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|Small-Scale Systems of Galaxies. I. Photometric and Spectroscopic Properties of Members|
This paper is the first of a series addressed to the investigation ofgalaxy formation/evolution in small-scale systems of galaxies (SSSGs),which are located in low-density cosmic environments. Our algorithm forSSSG selection includes galaxy systems of two or more galaxies lyingwithin Δcz<=1000 km s-1 and a 200h-1100 kpc radius volume. We present the analysisof the photometric and spectroscopic properties of 19 member galaxiesbelonging to a sample of 11 SSSGs. In the μe-replane early-type members may be considered ``ordinary,'' rather than``bright,'' galaxies, with a significant fraction of galaxies having adisk or disky isophotes. We do not detect fine structure or signaturesof recent interaction events in the early-type galaxy population, apicture also confirmed by the spectroscopy. At odds with these findingsare several spiral members with open arm configurations, as expected ininteracting systems. At the same time, emission lines in the spectra ofspiral members fall in the H II regions regime. None of the objectsdisplays unambiguous indications of nuclear activity, although fourspiral nuclei could be ascribed to the class of Seyferts. The starformation rate seems enhanced over the average expected in spiralgalaxies only for poorer SSSGs in particular pairs (<=50Msolar yr-1) but without being in the range ofstarburst systems.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile (program No. 57.B-036).
|Galaxy interactions - poor starburst triggers. III. A study of a complete sample of interacting galaxies|
We report on a study of tidally triggered star formation in galaxiesbased on spectroscopic/photometric observations in the optical/near-IRof a magnitude limited sample of 59 systems of interacting and merginggalaxies and a comparison sample of 38 normal isolated galaxies. From astatistical point of view the sample gives us a unique opportunity totrace the effects of tidally induced star formation. In contrast toresults from previous investigations, our global UBV colours do notsupport a significant enhancement of starforming activity in theinteracting/merging galaxies. We also show that, contrary to previousclaims, there is no significantly increased scatter in the colours ofArp galaxies as compared to normal galaxies. We do find support formoderate (a factor of ~ 2-3) increase in star formation in the verycentres of the interacting galaxies of our sample, contributingmarginally to the total luminosity. The interacting and in particularthe merging galaxies are characterized by increased far infrared(hereafter FIR) luminosities and temperatures that weakly correlate withthe central activity. The LFIR/LB ratio however,is remarkably similar in the two samples, indicating that truestarbursts normally are not hiding in the central regions of the FIRluminous cases. The gas mass-to-luminosity ratio in optical-IR ispractically independent of luminosity, lending further support to thepaucity of true massive starburst galaxies triggered byinteractions/mergers. We estimate the frequency of such cases to be ofthe order of ~ 0.1% of the galaxies in an apparent magnitude limitedsample. Our conclusion is that interacting and merging galaxies, fromthe global star formation aspect, generally do not differ dramaticallyfrom scaled up versions of normal, isolated galaxies. No drastic changewith redshift is expected. One consequence is that galaxy formationprobably continued over a long period of time and did not peak at aspecific redshift. The effects of massive starbursts, like blowoutscaused by superwinds and cosmic reionization caused by starburstpopulations would also be less important than what is normally assumed.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile.
|Stellar populations in Seyfert 2 galaxies. I. Atlas of near-UV spectra|
We have carried out a uniform spectroscopic survey of Seyfert 2 galaxiesto study the stellar populations of the host galaxies. New spectra havebeen obtained for 79 Southern galaxies classified as Seyfert 2 galaxies,7 normal galaxies, and 73 stars at a resolution of 2.2 Å over thewavelength region 3500-5300 Å. Cross-correlation between thestellar spectra is performed to group the individual observations into44 synthesis standard spectra. The standard groups include a solarabundance sequence of spectral types from O5 to M3 for dwarfs, giants,and supergiants. Metal-rich and metal-weak F-K giants and dwarfs arealso included. A comparison of the stellar data with previouslypublished spectra is performed both with the individual spectra and thestandard groups. For each galaxy, two distinct spatial regions areconsidered: the nucleus and the external bulge. Spectroscopic variationsfrom one galaxy to another and from the central to the external regionare briefly discussed. It is found that the central region of a Seyfert2 galaxy, after subtracting the bulge stellar population, always shows anear-UV spectrum similar to one of three representative categories: a)many strong emission lines and only two visible absorption lines (Ca IiK and G band) (Sey2e); b) few emission lines, many absorption lines, anda redder continuum than the previous category (Sey2a); c) an almost flatcontinuum and high-order Balmer lines seen in absorption (Sey2b). Theproportion of Seyfert 2 galaxies belonging to each class is found to be22%, 28%, and 50% respectively. We find no significative differencesbetween morphology distributions of Seyfert 2 galaxies with Balmer linesdetected in absorption and the rest of the sample. This quick lookthrough the atlas indicates that half of Seyfert 2 galaxies harbour ayoung stellar population (about or less than 100 Myr) in their centralregion, clearly unveiled by the high order Balmer series seen inabsorption. Based on observations collected at the European SouthernObservatory, Chile (ESO 65.P-0014(A)). Tables 1-3 and 8 and Fig. A.1(Appendix A) are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|Surface photometry of binary galaxies.|
|Spectroscopic Observations of Merging Galaxies|
In this paper we describe the spectroscopic and infrared properties of asample of 25 merging galaxy pairs, selected from the catalog of Arp& Madore, and we compare them with those observed in a similarsample of interacting galaxies (Donzelli & Pastoriza). It is notedthat mergers as well as interacting systems comprise a wide range ofspectral types, going from those corresponding to well-evolved stellarpopulations (older than 200 Myr) to those that show clear signatures ofH II regions with stellar populations younger than 8 Myr. However,merger galaxies show on average more excited spectra than interactingpairs, which could be attributed to lower gas metallicity. From theemission lines we also found that merging systems show on average higher(about a factor of 2) star formation rates than interacting galaxies.Classical diagnostic diagrams show that only three of 50 of the galaxies(6%) present some form of nuclear activity: two Seyfert galaxies and oneLINER. However, through a detailed analysis of the pure emission-linespectra, we conclude that this fraction may raise up to 23% of themergers if we consider that some galaxies host a low-luminosity activenucleus surrounded by strong star-forming regions. This latterassumption is also supported by the infrared colors of the galaxies.Regarding to the total infrared luminosities, the merging galaxies showon average an IR luminosity, log(Lir)=10.7, lower than thatof interacting systems, log(Lir)=10.9. We find that onlythree mergers of the sample (12%) can be classified as luminous infraredgalaxies, while this fraction increases to 24% in the interactingsample. Based on observations made at CASLEO. ComplejoAstronómico El Leoncito is operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicasde la República Argentina and the National Universities of LaPlata, Córdoba and San Juan.
|Deep optical imaging and spectroscopy of a sample of Wolf-Rayet galaxies|
We present results of narrow-band (Hα and adjacent continuum) andbroad-band (U, B and V) optical CCD imaging together with high- andintermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy for a sample dwarf and/orirregular Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies with absolute B magnitudes in therange -14 to -22 mag, taken from the catalogue of Conti (1991). We findthat the recent star formation processes in the galaxies of the sampleare distributed in different knots. These knots are H ii regionsprobably ionized by so-called super star clusters (or aggregates ofthem) found in space observations of WR and interacting galaxies. Acomparative study of the U-B colour and the -W(Hα ) of thedifferent star-forming knots of the galaxies indicates that these twomagnitudes give consistent age estimates. However, the B-V colour givecomparatively greater ages, which can be explained by the presence ofunderlying stellar populations in many of the objects. This is confirmedby the presence of a much more extended and diffuse morphology (in somecases with a disc shape) in broad-band compared to Hα images. Ourstudy has also revealed that a substantial fraction of irregular anddwarf WR galaxies at first classified as isolated objects, may in factbe interacting or merging with other low surface brightness companionsthat escaped detection in previous studies. These interaction processescould be the cause of the triggering of the strong star formation we arenow seeing in many of the objects. The Hα morphology of thegalaxies indicates that the presence of bubble-like and low surfacebrightness filamentary structures is a rather common characteristic ofthese kinds of objects. Spectroscopic observations reported in this andprevious papers confirm the presence of high-velocity asymmetric flowsthat extend to the outer zones in several galaxies. Figures 1--18 areonly available electronically with the On-Line publication athttp://link.springer.de/link/service/00230/
|WFPC2 Observations of NGC 454: an Interacting Pair of Galaxies|
We present Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images in the F450W, F606W, andF814W filters of the interacting pair of galaxies NGC 454. Our dataindicate that the system is in the early stages of interaction. Apopulation of young star clusters has formed around the late component,and substantial amounts of gas have sunk into the center of the earliercomponent, where it has not yet produced significant visible starformation or nuclear activity. We have photometric evidence that thestar clusters have strong line emission, which indicates the presence ofa substantial component of hot, massive stars that formed less than 5-10Myr ago.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|A Survey for H 2O Megamasers in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Comparison of Detected and Undetected Galaxies|
A survey for H2O megamaser emission from 354 active galaxies hasresulted in the detection of 10 new sources, making 16 known altogether.The galaxies surveyed include a distance-limited sample (coveringSeyferts and LINERs with recession velocities less than 7000 km s-1) anda magnitude-limited sample (covering Seyferts and LINERs with mB <=14.5). In order to determine whether the H2O-detected galaxies are"typical" active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or have special properties thatfacilitate the production of powerful masers, we have accumulated adatabase of physical, morphological, and spectroscopic properties of theobserved galaxies. The most significant finding is that H2O megamasersare detected only in Seyfert 2 and LINER galaxies, not Seyfert 1's. Thislack of detection in Seyfert 1's indicates either that they do not havemolecular gas in their nuclei with physical conditions appropriate toproduce 1.3 cm H2O masers or that the masers are beamed away from Earth,presumably in the plane of the putative molecular torus that hides theSeyfert 1 nucleus in Seyfert 2's. LINERs are detected at a similar rateto Seyfert 2's, which constitutes a strong argument that at least somenuclear LINERs are AGNs rather than starbursts, since starbursts havenot been detected as H2O megamasers. We preferentially detect H2Oemission from the nearer galaxies and from those that are apparentlybrighter at mid- and far-infrared and centimeter radio wavelengths.There is also a possible trend for the H2O-detected galaxies to be moreintrinsically luminous in nuclear 6 cm radio emission than theundetected ones, though these data are incomplete. We find evidence thatSeyfert 2's with very high (NH > 1024 cm-2) X-ray--absorbing columnsof gas are more often detected as H2O maser emitters than Seyfert 2'swith lower columns. It may be that the probability of detecting H2Omaser emission in Seyfert galaxies increases with increasing column ofcool gas to the nucleus, from Seyfert 1's through narrow-line X-raygalaxies to Seyfert 2's.
|CO and HI in a southern sample of interacting galaxies. I. The data|
Using SEST, the Parkes antenna and the Australia Telescope CompactArray, we have made a survey of the ^12CO(1-0) and HI emission of anoptically-selected sample of ~60 southern interacting and merginggalaxies. In this paper we present the data and determine global massesof neutral gas (in molecular and atomic form) for the observed galaxies.We have detected HI in 26 systems and found that these galaxies haveless than 15% of their gas in molecular form. Figure 3 in its entirelyis only available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|A Survey for H 2O Megamasers in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Observations|
We report an extensive search for 22 GHz H_2_O maser emission fromnearby active galaxies. Our sample includes all Seyfert and LINERgalaxies listed in the Huchra catalog or the Veron-Cetty & Veroncatalog with recessional velocities less than 7000 km s^-1^, and allSeyfert galaxies and LINERs in Huchra's catalog with m_b_ <= 14. Inaddition to these distance- and magnitude-limited samples, we have alsoobserved a number of active galaxies, including radio galaxies, athigher redshift; In all, some 354 galaxies have been surveyed. Ten newH_2_O megamaser sources have been detected, resulting in 16 galaxiesthat are currently known to contain H_2_O masers with isotropicluminosities greater than 20 L_sun_. Of the observed active galaxieswith cz < 7000 km s^-1^, 5.4% have detectable H_2_O megamaseremission. This fraction increases to 11% for those sources with cz <2000 km s^-1^. The newly discovered megamaser sources were monitored onsubsequent observing runs. The strength of the maser features varies forthese sources, as they do for Galactic masers. Three of the galaxieshave sufficient data to test for velocity changes of narrow masercomponents comparable in magnitude to those of the well-studied systemicfeatures in NGC 4258. The maser line in one of these galaxies-NGC2639-is found to have a systematic redward velocity drift of 6.6 +/- 0.4km s^-1^ yr^-1^. No systematic velocity drifts are found for the othertwo sources. We also report large apparent velocity changes in theunusual broad H_2_O emission feature in NGC 1052.
|Candidates for a southern extension of the Karachentsev catalogue of isolated pairs of galaxies.|
|Southern Sky Redshift Survey - The catalog|
The catalog of radial velocities for galaxies which comprise thediameter-limited sample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey ispresented. It consolidates the data of observations carried out at theLas Campanas Observatory, Observatorio Nacional, and South AfricanAstronomical Observatory. The criteria used for the sample selection aredescribed, as well as the observational procedures and the techniqueutilized to obtain the final radial velocities. The intercomparisonbetween radial velocity measurements from different telescopes indicatesthat the final data base is fairly homogeneous with a typical error ofabout 40 km/s. The sample is at present 90 percent complete, and themissing galaxies are predominantly objects with very low surfacebrightness for which it is very difficult to obtain optical redshifts.
|A study of a complete sample of interacting galaxies. I - Presentation of the sample and the UBVRIJHK photometry|
An investigation is presented on what effects galaxy-galaxy interactionhas on the properties of the involved galaxies. A magnitude limitedsample of interacting galaxies is presented, together with a controlsample of isolated galaxies. The Cousins UBVRI and Johnson JHKphotometry of all galaxies included in the samples is also presented.
|Activity in the central parts of interacting galaxies - The starburst galaxy NGC 454|
This paper presents the results of a photometric and spectroscopicmultifrequency investigation of the system NGC 454, which is a pair ofemission-line galaxies in close interaction (or in the early stage of amerger) consisting of a large elliptical and a blue irregular galaxy.The central regions of both components have colors that correspond to amixture of two stellar populations, one old and the other with an age ofless than 10 to the 7th yr and an upper mass limit of about 15 solarmasses. In the elliptical component, the new stars contribute about 0.1percent of the total stellar mass within the central 22 arcsec; in theirregular galaxy, the new stars contribute 10 percent of the stellarmass within 12 arcsec. South of the two main components, there are threeblue objects that probably are parts of the irregular galaxy; two ofthese objects, consisting of stars with ages less than 10 to the 7th yr,exhibit strong thermal emmission lines. The third object (of about 5 x10 to the 7th yr) does not show any gas emission.
|Mass-to-Light Ratios of Binary Galaxies. III. Analysis|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1987ApJS...64..427S&db_key=AST
|Southern Galaxy Catalogue.|
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