these data are used to construct thetemplate Dn-σ distance relation for early-typegalaxies, which has been used to estimate galaxy distances and derivepeculiar velocities for the ENEAR all-sky sample. Based on observationsat Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement betweenthe Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory,National Optical Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (ESO), partially under the ESO-ON agreement; theFred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Observatório do Pico dosDias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísicaand the MDM Observatory at Kitt Peak.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

The far-ultraviolet emission of early-type galaxies
We have assembled a UV-flux selected sample of 82 early-type galaxiesand collected additional information at other wavelengths. These dataconfirm a large spread of the UV-V color in the range 2 to 5. The spreadin UV-V is accompanied by a spread in B-V that is mainly attributed tothe range of morphological types and luminosities. A large fraction ofthe objects have red colors, UV-V = 4 +/- 0.4, corresponding to a weakUV-upturn as observed with IUE. If the current interpretation for the UVemission from early-type galaxies is applicable to our sample, the PAGB(Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch) tracks are the most common evolution pathfor the low-mass stars responsible for the UV emission. A small numberof very blue (UV-V < 1.4) objects have been found that can bereasonably interpreted as harbouring some low level of star formation.In contrast to a previous sample based on IUE observations, nocorrelation is found between the UV-V color and the Mg2spectral line index; possible explanations are reviewed. The potentialof a more extended UV survey like GALEX is briefly presented.

The First Hour of Extragalactic Data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectroscopic Commissioning: The Coma Cluster
On 1999 May 26, one of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) fiber-fedspectrographs saw astronomical first light. This was followed by thefirst spectroscopic commissioning run during the dark period of 1999June. We present here the first hour of extragalactic spectroscopy takenduring these early commissioning stages: an observation of the Comacluster of galaxies. Our data samples the southern part of this cluster,out to a radius of 1.5d (1.8 h-1 Mpc, approximately to thevirial radius) and thus fully covers the NGC 4839 group. We outline inthis paper the main characteristics of the SDSS spectroscopic systemsand provide redshifts and spectral classifications for 196 Comagalaxies, of which 45 redshifts are new. For the 151 galaxies in commonwith the literature, we find excellent agreement between our redshiftdeterminations and the published values, e.g., for the largesthomogeneous sample of galaxies in common (63 galaxies observed byColless & Dunn) we find a mean offset of 3 km s -1 and anrms scatter of only 24 km s -1. As part of our analysis, wehave investigated four different spectral classification algorithms:measurements of the spectral line strengths, a principal componentdecomposition, a wavelet analysis and the fitting of spectral synthesismodels to the data. We find that these classification schemes are inbroad agreement and can provide physical insight into the evolutionaryhistories of our cluster galaxies. We find that a significant fraction(25%) of our observed Coma galaxies show signs of recent star formationactivity and that the velocity dispersion of these active galaxies(emission-line and poststarburst galaxies) is 30% larger than theabsorption-line galaxies. We also find no active galaxies within thecentral (projected) 200 h-1 kpc of the cluster. The spatialdistribution of our Coma active galaxies is consistent with that foundat higher redshift for the CNOC1 cluster survey. Beyond the core region,the fraction of bright active galaxies appears to rise slowly out to thevirial radius and are randomly distributed within the cluster with noapparent correlation with the potential merger or postmerger of the NGC4839 group. We briefly discuss possible origins of this recent galaxystar formation.

The gas content of peculiar galaxies: Counterrotators and polar rings
This paper studies the global ISM content in a sample of 104 accretinggalaxies, including counterrotators and polar rings, which spans theentire Hubble sequence. The molecular, atomic and hot gas content ofaccretors is compared to a newly compiled sample of normal galaxies. Wepresent results of a small survey of the J=1-0 line of 12COwith the 15 m SEST telescope on a sample of 11 accretors (10counterrotators and 1 polar ring). The SEST sample is enlarged withpublished data from 48 galaxies, for which observational evidence ofcounterrotation in the gas and/or the stars has been found. Furthermore,the available data on a sample of 46 polar ring galaxies has beencompiled. In order to explore the existence of an evolutionary pathlinking the two families of accretors, the gas content ofcounterrotators and polar rings is compared. It was found that thenormalized content of cold gas (Mgas/LB) in polarrings is ~ 1 order of magnitude higher than the reference value derivedfor normal galaxies. The inferred gas masses are sufficient to stabilizepolar rings through self-gravity. In contrast, it was found that thecold gas content of counterrotators is close to normal for all galaxytypes. Although counterrotators and polar rings probably share a commonorigin, the gas masses estimated here confirm that light gas ringsaccreted by future counterrotators may have evolved faster than theself-gravitating structures of polar rings. In this scenario, thetransformation of atomic into molecular gas could be enhanced near thetransition region between the prograde and the retrograde disks,especially in late-type accretors characterized by a high content ofprimordial gas. This is tentatively confirmed in this work: the measuredH2/HI ratio seems larger in counterrotators than in normal orpolar ring galaxies for types later than S0s. Based on observationscollected at SEST telescope, European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile. Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The visible environment of galaxies with counterrotation
In this paper we present a statistical study of the environments of 49galaxies in which there is gas- or stellar-counterrotation. The numberof possible companions in the field (to apparent magnitude 22), theirsize and concentration were considered. All the statistical parameterswere analysed by means of Kolgomorov-Smirnov tests, using a controlsample of 43 galaxies without counterrotation. From our data, nosignificant differences between the counter-rotating and control samplesappear. This is different to Seyfert or radio-loud galaxies which lie inenvironments with a higher density of companions. On the contrary, if aweak tendency exists, for galaxies with gas counterrotation only, it isdiscovered in regions of space where the large scale density of galaxiesis smaller. Our results tend to disprove the hypothesis thatcounterrotation and polar rings derive from a recent interaction with asmall satellite or a galaxy of similar size. To a first approximation,they seem to follow the idea that all galaxies are born through a mergerprocess of smaller objects occurring very early in their life, or thatthey derive from a continuous, non-traumatic infall of gas that formedstars later. Whatever the special machinery is which producescounterrotation or polar rings instead of a co-planar, co-rotatingdistribution of gas and stars, it seems not to be connected to thepresent galaxy density of their environments.

Spectroscopic constraints on the stellar population of elliptical galaxies in the Coma cluster
Near-infrared spectra for a sample of 31 elliptical galaxies in the Comacluster are obtained. The galaxies are selected to be ellipticals (nolenticulars), with a large spatial distribution, covering both the coreand outskirts of the cluster (i.e. corresponding to regions with largedensity contrasts). COsp (2.3-μm) absorption indices,measuring the contribution from intermediate-age red giant andsupergiant stars to the near-infrared light of the ellipticals, are thenestimated. It is found that the strength of COsp features inelliptical galaxies increases from the core (r<0.2°) to theoutskirts (r>0.2°) of the Coma cluster. Using the Mg2strengths, it is shown that the observed effect is not caused bymetallicity and is mostly caused by the presence of a younger population(giant and supergiant stars) in ellipticals in the outskirts(low-density region) of the cluster. Using the COsp features,the origin of the scatter on the near-infrared Fundamental Plane (therelation between the effective diameter, effective surface brightnessand velocity dispersion) of elliptical galaxies is studied. Correctingthis relation for contributions from the red giant and supergiant stars,the rms scatter reduces from 0.077 to 0.073dex. Although measurable, thecontribution from these intermediate-age stars to the scatter on thenear-infrared Fundamental Plane of ellipticals is only marginal. Arelation is found between the COsp and V-K colours ofellipticals, corresponding to a slope of 0.036+/-0.016, significantlyshallower than that from the Mg2-(V-K) relation. This isstudied using stellar synthesis models.

Luminosity versus Phase-Space-Density Relation of Galaxies Revisited
We reexamined the correlation between the BTmagnitude and the phase-space-density parameterw=(D225vc)-1 of galaxies forthe Virgo, the Coma, the Fornax, and the Perseus clusters in an effortto better understand the physical underpinning of the fundamental plane.A tight correlation (BT=alog w+b) common to differentmorphological types of galaxies (E, S0, S) was found for the Virgo andthe Coma clusters, with a=1.87+/-0.10 and 1.33+/-0.11, respectively. Aninvestigation using only E galaxies was made for the four clusters. Theresults indicated that the empirical linear relation might be commonamong the Coma, the Fornax, and the Perseus clusters, with the VirgoCluster showing deviation. This relation, which is another way toproject the fundamental plane, has an expression insensitive to themorphology and may be suitable for treating galaxies of differentmorphological types collectively.

Young Stellar Nuclei in the Lenticular Galaxies. II. NGC 7280
We have undertaken bidimensional spectroscopy of the central part of thenearby lenticular galaxy NGC 7280 with the Multi-Pupil FiberSpectrograph of the 6 m telescope of the Special AstrophysicalObservatory. We find a rather young stellar nucleus, with a meanpopulation age of 1.5+/-0.5 Gyr, which is more metal-rich than the bulgeat R~1 kpc by an order of magnitude. The chemically and age-decouplednucleus seems to be spatially resolved: the circumnuclear absorptionindex isolines represent ellipses elongated inP.A.~100deg-110deg. The same orientation,P.A.=103deg, is found for the elongated circumnuclear stellarstructure, revealed from the morphological analysis of the Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST) WFPC2 and NICMOS images of NGC 7280 and seen best of allat R=1''. Taking into account the stellar kinematics insideR~2'', we conclude that this structure is a circumnuclearstellar disk inclined with respect to the global plane of the galaxy.Meanwhile, both photometric and kinematical data in the radius range2"-8" imply the existence of an intermediate-scale bar elongated inP.A.~60deg. The circumnuclear ionized gas is distributed androtates in the plane orthogonal to the plane of the circumnuclearstellar disk.

1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. III. observations of 558 galaxies with the TIRGO 1.5 m telescope
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm ) surface photometry of 558galaxies in the Coma Supercluster and in the Virgo cluster. This dataset, obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera ARNICA mounted on theGornergrat Infrared Telescope, is aimed at complementing, withobservations of mostly early-type objects, our NIR survey of spiralgalaxies in these regions, presented in previous papers of this series.Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii andlight concentration indices are derived. We confirm the existence of apositive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index andthe galaxy H-band luminosity Based on observations taken at TIRGO(Gornergrat, Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Spatially resolved spectroscopy of Coma cluster early-type galaxies. I. The database
We present long slit spectra for a magnitude limited sample of 35 E andS0 galaxies of the Coma cluster. The high quality of the data allowed usto derive spatially resolved spectra for a substantial sample of Comagalaxies for the first time. From these spectra we obtained rotationcurves, the velocity dispersion profiles and the H_3 and H_4coefficients of the Hermite decomposition of the line of sight velocitydistribution. Moreover, we derive the radial line index profiles of Mg,Fe and Hβ line indices out to R~ 1 r_e - 3 r_e with highsignal-to-noise ratio. We describe the galaxy sample, the observationsand data reduction, and present the spectroscopic database. Ground-basedphotometry for a subsample of 8 galaxies is also presented. The Comacluster is one of the richest known clusters of galaxies, spanning about4 decades in density. Hence it is the ideal place to study the structureof galaxies as a function of environmental density in order to constrainthe theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Based on thespectroscopic database presented, we will discuss these issues in aseries of future papers. Tables 1 and 4 are also available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Tables 5 to 82 are onlyavailable in electronic form at CDS.

1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxies
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) surface brightness profiledecomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies:Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma andA1367 in the ``Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg≤16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD,except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning fromisolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surfacebrightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), withan exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D).From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surfacebrightness (μe) and radius (re) of each component, theasymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration indexC31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Ellipticalgalaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is bestrepresented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pureexponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong functionof the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubbleclassification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositionsdecreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases withluminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 L\odot and become dominantabove 1011 L\odot . Based on observations taken atTIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

On the relationship between age and dynamics in elliptical galaxies
Galaxy age estimates (mostly from spectroscopy of the central regions)are now available for many early-type galaxies. In a previous paper weshowed that the offset of galaxies from the fundamental plane depends ongalaxy age. Here, using the same sample of 88 galaxies, we examine thescatter about the Faber-Jackson (FJ) relation, and find that theposition of a galaxy relative to this relation depends on its age. Inparticular, younger ellipticals are systematically brighter inMB and/or have a lower central velocitydispersion (σ0). The mean relation corresponds togalaxies that are ~10Gyr old. We attempt to reproduce the observed trendof the FJ residuals with age using two simple models. The first assumesthat galaxy age is tracing the last major star formation event in anelliptical galaxy. We assume that this starburst was instantaneous,centrally located and involved 10per cent of the galaxy by mass. Thefading of this burst changes the MBcomponent of the FJ residuals, with time. Such a model was verysuccessful at reproducing the B-V and Mg2 evolution reportedin our previous paper, but is unable to reproduce the strength of the FJtrend. A second model is required to describe age-correlated changes ingalaxy dynamics. Following expectations from cosmological simulations,we assume that σ0, for a galaxy of a given mass, scaleswith the epoch of galaxy formation, i.e. with the mean density of theUniverse. Hence recently formed ellipticals have systematically lowervelocity dispersions than do old ellipticals. We find that a combinationof these two models provides a good match to the change in FJ residualswith galaxy age. This suggests that young ellipticals will have subtlydifferent dynamical properties from old ellipticals. We also find thatthere is not a strong relationship between the age of a galaxy and itsluminosity for our sample. This suggests that the tilt of thefundamental plane is not totally driven by age.

The near-infrared Fundamental Plane of elliptical galaxies
Near-infrared (2.2 μm) observations of a sample of 48 ellipticalgalaxies in the Coma cluster have been carried out and used to study thenear-infrared Fundamental Plane (FP) of ellipticals in this cluster. Anrms scatter of 0.072 dex is found for this relation, similar to that ofits optical counterpart, using the same sample of galaxies. Thiscorresponds to an uncertainty of 18 per cent in distances to individualgalaxies derived from this relation. The sensitivity of thenear-infrared FP to the star formation or changes in metallicity andstellar population among the ellipticals is explored and found to besmall, although a likely source of scatter in this relation iscontributions from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) population to thenear-infrared light. Allowing for observational uncertainties, we findan intrinsic scatter of 0.060 dex in the near-infrared FP. The clustergalaxies presented here provide the zero-point for the peculiar velocitystudies, using the near-infrared FP. Changes in the slopes of theD-sigma and L-sigma relations of ellipticals between the optical andnear-infrared wavelengths are investigated and found to be due tovariations in metallicity or age (or a combination of them). However, itis not possible to disentangle the effects of age and metallicity inthese relations. We find M/L~M^alpha with alpha=0.18+/-0.01 in thenear-infrared and alpha=0.23+/-0.01 at optical wavelengths, using thesame sample of galaxies. This relation is interpreted as being due to amass-metallicity effect or changes in age or the initial mass functionslope with mass. Using evolutionary population synthesis models, we findthat the effects of age and metallicity decouple in the (M/L)_K versusMg_2 and (M/L)_K versus (V-K) diagrams. The models suggest that theobserved trends in these relations may be due to an age sequence, whilemetallicity mainly contributes to the scatter.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Young Stellar Nuclei in the Lenticular Galaxies. I. NGC 1023 and NGC 7332
As a result of bidimensional spectroscopy of the central parts of twonearby lenticular galaxies, NGC 1023 and NGC 7332, undertaken with theMulti-Pupil Field Spectrograph of the 6 m telescope of the SpecialAstrophysical Observatory, their chemically decoupled stellar nuclei arefound to be substantially younger than the surrounding bulges: the meanage of the nuclear stellar populations is 7 Gyr in NGC 1023 and2.5+/-0.5 Gyr in NGC 7332. The morphological analysis undertaken bySeifert & Scorza for NGC 7332 and by us for NGC 1023 has revealed aexistence of separate circumnuclear stellar disks with the radius of 80pc in NGC 1023 and of 400 pc in NGC 7332; probably, the intermediate-agestellar populations are related to these structures.

The tilt of the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies: wavelength dependence
The photometric parameters R_e and mu_e of 74 early-type (E+S0+S0a)galaxies within 2 deg projected radius from the Coma cluster centre arederived for the first time in the near-infrared H band (1.65 μm).These are used, coupled with measurements of the central velocitydispersion sigma found in the literature, to determine the H-bandFundamental Plane (FP) relation of this cluster: logR_e~Alogsigma+bmu_e. The same procedure is applied to previouslyavailable photometric data in the BVrIK bands, to perform amultiwavelength study of the FP relation. Because systematicuncertainties in the value of the FP parameters are introduced both bythe choice of the fitting algorithm used to derive the FP template, andby the presence of statistical biases connected with the sampleselection procedure, we emphasize the importance of deriving the FPparameters in the six different photometric bands using an identicalfitting algorithm, and appropriate corrections to eliminate the effectsof sample incompleteness. Once these corrections are applied, we findthat the FP b coefficient is stable with wavelength (~0.35+/-0.02),while the A coefficient increases significantly with increasingwavelength: from ~1.35 to ~1.70 (+/-0.1) from the optical to theinfrared, in agreement with an earlier result presented recently byPahre and Djorgovski. Therefore the slope of the FP relation, althoughchanging with wavelength, never approaches the virial theoremexpectation A=2.0 when the central velocity dispersion only is used tobuild the FP. We also find that the magnitude of the slope change can beentirely explained by the presence of the well-known relation betweencolour and magnitude among early-type galaxies. We conclude that thetilt of the Fundamental Plane is significant, and must be the result ofsome form of broken homology among early-type galaxies, while itswavelength dependence derives from whatever mechanism (currently thepreferred one is the existence of a mass-metal content sequence)produces the colour-magnitude relation in those galaxies.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Coma Berenices
Right ascension:12h56m12.00s
Aparent dimensions:1.38′ × 0.708′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 4816

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR